• Title, Summary, Keyword: immunostimulation

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Enhancement of Chemiluminescent Response of Phagocytic Cells from Juvenile Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, by Oral Administration of Levamisole

  • Kim Ki Hong;Hwang Yoon Jung;Bai Sung Chul
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 1998
  • The chemiluminescent (CL) response of phagocytes from juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, which were administered orally with levamisole was investigated. The fish intubated with doses of levamisole either at 0.5mg $kg^-$ or 1 mg $kg^-$body weight showed significant increase in CL responses at two weeks after the administration. The increased extent of CL in the fish exposed to 0.5 mg $kg^-$ body weight was considerably lower than that in the fish exposed to 1 mg $kg^-$. The fish exposed to 5 mg $kg^-$ body weight showed a steady and significant increase of CL response after the intubation. The fish intubated with 10 mg of levamisole $kg^-$ body weight, however, showed no significant differences in CL response after the administration. In the experiment of feeding experimental diet, a lower dose of levamisole induced immunostimulation of phagocytes, but higher doses of levamisole induced immunosuppression of phagocytes. At one week after marking and blood sampling, plasma glucose level was significantly increased in the control group and the group intubated 0.5 mg levamisole/kg body weight. However, the fish in another groups, which were administered higher levels of levamisole, showed no significant difference in glucose level after marking and blood sampling. The result of the present study suggests that levamisole can be used as a potent immunostimulator in rockfish by oral administration, and the immunomodulating activity of levamisole depends on the dosage used.

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Antitumor Effects of Mice Fed with Cell Lysate of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated form Kimchi (경구투여된 김치 유산균 파쇄액이 쥐의 항암효과에 미치는 영향)

  • 신경섭;채옥화;박인철;홍석일;최태부
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.357-363
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    • 1998
  • The antitumor effects of mice fed with cell lysate of Lactobacillus plantarum were studied. The abdominal cancer induced by Sarcoma-180 was markedly inhibited and the expected life span was extended by 60% for the Balb/c mice fed with L. plantarum cell lysate for two weeks. A similar result was obtained for the rat inoculated with Spontaneous Osteosarcoma(SOS). The primary tumor volume of SOS was reduced by 70% for the rats fed with L. plantarum cell lysate (100mg/kg/day) for one week before the inoculation of SOS, while only 42% for the rats fed with the same amount of cell lysate for one week after the inoculation of tumor cell line, SOS. As lung was the metastasis site of SOS, the weight of lung was measured to determine the degree of metastasis inhibition by the L. plantarum cell lysate feeding. The rats fed with cell lysate for one week showed a remarkable inhibition of lung metastasis by 63%(before) and 46%(after), respectively. These results indicate that the feeding of L. plantarum cell lysate to mouse or rat can induce a strong stimulation of mucosal or systemic immune system and these effects results in an efficient antitumor activity.

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Bordetella bronchiseptica is a potent and safe adjuvant that enhances the antigen-presenting capability of dendritic cells

  • Lee, You-Jeong;Han, Yong;Joo, Hong-Gu
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2020
  • We previously demonstrated that Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) antigen (Ag) enhances the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Ag-specific immune response. The focus of this study was whether acellular bacterin of B. bronchiseptica could be used as an adjuvant to increase antigen-presenting capability of dendritic cells (DCs) by increasing the level of activation. The metabolic activity of DCs was increased by B. bronchiseptica, similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that B. bronchiseptica increases the expression of major histocompatibility complex class-2, cluster of differentiation (CD)40, CD54, and CD86 which are closely related to DC-mediated immune responses. B. bronchiseptica enhanced the production of cytokines related to adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, the survival rate of B. bronchiseptica-injected groups was 100% at 15 and 20 mg/kg doses, whereas that of LPS-injected groups was only 20%, 0% at 15 and 20 mg/kg doses respectively, and so B. bronchiseptica is likely to be safer than LPS. Taken together, these results indicate that B. bronchiseptica can be used as an adjuvant to enhance the antigen-presenting capability of DCs. B. bronchiseptica is a candidate for producing vaccines, especially in case of DC-mediating efficacy and safety demands. This study provides researchers and clinicians with valuable information regarding the usage of B. bronchiseptica as a safe bacteria-derived immunostimulating agent for developing efficient vaccines.

Immunostimulating Effect of 1,2-Benzopyrone on Phagocytic Response of Canine Peripheral Blood Phagocytes (개 말초혈액 탐식세포의 탐식반응에 대한 1,2-benzopyrone의 면역자극 효과)

  • 신정화;나기정;양만표
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2004
  • 1,2-benzopyrone has been shown to affect on the activation and stimulation of macrophage. To examine the immunostimulating effect of 1,2-benzopyrone on the phagocytic response of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), the phagocytic activity of phagocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry system using FITC-labelled latex. The 1,2-benzopyrone did not show any direct effect on phagocytic response of PBMC and PMN. But it showed an enhanced effect on the phagocytic response of monocyte-rich cells fractioned by cell size from dot plot profile in flowcytometric cytography of PBMC. The phagocytic activity of these cells was also enhanced by addition of culture supernatant from PBMC treated with 1,2-benzopyrone. Similarly, the phagocytic activity of PMN but not PBMC in the same procedures was enhanced by culture supernatant from PBMC treated with 1,2-benzopyrone. However, the culture supernatant from PMN treated with 1.2-benzopyrone did not show the enhancing effect on phagocytic activity for monocyte-rich cells and PMN. These results, therefore, suggested that enhanced phagocytic activity of canine peripheral blood PMN and monocytes may be mainly mediated by humoral factor(S) released from PBMC treated with 1,2-benzopyrone.

Immunoactivity of Ginsenosides Re and Rg1 that Enhances Resistance of Mice Against Experimental Disseminated Candidiasis

  • Han, Yong-Moon;Jin, Byung-Suk;Ko, Sung-Kwon;Lee, Jue-Hee
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.134-139
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    • 2004
  • In this study, an immunoactivity of panaxtriol ginsenosides Re and Rg1 against infection due to Candida albicans was investigated. The ginsenosides were extracted from Red Ginseng with 85% ethanol and heat-treatment and were analyzed by HPLC on water-acetonitrile as a mobile phase. The HPLC analysis revealed that the extract contained ginsenosides Re and Rg1, which were eluted as a combined peak. By agar diffusion susceptibility, the mixture of Re and Rg1 had no growth-inhibitory activity on C. albicans yeast cells. However, in animal tests BALB/c mice given the mixture of Re and Rg1 intraperitoneally (Lp.) before intravenous (Lv.) infection with live C. albicans yeast cells had longer mean survival times (MST) than MST of control mice groups that received only buffer solution instead of Re and Rg1. In experiments 60% of the ginsenosides-treated mice survived the entire duration of the 50-day observation. The Re and Rg1 mixture induced production of nitric oxide when interacted with RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. In addition, the mixture caused morphological change of the macrophages. These data indicate that immunostimulation by the Re and Rg1 may be responsible for the protection of mice against disseminated candidiasis.

Effect of mucilage from yam on activation of lymphocytic immune cells

  • Jang, Cheol-Min;Kweon, Dae-Hyuk;Lee, Jong-Hwa
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.94-99
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    • 2007
  • The immunostimulating activities of mucilage fraction from yam were investigated. The proliferation of BSA-primed lymph node cells was enhanced between 4.1- to 10.9-fold compare to control, when cultured with 1 to $25{\mu}g/mL$ of yam-mucilage fraction. It showed strong immunostimulating activity than ginseng extract and as remarkable as Bifidobacterium adolescentis M101-4 known as a positive immunostimulator. Mitogenicity to lymph node cells was fully induced by concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide. The proliferation of splenocytes and Peyer's patch cells was enhanced between 5.0- to 14.1-fold and 2.4- to 6.4-fold, respectively, when cultured with 1 to $25{\mu}g/mL$ of yam-mucilage fraction. It enhanced the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ and IL-6 in the culture of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In the culture of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, production of cytokines was as similar as compared to controls. In unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells, both tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ and IL-6 production were enhanced between 15.6- to 60.1-fold and 2.3- to 9.1-fold, respectively. Mucilage fraction from yam is expected to be a safe immunopotentiator to maintain the host immunity and develop a physiologically functional food.

Immunostimulating Effect of Mycelium Extract of Phellinus linteus (상황버섯 균사체 추출물의 면역증진 효능)

  • Lee, Byung-Eui;Ryu, Shi-Yong;Kim, Eui-Han;Kim, Young-Hee;Kwak, Kyung-A;Song, Ho-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2012
  • In order to investigate the immunostimulating effect of mycelia extract of Phellinus linteus (PLM) on human monocyte THP-1 and rat peritoneal macrophage cell, we examined measuring cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$). The production of IL-6 and TNF-a in human monocyte THP-1 was slight increased dose-dependently when the cells were challenged with PLM for 72 hrs. It was also observed that the treatment of PLM with LPS augmented the production of IL-6 and TNF-a in human monocyte THP-1. It was also observed that the treatment of PLM with LPS augmented the production of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ in human monocyte THP-1. The production of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ in rat peritoneal macrophage was significantly enhanced when the cells were treated PLM with LPS for 72 hrs. Moreover, the proliferation rate of rat spleen cells was increased in a dose dependent manner as the cells were treated with PLM and Concanavalin A.

RAW264.7 Cell Activating Glucomannans Extracted from Rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum

  • Yelithao, Khamphone;Surayot, Utoomporn;Lee, Ju Hun;You, SangGuan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.245-254
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    • 2016
  • Water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum and fractionated using ionexchange chromatography were investigated to determine their structure and immunostimulating activity. Crude and fractions ($F_1$ and $F_2$) consisted of carbohydrates (85.1~88.3%) with proteins (4.51~11.9%) and uronic acid (1.79~7.47%), and included different levels of mannose (62.3~76.3%), glucose (15.2~20.3%), galactose (4.35~15.3%), and arabinose (4.00~7.65%). The crude contained two peaks with molecular weights (Mw) of $151{\times}10^3$ and $31.8{\times}10^3$, but $F_1$ and $F_2$ exhibited one major peak with Mw of $103{\times}10^3$ and $628{\times}10^3$, respectively. Little immunostimulatory activity was observed by the crude; however, $F_1$ and $F_2$ significantly activated RAW264.7 cells to release nitric oxide and various cytokines, suggesting they were potent immunostimulators. The backbone of the most immunostimulating fraction ($F_1$) was ($1{\rightarrow}4$)-manno- and ($1{\rightarrow}4$)-gluco-pyranosyl residues with galactose and glucose attached to O-6 of manno-pyranoside.

Enzyme Hydrolysates of Ginseng Marc Polysaccharides Promote the Phagocytic Activity of Macrophages Via Activation of TLR2 and Mer Tyrosine Kinase

  • Seo, Jeong Yeon;Choi, Ji Won;Lee, Jae Yeon;Park, Young Shik;Park, Yong Il
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.860-873
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    • 2018
  • Although ginseng marc is a by-product obtained during manufacturing of various commercial ginseng products and has been routinely discarded as a waste, it still contains considerable amounts of potential bioactive compounds, including saponins and polysaccharides. Previously, we reported that ginseng oligosaccharides derived from ginseng marc polysaccharides by enzymatic hydrolysis exert immunostimulatory activities in macrophages and these activated macrophages are in turn able to inhibit the growth of skin melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis. In the present study, a more detailed investigation of the immunostimulatory activity and underlying action mechanisms of an enzymatic hydrolysate (GEH) containing these oligosaccharides derived from ginseng marc polysaccharides was performed. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in GEH-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages using RT-PCR analysis and ELISA. The expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4, Dectin-1, and MerTK were measured by RT-PCR analysis or western blot analysis, and the phagocytic activities of GEH-challenged bone marrow-derived macrophages toward apoptotic Jurkat cells were assayed using fluorescence microscopy. GEH induced the production of both proinflammatory cytokines $TNF-{\alpha}$ and IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in RAW 264.7 cells. The expression of the TLR2 and MerTK mRNAs was increased upon GEH treatment. Phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells was enhanced in GEH-treated macrophages. Based on the results, this enzymatic hydrolysate (GEH) containing oligosaccharides exerts immunostimulatory effects by maintaining the balance between M1 and M2 cytokines, facilitating macrophage activation and contributing to the efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Therefore, the GEH could be developed as value-added, health-beneficial food materials with immunostimulatory effects.

Biotransformation of Intestinal Bacterial Metabolites of Ginseng Saponin to Biologically Active Fatty-acid Conjugates

  • Hasegawa Hideo;Saiki Ikuo
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.317-334
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    • 2002
  • Ginsenosides are metabolized (deglycosylated) by intestinal bacteria to active forms after oral administration. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol $20-O-{\beta}-D-glucopyranoside$ (M1) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (M4) are the main intestinal bacterial metabolites (IBMs) of protopanaxadiol- and protopanaxatriol-type glycosides. M1 was selectively accumulated into the liver soon after its intravenous (i.v.) administration to mice, and mostly excreted as bile; however, some M1 was transformed to fatty acid ester (EMl) in the liver. EM1 was isolated from rats in a recovery dose of approximately $24mol\%.$ Structural analysis indicated that EM1 comprised a family of fatty acid mono-esters of M1. Because EM1 was not excreted as bile as Ml was, it was accumulated in the liver longer than M1. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M1 was attenuated by fatty acid esterification, implying that esterification is a detoxification reaction. However, esterified M1 (EM1) inhibited the growth of B16 melanoma more than Ml in vivo. The in vivo antitumor activity paralleled with the pharmacokinetic behavior. In the case of M4, orally administered M4 was absorbed from the small intestine into the mesenteric lymphatics followed by the rapid esterification of M4 with fatty acids and its spreading to other organs in the body and excretion as bile. The administration of M4 prior to tumor injection abrogated the enhanced lung metastasis in the mice pretreated with 2-chloroadenosine more effectively than in those pretreated with anti-asialo GMl. Both EM1 and EM4 did not directly affect tumor growth in vitro, whereas EM1 promoted tumor cell lysis by lymphocytes, particularly non-adherent splenocytes, and EM4 stimulated splenic NK cells to become cytotoxic to tumor cells. Thus, the esterification of IBM with fatty acids potentiated the antitumor activity of parental IBM through delay of the clearance and through immunostimulation. These results suggest that the fatty acid conjugates of IBMs may be the real active principles of ginsenosides in the body.

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