• Title, Summary, Keyword: immunoregulatory function

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Effects of Substance P on the Activities of Immune Cell (면역세포 활성에 대한 Substance P의 영향)

  • Kim, Hyung-Seop;Oh, Kwi-Ok;Lim, Chong-Deuk
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.376-395
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    • 1996
  • The neuropeptide substance P(SP) has been recognized to modulate immune systems, with close proximity between peptidergic sensory nerve endings and immune cells. These include the macrophage and neutrophil activation, IL-2 production in T cell, augmentation of Ig synthesis, mast cell degranulation, $PGE_2$ and collagenase secretion in synoviocytes. In this study I examined SP-induced various biological activities such as antimicrobial action, cytokine production, and mast cell degranulation in the presence or absence of other inflammatory cell activators. Antimicrobial studies showed that undifferentiated HL-60 cells were not affected by SP. However, SP significantly enhanced antimicrobial action of TPA-treated or dbcAMP-treated HL-60 cells which had been differentiated into PMN or macrophage/monocyte. I could not find synergistic relationship between SP and LPS in parallel experiments of the above. SP did not induce IL-l production from murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 whether costimulated with LPS or not. Mast cell degranulation was occured only when stimulated with high dose ($10^{-5}M$) of SP and the degree of this activation was slightly reduced by simultaneous application of $MIP-1{\alpha}$. In addition, CGRP which is known to be a common coexisting neuropeptide with SP within specific fibers did not augment the function of SP on mast cell degranulation. These results suggest that immunoregulatory activities of SP could be mediated through direct upregulation of various functions of immune cells and also upregulation of responsiveness of immune cells to other immune activators.

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Change of Antioxidative Activity at Different Harvest Time and Improvement of Atopic Dermatitis Effects for Persimmon Leaf Extract (감잎(柿葉) 추출물의 채취시기에 따른 항산화 활성 변화 및 아토피성 피부염 개선효과)

  • Jung, Woo-Young;Jeong, Jong-Moon
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of persimmon leaf extract obtained from Cheongdo-gun, where more than 60% of Korean persimmon is produced. Methods : Anti-oxidative effects of the crude persimmon leaf extract harvested monthly between May and November were determined by in vitro assay using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like reaction. Anti-atopic dermatitis effects of the crude persimmon leaf extract were determined by using collagenase type I inhibition assay and by quantitative assays including serum histamine, prostaglandin E metabolite and leukotriene $B_4$ levels in animal model of atopic dermatitis using Balb/c mice. Results : Persimmon leaf extract harvested in May had higher levels of total phenolic compounds (182.24 mg/g) and flavonoids (23.05 mg/g) than the ones of different month extract. Also, persimmon leaf extract harvested in May showed the most effective extract scavenging activities of DPPH free radical ($13.39{\pm}0.21\;{\mu}g/ml$) and superoxide anion radical ($40.52{\pm}2.32\;{\mu}g/ml$), leading to use the persimmon leaf extract harvested in May for the experiments hereafter. Persimmon leaf extract showed $326.71{\pm}4.6\;{\mu}g/ml$ of 50% inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) for collagenase type I which is responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix. In addition, persimmon leaf extract application group could decrease serum levels of histamine, prostaglandin E metabolite and leukotriene $B_4$ compared to the negative control in animal model of atopic dermatitis. Especially, persimmon leaf extract showed a significantly decreased serum leukotriene $B_4$ level relative to the levels of histamine and prostaglandin E metabolite. Conclusions : Persimmon leaf extract showed anti-oxidative and anti-atopic dermatitis effects in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that persimmon leaf extract may have immunoregulatory function for alleviating atopic dermatitis by decreasing collagenase activity and mast cell activation.

Immunoregulatory Effects of Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt) Teng Extract on the Cytokine Production, T Cell Population and Immunoglobulin E Level in Murine Mesenteric Lymph Node Lymphocytes

  • Lim, Beong-Ou;Hong, Doo-Pyo;Yun, June-Yong;Jeoung, Young-Jun;Lee, Ju-Yeon;Chung, Hae-Gon;Choi, Dong-Kug;Choi, Wahn-Soo;Cho, Bong-Gum;Park, Tae-Kyu;Park, Dong-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2005
  • Phellinus linteus (PL), one of the immune-regulatory substances, is recognized to play the role in the metabolic process on inflammation and immunity. It has been traditionally used in the oriental medicine to treat inflammatory related disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of water extracts of PL on the mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes immune function in the ICR male mice. Control mice received vehicle only. The PL treated mice were administered the respective extract by oral gavages for 4 weeks. IgE concentrations in serum and MLN lymphocytes were significantly lower in PL treated mice than in control mice. PL increased the proportion of $CD4^+\;and\;CD8^+$ T cells in MLN lymphocytes. PL significantly decreased Th2 cytokine concentrations and mRNA expression levels in cytokine secretions. Therefore, water extracts of PL modulate inflammatory parameters through regulation of immunoglobulin production resulting from decreased Th2 cytokine secretion and mRNA expression levels and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and mRNA expression in MLN lymphocytes.

Effect of Hot Water Extract from Scutellaria barbata on the Macrophages Activated by Lipopolysaccharide (반지련 (Scutellaria barbata D. Don) 추출물이 lipopolysaccharide에 의해 활성화된 대식세포에 미치는 영향)

  • Shen, Ting;Lee, Yong-Jin;Cho, Jae-Youl
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2008
  • Scutellaria barbata was examined to evaluate its modulatory effects on the functional activation of macrophages under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. To do this, hot water extract (Sb-HWE) was prepared from Scutellaria barbata and several inflammatory parameters such as nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination and intracellular signaling pathway were selected to be tested. Sb-HWE strongly blocked NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, it did not suppress inducible NO synthase (iNOS). In agreement, Sb-HWE did not diminish inflammatory signaling composed of NF-${\kappa}B$ and its upstream activation signaling enzymes such as Akt and $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$. Sb-HWE protected RAW264.7 cells from LPS-induced cytotoxicity up to 80% at 400\;{\mu}g/ml$. Furthermore, this extract blocked phagocytic uptake of FITC-dextran, while sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells was not decreased. Therefore, our data suggest that Sb-HWE may have differential immunoregulatory function depending on macrophage-mediated immune responses.

Immunoregulatory Function of HLA-G in Gastric Cancer

  • Tuncel, Tolga;Karagoz, Bulent;Haholu, Aptullah;Ozgun, Alpaslan;Emirzeoglu, Levent;Bilgi, Oguz;Kandemir, Emin Gokhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7681-7684
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    • 2013
  • Background: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-positive gastric cancers are associated with poor survival, but links with tumor escape mechanisms remain to be determined. Materials and Methods: We used immunohistochemistry to investigate HLA-G expression, tumor infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes, and Treg cells in 52 gastric cancer patients. Results: There were 29 cancer-related deaths during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with HLA-G-positive (n=16) primary tumors had a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with HLA-G-negative tumors (n=36, p=0.008). The median survival time was 14 months and 47 months, respectively. Patients with high numbers of Tregs and low numbers of CD8+T lymphocytes in the primary tumor had a poorer prognosis than those with low numbers of Tregs and high numbers of CD8+T lymphocytes (p=0.034, p=0.043). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that HLA-G expression (hazard ratio: 2.662; 95% confidence interval: 1.242-5.723; p=0.012) and stage (hazard ratio: 2.012;95% confidence interval: 1.112-3.715; p=0.041) were independent unfavorable factors for patient survival. Conclusions: We found a significant positive correlation between HLA-G expression and the number of tumor infiltrating Tregs (p=0.01) and a negative correlation with the number of CD8+T lymphocytes (p=0.041). HLA-G may protect gastric cancer cells from cytolysis by inducing Foxp3+Treg lymphocytes and suppressing CD8+T lymphocytes.

Modulatory Effect of Linoleic Acid During Brucella abortus 544 Infection in Murine Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells and Murine Model BALB/c Mice

  • Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo;Vu, Son Hai;Huy, Tran Xuan Ngoc;Min, Wongi;Lee, Hu Jang;Chang, Hong Hee;Lee, John Hwa;Kim, Suk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.642-648
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of linoleic acid (LA) treatment on Brucella abortus infection in professional phagocyte RAW264.7 cells, particularly during the pathogen's invasion and intracellular growth in these cells, as well as in murine model BALB/c mice focusing on bacterial splenic proliferation and immunoregulatory activities. LA inhibited the growth of Brucella in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ability of the pathogen to enter the phagocytes was inhibited as was its survival within these cells. This was accompanied by increased nitrite accumulation in these cells at 24 h post-infection. The concentration of LA used in the present study did not affect the total body weight or liver function of the mice. During Brucella infection, the total splenic weight of these animals was not changed; rather, resistance to bacterial proliferation was enhanced in the spleen. Furthermore, mice treated with LA displayed elevated levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ but reduced levels of IL-10 during infection. The findings in this study showed the regulatory role of LA against B. abortus infection suggesting its potential use in designing intervention strategy for brucellosis.

The Immunomodulatory Activity of Mori folium, the Leaf of Morus alba L., in RAW 264.7 Macrophages in Vitro

  • Kwon, Da Hye;Cheon, Ji Min;Choi, Eun-Ok;Jeong, Jin Woo;Lee, Ki Won;Kim, Ki Young;Kim, Sung Goo;Kim, Suhkmann;Hong, Su Hyun;Park, Cheol;Hwang, Hye-Jin;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.144-151
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    • 2016
  • Background: Immunoregulatory elements have emerged as useful immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. In traditional medicine, Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been used for various medicinal purposes; however, the immunomodulatory effects have not been fully identified. We evaluated the immunoenhancing potential of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were treated with WEMF for 24 hours and cell viability was detected by an MTT method. Nitric oxide (NO) levels in the culture supernatants were assayed using Griess reagent. The productions of prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) and immune-related cytokines was measured using ELISA detection kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Inducible NO synthase, COX-2, and cytokines were assayed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The effect of WEMF on phagocytic activity was measured using a Phagocytosis Assay Kit. Results: WEMF significantly stimulated the production of NO and $PGE_2$ as immune response parameters at noncytotoxic concentrations, which was associated with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase and COX-2. The release and expression of cytokines, such as $TNF-{\alpha}$, interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, IL-6, and IL-10, were also significantly increased in response to treatment with WEMF. Moreover, WEMF promoted the macrophagic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and the resulting phagocytosis activity. Conclusions: WEMF has the potential to modulate the immune function by regulating immunological parameters. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and to support the use of WEMF as an immune stimulant.

Effect of Seed of Trichosanthes kirilowii on the Skin Barrier of High Dose Corticosteroid Injected hairless Mouse (과루인(瓜蔞仁)이 장기간 고용량 corticosteroid 투여 hairless mouse의 피부장벽에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Hae-Jeong;Kim, Kyu-Seok;Kim, Yoon-Bum
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • Objective : Prolonged use of systemic corticosteroids negatively impacts skin barrier function. Corticosteroids have a major role in the practical management of many diseases, so it is necessary to find the drug or supplement which could keep the skin healthy during the systemic corticosteroids therapy. Seed of Trichossnthcs kiiilowii was commonly used for pulmonary disease in traditional Chinese medicine. Many studies have investigated and found that seed of Trichosanthes kirilowii has anti-bacterial, anti-HIV, anti-tumor and immunoregulatory functions. This study was performed to investigate the effect of seed of Trichosmthes kirilowii on the Skin Barrier Method : Triamcinolone 0.4mg was injected male hairless mice for 5 weeks ( 2 times a week, totally 10 times), Just before the first injection, hairless mice were divided into 3 groups; Control ( normal saline medicated group ), GroupA( seed of Trichosuuhes kirilowii qd/day medicated group ) and GroupB( seed of Trichosuuhes kiiilowii bid/day medicated group ), Body weight of all the groups were checked during the experiment, After $10^{th}$ injection, TEWL (Transeidermal water loss) of 3 groups were artificially increased by 9 times tape stripping and the changes of TEWL were checked at before stripping, right after, 2h, 4h, 6h, 24h, 48 and 72h later after stripping, AST, ALT and CBC were also checked. Indeed, stratum corneum of 3 groups were also examined and compared with that of normal hairless mouse. Results : 1. GroupB showed significantly lower body weight among three groups 2, There was no statistical difference at AST, ALT and CBC among three groups 3. GroupB was showed significantly lower TEWL than TEWL of Control at 48h later. 4 GroupB recovered it's TEWL of before tape stripping at 24h later, GroupA recovered that at 48h and Control recovered that at 72h later at the same condition 5. Stratum corneum of GroupA and GroupB were looked almost normal and healthy. On the contrary, stratum corneum of Control was looked thin and unhealthy. Conclusions : Seed of Ttichossnthes kirilowii has some effects on skin barrier function, especially TEWL of high dose corticosteroids injected hairless mouse and the efficacy seemed to be related with the dosage.

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Effect of Astragalus membranaceus Polysaccharides on Improves Immune Response after Exhaustive Exercise Rats (과도 운동 후 면역능 개선에 미치는 황기 다당체의 효과)

  • Lee, Si Young;Lee, Hannah;Go, Eun Ji;Park, Yeong Chul;Choi, Seon Kang;Yu, Chang Yeon;Lim, Jung Dae
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2018
  • Background: Polysaccharides are the most important functional constituent in Astragalus membranaceus. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of polysaccharides isolated from the aboveground parts of A. membranaceus (AMA) and polysaccharides isolated from the roots of A. membranaceus (AMR) immune function by modulated cytotoxic T cell and Th1- and Th2-related cytokines kinetics. Methods and Results: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into exhaustive exercise case groups and non-exercise case, AMA and AMR samples were administered orally for 30 days (500 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively) and were compared to those rats in the groups fed commercial sports drink (SPD) and vehicle. Both exhaustive exercise groups and non-exercise groups had a lower ratio of $CD4^+$ and $CD8^+$ cells in the spleens of the rat fed AMA and AMR compared to those in the rats fed SPD and vehicle group. These results suggested that AMA and AMR promote an increase in the proportion of cytotoxic T cells. The IL-4-producing T lymphocytes decreased significantly in the AMR (10 mg/kg/day) group compared to SPD and vehicle, whereas the AMA group increased the IL-4 concentration more than the SPD and vehicle in exhaustive exercise group. However, the populations of IFN-${\gamma}$-producing T lymphocytes of AMR and AMA increased. AMA decreased the concentration of IFN-${\gamma}$ to inhibit the Th1 response and thereby increased the concentration of IL-4 to induce a Th2 response that was related to humoral immunity in the non-exercise group. Conclusions: These results showed that, in addition to Th1/Th2 regulation, AMR and AMA played an important immuno-modulatory role after exhaustive exercise-induced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte imbalance, which might be correlated with cytokine producing immunoregulatory cells.

Immunoregulatory Effects of Water Extracts of Scutellariae Radix in DSS-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease Animal Model (DSS로 유도된 염증성 장 질환 동물 모델에서 황금 열수 추출물이 면역 조절 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sun-Hee;Lim, Beong-Ou;Choue, Ryo-Won
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.431-439
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    • 2004
  • Scutellariae Radix (Scu.), one of the immune-regulatory substances, is recognized to play the role in the metabolic process of inflammation, allergy and immunity. It has been traditionally used in the Oriental medicine to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of water extracts of Scutellariae Radix on the spleen lymphocyte immune function in the Balb/c female mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis. Water extract of Scutellariae Radix (100 mg/kg) and sulfasalazine (50 mg/kg) were administrated orally for 2 weeks of experimental period. Mice were divided into three experimental groups randomly: DSS group (5% DSS was ad libitum for 5 days) as control group, DSS + Scu. (water extracts of Scutellariae Radix for 2 weeks after 5% DSS was ad libitum for 5 days) as experimental group, and DSS + Sulfasalazine group (Sulfasalazine for 2 weeks after 5% DSS was ad libitum for 5 days) as positive control group. Levels of Ig A, Ig E, CD4$^{+}$, CD8$^{+}$, TNF-$\alpha$ and other cytokines were measured. Treatment of DSS for 5 days induced bowel inflammation and the treatment with Scu. water exteract and sulfasalazine significantly recovered the damage. The length of intestine of DSS group was significantly shorter than that of other groups. The serum and fecal concentration of Ig A of SS + Scu group was higher than those of DSS group. The contents of CD4$^{+}$ T cells was higher in the DSS + Scu. group than the other groups and CD8$^{+}$ T cells was the lowest in DSS + Sulfasalazine group. The Ig A level of cultured supernatant of spleen lymphocyte was the highest, while the Ig E level was the lowest in SS + Scu group. The concentration of TNF-$\alpha$, cytokine secreted from the Th1 cell in the supernatant spleen lymphocyte, was the highest in the DSS group and the lowest in the DSS + Scu. group. The concentration of IFN-${\gamma}$ and ll...-12 was lower in the DSS + Scu. group than those of the other groups. The concentration of IL-4 in the supernatant of spleen lymphocyte was the lowest in the DSS + Scu. group but IL-10 was not significantly different. Based on these findings, water extract of Scutellariae Radix exhibited the inhibitory effect via IL-4 production thereby inhibited the production of Ig E and strengthened immune system, and alleviated injury in DSS- induced colitis mice model.