• Title, Summary, Keyword: immunity

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Influence of Immunity Induced at Priming Step on Mucosal Immunization of Heterologous Prime-Boost Regimens

  • Eo, Seong-Kug
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2003
  • Background: The usefulness of DNA vaccine at priming step of heterologous prime-boost vaccination led to DNA vaccine closer to practical reality. DNA vaccine priming followed by recombinant viral vector boosting via systemic route induces optimal systemic immunity but no mucosal immunity. Mucosal vaccination of the reversed protocol (recombinant viral vector priming-DNA vaccine boosting), however, can induce both maximal mucosal and systemic immunity. Here, we tried to address the reason why the mucosal protocol of prime-boost vaccination differs from that of systemic vaccination. Methods: To address the importance of primary immunity induced at priming step, mice were primed with different doses of DNA vaccine or coadministration of DNA vaccine plus mucosal adjuvant, and immunity including serum IgG and mucosal IgA was then determined following boosting with recombinant viral vector. Next, to assess influence of humoral pre-existing immunity on boosting $CD8^+$ T cell-mediated immunity, $CD8^+$ T cell-mediated immunity in B cell-deficient (${\mu}K/O$) mice immunized with prime-boost regimens was evaluated by CTL assay and $IFN-{\gamma}$-producing cells. Results: Immunity primed with recombinant viral vector was effectively boosted with DNA vaccine even 60 days later. In particular, animals primed by increasing doses of DNA vaccine or incorporating an adjuvant at priming step and boosted by recombinant viral vector elicited comparable responses to recombinant viral vector primed-DNA vaccine boosted group. Humoral pre-existing immunity was also unlikely to interfere the boosting effect of $CD8^+$ T cell-mediated immunity by recombinant viral vector. Conclusion: This report provides the important point that optimally primed responses should be considered in mucosal immunization of heterologous prime-boost regimens for inducing the effective boosting at both mucosal and systemic sites.

Recent advance in primary immune deficiency disorders (일차성 면역결핍질환의 최신 지견)

  • Kang, Hyoung-Jin;Shin, Hee Young;Ahn, Hyo Seop
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.649-654
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    • 2009
  • The immune system is comprised of cells and molecules whose collective and coordinated response to the introduction of foreign substance is referred to as the immune response. Defense against microbes is mediated by the early reaction (innate immunity) and the late response (adaptive immunity). Innate immunity consists of the epithelial barrier, phagocytes, complement and natural killer cells. Adaptive immunity, a more complex defense reaction, consists of activation of later-developed lymphocytes that, when stimulated by exposure to infectious agents, increase in magnitude and defensive capabilities with each successive exposure. In this review we discuss recent advances in important primary immune deficiency disorders of innate immunity (chronic granulomatous disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency) and adaptive immunity (severe combined immune deficiency, Wiskott- Aldrich syndrome).

Neonatal innate immunity and Toll-like receptor

  • Yoon, Hye-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.12
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    • pp.985-988
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    • 2010
  • The innate immune response is the first line of defense against microbial infections. Innate immunity is made up of the surface barrier, cellular immunity and humoral immunity. In newborn, immunologic function and demands are different to adults. Neonatal innate immunity specifically suppresses Th1-type immune responses, and not Th2-type immune responses, which are enhanced. And the impaired response of macrophages is associated with the defective innate immunity in newborn period. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key roles in the detection of invading pathogens and in the induction of innate immune responses. In newborn, the expression of TLRs is age dependent, so preterm has low expression of TLRs. Also, there are defects in signaling pathways downstream of TLRs. As a consequence, the defects of TLRs activity cause the susceptibility to infection in the neonatal period.

Electromagnetic Immunity Test Environments of Advanced Vehicles with Radar Sensor Systems (첨단자동차의 전자파 내성 실험 환경에 관한 연구: 레이더 센서를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Sungbum;Ryu, Jiil;Woo, Hyungu;Yong, Boojoong
    • Journal of Auto-vehicle Safety Association
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2019
  • Recently, automobile industries have developed ADAS, smart cars, connected cars, automated driving systems, which use a variety of sensor systems - ultrasonics, cameras, lidars and radars - and communication systems. It is necessary to examine the electromagnetic immunity of vehicles equipped with those systems. The electromagnetic immunity tests are carried out in an electromagnetic semi anechoic chamber, which is cut off from the outside. It is difficult to create test environments in which the radar sensor systems of vehicles work properly in the test chamber. In this study, test jigs were designed and tested and as a result they are shown to be effective to create test environments for electromagnetic immunity tests of vehicles equipped with radar sensors. We also proposed additional safety standards for immunity tests of vehicles with radar systems that currently do not exist.

Investigation of Relation between EFTB Test and RF Conductive Immunity Test Using BER and Baseband Signal

  • Kuwabara, Nobuo;Irie, Yasuhiro;Hirasawa, Norihito;Akiyama, Yoshiharu
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.274-281
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    • 2011
  • High-speed telecommunication systems are influenced by electromagnetic environments because they need a wide bandwidth to transmit signals. Immunity tests of telecommunication equipment are effective for improving its immunity to electromagnetic environments. However, immunity tests are expensive to carry out because there are several different tests. The correlation among the tests should therefore be examined in order to reduce the kinds of tests that are necessary. This paper investigates the correlation between the electrical fast transient/burst (EFTB) test and the radio frequency (RF) conductive immunity test. Imitation equipment was constructed with a balun, and a baseband signal was transmitted from the associated equipment to the imitation equipment. Then, disturbances were applied to the equipment, and the telecommunication quality was evaluated by using the bit error rate (BER). The results from the EFTB test indicated that the BER was less than $6{\times}10^{-5}$ and the value was independent of the peak value. The results from the RF conductive immunity test indicated that the BER was affected by the longitudinal conversion loss (LCL).

Nanotechnology Meet Immunology: Nanomaterials for Enhanced Immunity

  • Im, Yong-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.92.2-92.2
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    • 2013
  • The design and chemical synthesis of multifunctional nanomaterials have been providing potential applications in biomedical fields such as molecular imaging and drug delivery. Recently, bio-derived and/or synthetic nanostructured materials capable of modulating the immune system have been also issues of interest in immunology-related nanomedicine fields. In this talk, the recent research results on the development of nanostructured materials for enhanced immunity would be presented. I will introduce the chemical strategy for the combination of nanostructured materials and bioactive compounds to improve both anti-cancer immunity and vaccine delivery efficiency.

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Protective Immunity Induced by Systemic and Mucosal Delivery of DNA Vaccine Expressing Glycoprotein B of Pseudorabies Virus

  • Yoon, Hyun-A;Han, Young-Woo;Aleyas, Abi George;George, June Abi;Kim, Seon-Ju;Kim, Hye-Kyung;Song, Hee-Jong;Cho, Jeong-Gon;Eo, Seong-Kug
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.591-599
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    • 2008
  • A murine model immunized by systemic and mucosal delivery of plasmid DNA vaccine expressing glycoprotein B (pCIgB) of pseudorabies virus (PrV) was used to evaluate both the nature of the induced immunity and protection against a virulent virus. With regard to systemic delivery, the intramuscular (i.m.) immunization with pCIgB induced strong PrV-specific IgG responses in serum but was inefficient in generating a mucosal IgA response. Mucosal delivery through intranasal (i.n.) immunization of pCIgB induced both systemic and mucosal immunity at the distal mucosal site. However, the levels of systemic immunity induced by i.n. immunization were less than those induced by i.m. immunization. Moreover, i.n. genetic transfer of pCIgB appeared to induce Th2-biased immunity compared with systemic delivery, as judged by the ratio of PrV-specific IgG isotypes and Th1- and Th2-type cytokines produced by stimulated T cells. Moreover, the immunity induced by i.n. immunization did not provide effective protection against i.n. challenge of a virulent PrV strain, whereas i.m. immunization produced resistance to viral infection. Therefore, although i.n. immunization was a useful route for inducing mucosal immunity at the virus entry site, i.n. immunization did not provide effective protection against the lethal infection of PrV.

Evaluation of IC Electromagnetic Conducted Immunity Test Methods Based on the Frequency Dependency of Noise Injection Path (Noise Injection Path의 주파수 특성을 고려한 IC의 전자파 전도내성 시험 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kwak, SangKeun;Kim, SoYoung
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.436-447
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, Integrated circuit(IC) electromagnetic(EM) conducted immunity measurement and simulation using bulk current injection(BCI) and direct power injection(DPI) methods were conducted for 1.8 V I/O buffers. Using the equivalent circuit models developed for IC electromagnetic conducted immunity tests, we investigated the reliability of the frequency region where IC electromagnetic conducted immunity test is performed. The insertion loss for the noise injection path obtained from the simulation indicates that using only one conducted immunity test method cannot provide reliable conducted immunity test for broadband noise. Based on the forward power results, we analyzed the actual amount of EM noise injected to IC. We propose a more reliable immunity test methods for broad band noise.

DTMOS Schmitt Trigger Logic Performance Validation Using Standard CMOS Process for EM Immunity Enhancement (범용 CMOS 공정을 사용한 DTMOS 슈미트 트리거 로직의 구현을 통한 EM Immunity 향상 검증)

  • Park, SangHyeok;Kim, SoYoung
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.917-925
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    • 2016
  • Schmitt Trigger logic is a gate level design method to have hysteresis characteristics to improve noise immunity in digital circuits. Dynamic Threshold voltage MOS(DTMOS) Schmitt trigger circuits can improve noise immunity without adding additional transistors but by controlling substrate bias. The performance of DTMOS Schmitt trigger logic has not been verified yet in standard CMOS process through measurement. In this paper, DTMOS Schmitt trigger logic was implemented and verified using Magna $0.18{\mu}m$ MPW process. DTMOS Schmitt trigger buffer, inverter, NAND, NOR and simple digital logic circuits were made for our verification. Hysteresis characteristics, power consumption, and delay were measured and compared with common CMOS logic gates. EM Immunity enhancement was verified through Direct Power Injection(DPI) noise immunity test method. DTMOS Schmitt trigger logics fabricated using CMOS process showed a significantly improved EM Immunity in 10 M~1 GHz frequency range.