• Title, Summary, Keyword: immune

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Introduction to a Novel Optimization Method : Artificial Immune Systems (새로운 최적화 기법 소개 : 인공면역시스템)

  • Yang, Byung-Hak
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.458-468
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    • 2007
  • Artificial immune systems (AIS) are one of natural computing inspired by the natural immune system. The fault detection, the pattern recognition, the system control and the optimization are major application area of artificial immune systems. This paper gives a concept of artificial immune systems and useful techniques as like the clonal selection, the immune network theory and the negative selection. A concise survey on the optimization problem based on artificial immune systems is generated. The overall performance of artificial immune systems for the optimization problem is discussed.

Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Era of Precision Medicine: What Radiologists Should Know

  • Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta;Tirumani, Sree Harsha;Hodi, Frank Stephen Jr.;Nishino, Mizuki
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.42-53
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    • 2017
  • Over the past five years immune-checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of advanced solid and hematologic malignancies. The currently approved immune-checkpoint inhibitors include antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1 and PD-L2). Response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors is evaluated on imaging using the immune-related response criteria. Activation of immune system results in a unique toxicity profile termed immune-related adverse events. This article will review the molecular mechanism, clinical applications, imaging of immune-related response patterns and adverse events associated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

A Design of An Active PID control using Immune Algorithm for Vibration Control of Building Structure (구조물 진동제어를 위한 Immune Algorithm을 이용한 Active PID 제어기 설계)

  • Lee, Young-Jin;Cho, Hyun-Cheol;Lee, Kwon-Soon
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.72-74
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we propose an adaptive PID controller using a cell-mediated immune response to improve a PID control performance. The proposed controller is based on the specific immune response of the biological immune system that is cell-mediated immunity. The immune system of organisms in the real body regulates the antibody and the T-cells to protect an attack from the foreign materials like virus, germ cells, and other antigens. It has similar characteristics that are the adaptation and robustness to overcome disturbances and to control the plant of engineering application. We first build a model of the T-cell regulated immune response mechanism and then designed an I-PID controller focusing on the T-cell regulated immune response of the biological immune system. We apply the proposed methodology to building structures to mitigate vibrations due to strong winds for evaluation of control performances. Through computer simulations, system responses are illustrated and additionally compared to traditional control approaches.

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Regulation of Intestinal Homeostasis by Innate Immune Cells

  • Kayama, Hisako;Nishimura, Junichi;Takeda, Kiyoshi
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2013
  • The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors: recent progress and potential biomarkers

  • Darvin, Pramod;Toor, Salman M.;Nair, Varun Sasidharan;Elkord, Eyad
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.50 no.12
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    • pp.10.1-10.11
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    • 2018
  • Cancer growth and progression are associated with immune suppression. Cancer cells have the ability to activate different immune checkpoint pathways that harbor immunosuppressive functions. Monoclonal antibodies that target immune checkpoints provided an immense breakthrough in cancer therapeutics. Among the immune checkpoint inhibitors, PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors showed promising therapeutic outcomes, and some have been approved for certain cancer treatments, while others are under clinical trials. Recent reports have shown that patients with various malignancies benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. However, mainstream initiation of immune checkpoint therapy to treat cancers is obstructed by the low response rate and immune-related adverse events in some cancer patients. This has given rise to the need for developing sets of biomarkers that predict the response to immune checkpoint blockade and immune-related adverse events. In this review, we discuss different predictive biomarkers for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 inhibitors, including immune cells, PD-L1 overexpression, neoantigens, and genetic and epigenetic signatures. Potential approaches for further developing highly reliable predictive biomarkers should facilitate patient selection for and decision-making related to immune checkpoint inhibitor-based therapies.

Study on the Immune Mechanism using Primary-cultured Immune Cells (생체분리 면역세포를 이용한 면역기전 연구)

  • Kim, Changhwan;Park, Sangjin
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.390-397
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    • 2013
  • Primary-cultured immune cells are widely used in research to elucidate the mechanism of inflammation including chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, cytokine release and antigen presenting. Mice are one of the species of experimental animals commonly used for such studies. Immune cells can be isolated and cultured from various organs such as bone marrow, peritoneal cavity, lung, spleen. For elaborated experimental studies, immune cells should be elicited with inflammatory substances or proliferated in vitro with special media. This paper details methods of obtaining immune cells from various organs of mice and investigating immune mechanism using isolated immune cells. It contains standard protocols of isolating and culturing immune cells from bone marrow, peritoneal cavity and lymphoid organs. It also covers the methods of investigating immune mechanism such as ELISA, western blotting, confocal microscopy and ELISPOT assay. With the works in this study, we established the standardized isolation and analysis methods of primary-cultured immune cells.

Aging of Immune System (면역 반응체계의 노화)

  • Chung, Kyung Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.817-823
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    • 2019
  • Immune system provides defense integrity of body against external invaders. In order to accomplish the important defending role immune system is composed of many different components which are regenerated continuously during lifespan. The key components are professional killing cells such as macrophage, neutrophil, natural killer cell, and cytotoxic T cell and professional blocking molecule, antibody, which is produced by plasma cell, the terminal differentiated B cell. Immune response is orchestrated harmoniously by all these components mediated through antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells. Immune responses can be divided into two ways: innate immune response and adaptive immune response depending on induction mechanism. Aging is a broad spectrum of physiological changes. Likewise other physiological changes, the immune components and responses are wane as aging is progressing. Immune responses become decline and dysregulating, which is called immunosenescense. Immune components of both innate and adaptive immune response are affected as aging progresses leading to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. Numbers of immune cells and amounts of soluble immune factors were decreased in aged animal models and human and also functional and structural alterations in immune system were reduced and declined. Cellular intrinsic changes were discovered as well. Recent researches focusing on aging have been enormously growing. Many advanced tools were developed to bisect aging process in multi-directions including immune system area. This review will provide a broad overview of aging-associated changes of key components of immunity.

Construction of Glomerular Epithelial Cells Expressing Both Immune Tolerance and GFP Genes and Application to Cell Therapy by Cell Transplantation

  • Ohga, Masahiro;Ogura, Mariko;Matsumura, Mastoshi;Wang, Pi-Chao
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2002
  • Cell therapy applied to wound healing or tissue regeneration presents a revolutionary realm to which principles of gene engineering and delivery may be applied. One promising application is the transplantation of cells into the wounded tissue to help the tissue repair. However, when cells are transplanted from in vitro to in vivo, immune rejection occurs due to the immune response triggered by the activation of T-cell, and the transplanted cells are destroyed by the attack of activated T-cell and lose their function. Immune suppressant such as FK506 is commonly used to suppress immune rejection during transplantation. However, such kind of immune suppressants not only suppresses immune rejection in the periphery of transplanted cells but also suppresses whole immune response system against pathogenic infection. In order to solve this problem, we developed a method to protect the desired cells from immune rejection without impairing whole immune system during cell transplantation. Previously, we reported the success of constructing glomerular epithelial cells for removal of immune complex, in which complement receptor of type 1 (CR1) was over-expressed on the membrane of renal glomerular epithelial cells and could bind immune complex of DNA/anti-DNA-antibody to remove immune complex through phagocy-tosis [1]. Attempting to apply the CR1-expressing cells to cell therapy and evade immune rejection during cell transplantation, we constructed three plasmids containing genes encoding a soluble fusion protein of cytolytic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA4Ig) and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The plasmids were transfected to the above-mentioned glomerular epithelial cells to express both genes simultaneously. Using the clone cells for cell transplantation showed that mice with autoimmune disease prolonged their life significantly as compared with the control mice, and two injections of the cells at the beginning of two weeks resulted in remarkable survivability, whereas it requires half a year and 50 administrations of proteins purified from the same amount of cells to achieve the same effect.

Toll-like Receptors in Host Defense and Immune Disorders

  • Lee, Joo-Y.
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2007
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) playa crucial role in initiating and regulating innate and adaptive immune responses by detecting invading microbial pathogens. TLRs can also respond to non-microbial molecules derived from damaged tissue. Accumulating evidence suggests that deregulation of TLRs results in the dysfunction of immune system and ultimately increases the risk of many immune and inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding how the immune system is controlled by TLRs will provide new insight to find the way to prevent or treat infectious diseases and immune disorders.

Immune Algorithm Controller Design of DC Motor with parameters variation (DC 모터 파라메터 변동에 대한 면역 알고리즘 제어기 설계)

  • 박진현;전향식;이민중;김현식;최영규
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.175-178
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    • 2002
  • The proposed immune algorithm has an uncomplicated structure and memory-cell mechanism as the optimization algorithm which imitates the principle of humoral immune response, and has been used as methods to solve parameter optimization problems. Up to now, the applications of immune algorithm have been optimization problems with non-varying system parameters. Therefore, the effect of memory-cell mechanism, which is a merit of immune algorithm, is without. this paper proposes the immune algorithm using a memory-cell mechanism which can be the application of system with nonlinear varying parameters. To verified performance of the proposed immune algorithm, the speed control of nonlinear DC motor are performed. Computer simulation studies show that the proposed immune algorithm has a fast convergence speed and a good control performances under the varying system parameters.

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