• Title, Summary, Keyword: hypoxia

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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (호흡기계 중환자실에서 치료 관리된 급성호흡곤란증후군의 임상특성)

  • Moon, Seung-Hyug;Song, Sang-Hoon;Jung, Ho-Seuk;Yeun, Dong-Jin;Uh, Su-Tack;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Choon-Sik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1252-1264
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    • 1998
  • Background : Patients with established ARDS have a mortality rate that exceeds 50 percent despite of intensive care including artificial ventilation modality, Mortality has been associated with sepsis and organ failure preceding or following ARDS ; APACHE II score ; old age and predisposing factors. Revised ventilator strategy over last 10 years especially at ARDS appeared to improve the mortality of it. We retrospectively investigated 40 ARDS patients of respiratory-care unit to examine how these factors influence outcome. Methods : A retrospective investigation of 40 ARDS patients in respiratory-care unit with ventilator management over 46 months was performed. We investigated the clinical characteristics such as a risk factor, cause of death and mortality, and also parameters such as APACHE II score, number of organ dysfunction, and hypoxia score (HS, $PaO_2/FIO_2$) at day 1, 3, 7 of severe acute lung injury, and simultaneously the PEEP level and tidal volume. Results : Clinical conditions associated with ARDS were sepsis 50%, pneumonia 30%, aspiration pneumonia 20%, and mortality rate based on the etiology of ARDS was sepsis 50%, pneumonia 67%(p<0.01 vs sepsis), aspiration pneumonia 38%. Overall mortality rate was 60%. In 28 day-nonsurvivors, leading cause of death was severe sepsis(42.9%) followed by MOF(28.6%), respiratory failure(19.1 %), and others(9.5%). There were no differences in variables of age, sex, APACHE II score, HS, and numbers of organ dysfunction at day 1 of ARDS between 28-days survivor and nonsurvivors. In view of categorized variables of age(>70), APACHE II score(>26), HS(<150) at day 1 of ARDS, there were significant differences between 28-days survivor and nonsurvivors(p<0.05). After day 1 of ARDS, the survivors have improved their APACHE II score, HS, numbers of organ dysfunction over the first 3d to 7d, but nonsurvivors did not improve over a seven-day course. There were significant differences in APACHE II score and numbers of organ dysfunction of day 3, 7 of ARDS, and HS of day 7 of ARDS between survivors and nonsurvivors(p<0.05). Fatality rate of ARDS has been declined from 68% to less than 40% between 1995 and 1998. There were no differences in APACHE II score, HS, numbers of organ dysfunction, old age at presentation of ARDS. In last years, mean PEEP level was significantly higher and mean tidal volume was significantly lower than previous years during seven days of ARDS(p<0.01). Conclusions : Improvement of HS, APACHE II score, organ dysfunction over the first 3d to 7d is associated with increased survival Decline in ARDS fatality rates between 1995 and 1998 seems that this trend must be attributed to improved supportive therapy including at least high PEEP instead of conventional-least PEEP approach in ventilator management of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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The Experimental Study for Myocardial Preservation Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning (허혈성 전조건화 유발이 심근보호에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 이종국;박일환;이상헌
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.119-130
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    • 2004
  • Decrease in cardiac function after open heart surgery is due to an ischemia induced myocardial damage during surgery, and ischemic preconditioning, a condition in which the myocardial damage does not accumulate after repeated episodes of ischemia but protects itself from damage after prolonged ischemia due to myocytes tolerating the ischemia, is known to diminish myocardial damage, which also helps the recovery of myocardium after reperfusion, and decreases incidences of arrythmia. Our study is performed to display the ischemic preconditioning and show the myocardial protective effect by applying cardioplegic solution to the heart removed from rat. Material and Method: Sprague-Dawley male rats were used, They were fixed on a modified isolated working heart model after cannulation. The reperfusion process was according to non-working and working heart methods and the working method was executed for 20 minutes in which the heart rate, aortic pressure, aortic flow and coronary flow were measured and recorded. The control group is the group which the extracted heart was fixed on the isolated working heart model, recovered by reperfusion 60 minutes after infusion and preserved in the cardioplegic solution 20 minutes after the working heart perfusion and aortic cross clamp, The thesis groups were divided into group I, which ischemic hearts that were hypoxia induced were perfused by cardioplegic solution and preserved for 60 minutes; group II, the cardioplegic solution was infused 45 seconds (II-1), 1 minutes (II-2), 3 minutes (II-3), after the ischemia induction, 20 minutes after working heart perfusion and aortic cross clamp; and group III, hearts were executed on working heart perfusion for 20 minutes and aortic cross clamp was performed for 45 seconds (III-1), 1minute (III-2), 3 minutes (III-3), reperfused for 2 minutes to recover the heart, and then aortic cross clamping was repeated for reperfusion, all the groups were compared based on hemodynamic performance after reperfusion of the heart after preservation for 60 minutes. Result: The recovery time until spontaneous heart beat was longer in groups I, II-3, III-2 and III-3 to control group (p<0.01). Group III-1 (p<0.05) had better results in terms of recovery in number of heart rates compared to control group, and recovered better compared to II-1 (p<0.05). The recovery of aortic blood pressure favored group III-1 (p<0.05) and had better outcomes compared with II-1 (p<0.01). Group III-1 also showed best results in terms of cardiac output (p<0.05) and group III-2 was better compared to II-2 (p<0.05). Group I (p<0.01) and II-3 (p<0.05) showed more cardiac edema than control group. Conclusion: When the effects of other organs are dismissed, protecting the heart by infusion of cardioplegic solution after enforcing ischemia for a short period of time before the onset of abnormal heart beats for preconditioning has a better recovery effect in the cardioplegic group with preconditioning compared to the cardioplegic solution itself. we believe that further study is needed to find a more effective method of preconditioning.