• Title, Summary, Keyword: hypoxia

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Suppression of HIF-1α by Valproic Acid Sustains Self-Renewal of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells under Hypoxia In Vitro

  • Lee, Hyo-Jong;Kim, Kyu-Won
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.280-285
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    • 2012
  • The developing embryo naturally experiences relatively low oxygen conditions in vivo. Under in vitro hypoxia, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lose their self-renewal activity and display an early differentiated morphology mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-$1{\alpha}$ (HIF-$1{\alpha}$). Previously, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) is activated by hypoxia and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ in many human cancer cells. Furthermore HDAC1 and 3 mediate the differentiation of mECSs and hematopoietic stem cells. However, the role of HDACs and their inhibitors in hypoxia-induced early differentiation of mESCs remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of several histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on the self-renewal properties of mESCs under hypoxia. Inhibition of HDAC under hypoxia effectively decreased the HIF-$1{\alpha}$ protein levels and substantially improved the expression of the LIF-specific receptor (LIFR) and phosphorylated-STAT3 in mESCs. In particular, valproic acid (VPA), a pan HDACI, showed dramatic changes in HIF-$1{\alpha}$ protein levels and LIFR protein expression levels compared to other HDACIs, including sodium butyrate (SB), trichostatin A (TSA), and apicidin (AP). Importantly, our RT-PCR data and alkaline phosphatase assays indicate that VPA helps to maintain the self-renewal activity of mESCs under hypoxia. Taken together, these results suggest that VPA may block the early differentiation of mESCs under hypoxia via the destabilization of HIF-$1{\alpha}$.

Tumor hypoxia and reoxygenation: the yin and yang for radiotherapy

  • Hong, Beom-Ju;Kim, Jeongwoo;Jeong, Hoibin;Bok, Seoyeon;Kim, Young-Eun;Ahn, G-One
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.239-249
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    • 2016
  • Tumor hypoxia, a common feature occurring in nearly all human solid tumors is a major contributing factor for failures of anticancer therapies. Because ionizing radiation depends heavily on the presence of molecular oxygen to produce cytotoxic effect, the negative impact of tumor hypoxia had long been recognized. In this review, we will highlight some of the past attempts to overcome tumor hypoxia including hypoxic radiosensitizers and hypoxia-selective cytotoxin. Although they were (still are) a very clever idea, they lacked clinical efficacy largely because of 'reoxygenation' phenomenon occurring in the conventional low dose hyperfractionation radiotherapy prevented proper activation of these compounds. Recent meta-analysis and imaging studies do however indicate that there may be a significant clinical benefit in lowering the locoregional failures by using these compounds. Latest technological advancement in radiotherapy has allowed to deliver high doses of radiation conformally to the tumor volume. Although this technology has brought superb clinical responses for many types of cancer, recent modeling studies have predicted that tumor hypoxia is even more serious because 'reoxygenation' is low thereby leaving a large portion of hypoxic tumor cells behind. Wouldn't it be then reasonable to combine hypoxic radiosensitizers and/or hypoxia-selective cytotoxin with the latest radiotherapy? We will provide some preclinical and clinical evidence to support this idea hoping to revamp an enthusiasm for hypoxic radiosensitizers or hypoxia-selective cytotoxins as an adjunct therapy for radiotherapy.

Microarray Analysis of the Hypoxia-induced Gene Expression Profile in Malignant C6 Glioma Cells

  • Huang, Xiao-Dong;Wang, Ze-Fen;Dai, Li-Ming;Li, Zhi-Qiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4793-4799
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    • 2012
  • Hypoxia is commonly featured during glioma growth and plays an important role in the processes underlying tumor progression to increasing malignancy. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of rat C6 malignant glioma cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions by cDNA microarray analysis. Compared to normoxic culture conditions, 180 genes were up-regulated and 67 genes were down-regulated under hypoxia mimicked by $CoCl_2$ treatment. These differentially expressed genes were involved in mutiple biological functions including development and differentiation, immune and stress response, metabolic process, and cellular physiological response. It was found that hypoxia significantly regulated genes involved in regulation of glycolysis and cell differentiation, as well as intracellular signalling pathways related to Notch and focal adhesion, which are closely associated with tumor malignant growth. These results should facilitate investigation of the role of hypoxia in the glioma development and exploration of therapeutic targets for inhibition of glioma growth.

Induction of Angiogenesis by Malarial Infection through Hypoxia Dependent Manner

  • Park, Mi-Kyung;Ko, Eun-Ji;Jeon, Kyung-Yoon;Kim, Hyunsu;Jo, Jin-Ok;Baek, Kyung-Wan;Kang, Yun-Jeong;Choi, Yung Hyun;Hong, Yeonchul;Ock, Mee Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2019
  • Malarial infection induces tissue hypoxia in the host through destruction of red blood cells. Tissue hypoxia in malarial infection may increase the activity of $HIF1{\alpha}$ through an intracellular oxygen-sensing pathway. Activation of $HIF1{\alpha}$ may also induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to trigger angiogenesis. To investigate whether malarial infection actually generates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, we analyzed severity of hypoxia, the expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors, and numbers of blood vessels in various tissues infected with Plasmodium berghei. Infection in mice was performed by intraperitoneal injection of $2{\times}10^6$ parasitized red blood cells. After infection, we studied parasitemia and survival. We analyzed hypoxia, numbers of blood vessels, and expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors including VEGF and $HIF1{\alpha}$. We used Western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry to analyze various tissues from Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. In malaria-infected mice, parasitemia was increased over the duration of infection and directly associated with mortality rate. Expression of VEGF and $HIF1{\alpha}$ increased with the parasitemia in various tissues. Additionally, numbers of blood vessels significantly increased in each tissue type of the malaria-infected group compared to the uninfected control group. These results suggest that malarial infection in mice activates hypoxiainduced angiogenesis by stimulation of $HIF1{\alpha}$ and VEGF in various tissues.

Insulin Induces Transcription of VEGF in Arnt-dependent but HIF-l$\alpha$-Independent Pathway

  • Park, Youngyeon;Park, Hyuns-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.100-100
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    • 2001
  • Hypoxia is a pathophysiological condition that occurs during injury, ischemia, and stroke. Hypoxic stress induces the expression of genes associated with increased energy flux, including the glucose transporters Glutl and Glut3, several glycolytic enzymes, nitric oxide synthase, erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Induction of these genes is mediated by a common basic helix-loop-helix PAS transcription complex, the hypoxia-inducible factor-l${\alpha}$ (HIF-1${\alpha}$)/ aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Insulin plays a central role in regulating metabolic pathways associated with energy storage and utilization. It triggers the conversion of glucose into glycogen and triglycerides and inhibits gluconeogenesis. Insulin also induced hypoxia-induced genes. However the underlying mechanism is unestablished. Here, we study the possibility that transcription factor HIF-1${\alpha}$ is involved in insulin-induced gene expression. We investigate the mechanism that regulates hypoxia-inducible gene expression In response to insulin We demonstrate that insulin increases the transcription of hypoxia- inducible gene. Insulin-induced transcription is not detected in Arnt defective cell lines. Under hypoxic condition, HIF- l${\alpha}$ stabilizes but does not under insulin treatment. Insulin-induced gene expression is inhibited by presence of PI-3 kinase inhibitor and Akt dominant negative mutant, whereas hypoxia-induced gene expression is not. ROS inhibitor differently affects insulin-induced gene expressions and hypoxia-induced gene expressions. Our results demonstrate that insulin also regulates hypoxia-inducible gene expression and this process is dependent on Arnt. However we suggest HIF-l${\alpha}$ is not involved insulin-induced gene expression and insulin- and hypoxia- induces same target genes via different signaling pathway.

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Effect of Hypoxia on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Barley Seedlings (저산소 조건이 보리 유묘의 탄수화물대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi Heh Ran;Park Myoung Ryoul;Kim Jung Gon;Namkoong Seung Bak;Choi Kyeong-Gu;Yun Song Joong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.170-174
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    • 2005
  • Barley plants growing in the wet paddy field easily encounter suboptimal oxygen concentration in the rhizosphere that causes molecular oxygen deficiency in root cells. The capacity of root cells to utilize energy sources is known to be positively related to resistance to hypoxia stress. This study was conducted to investigate effects of hypoxia on enzymes involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism. Barley seedlings at the third leaf stage were subjected to hypoxia (1 ppm dissolved oxygen) by purging the culture solution with nitrogen gas for up to seven days. The protein content was slightly decreased by hypoxia for 7 days. $\alpha-Amylase$ activities increased significantly in the root but not in the shoot after 3 to 7 days of hypoxia. $\beta-Amylase$ activities were not affected significantly in both tissues. Additionally, sucrose synthase activities were affected little in both tissues by 7 days of hypoxia. The results indicate that root cells activate break­down of polysaccharide reserves in response to an acute hypoxia to supply energy sources for fermentative glycolysis and cell wall fortification.

Inhibition of hypoxia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 by Korean Red Ginseng is dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

  • Song, Heewon;Lee, Young Joo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.240-246
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    • 2017
  • Background: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a traditional herbal medicine made by steaming and drying fresh ginseng. It strengthens the endocrine and immune systems to ameliorate various inflammatory responses. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 pathway has important implications for inflammation responses and tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) is a transcription factor that regulates not only adipogenesis and lipid homeostasis, but also angiogenesis and inflammatory responses. Methods: The effects of the KRG on inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 via $PPAR{\gamma}$ in A549 cells were determined by luciferase assay, Western blot, and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The antimigration and invasive effects of KRG were evaluated on A549 cells using migration and matrigel invasion assays. Results and conclusion: We previously reported that hypoxia-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels were suppressed by KRG. This study examines the possibility of $PPAR{\gamma}$ as a cellular target of KRG for the suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2. $PPAR{\gamma}$ protein levels and $PPAR{\gamma}$-responsive element (PPRE)-driven reporter activities were increased by KRG. Reduction of hypoxia-induced COX-2 by KRG was abolished by the $PPAR{\gamma}$ inhibitor GW9662. In addition, the inhibition of $PPAR{\gamma}$ abolished the effect of KRG on hypoxia-induced cell migration and invasion. Discussion: Our results show that KRG inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 expression and cell invasion is dependent on $PPAR{\gamma}$ activation, supporting the therapeutic potential for suppression of inflammation under hypoxia. Further studies are required to demonstrate whether KRG activates directly $PPAR{\gamma}$ and to identify the constituents responsible for this activity.

Endothelial Cell Products as a Key Player in Hypoxia-Induced Nerve Cell Injury after Stroke

  • Cho, Chul-Min;Ha, Se-Un;Bae, Hae-Rahn;Huh, Jae-Taeck
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2006
  • Objective : Activated endothelial cells mediate the cascade of reactions in response to hypoxia for adaptation to the stress. It has been suggested that hypoxia, by itself, without reperfusion, can activate the endothelial cells and initiate complex responses. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxia-induced endothelial products alter the endothelial permeability and have a direct cytotoxic effect on nerve cells. Methods : Hypoxic condition of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells[HUVEC] was induced by $CoCl_2$ treatment in culture medium. Cell growth was evaluated by 3,4,5-dimethyl thiazole-3,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT] assay Hypoxia-induced products [$IL-1{\beta},\;TGF-{\beta}1,\;IFN-{\gamma},\;TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-l and VEGF] were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Endothelial permeability was evaluated by Western blotting. Results : Prolonged hypoxia caused endothelial cells to secrete IL -6, IL -8, MCP-1 and VEGF. However, the levels of IL -1, IL -10, $TNF-{\alpha},\;TGF-{\beta},\;IFN-{\gamma}$ and nitric oxide remained unchanged over 48 h hypoxia. Hypoxic exposure to endothelial cells induced the time-dependent down regulation of the expression of cadherin and catenin protein. The conditioned medium taken from hypoxic HUVECs had the cytotoxic effect selectively on neuroblastoma cells, but not on astroglioma cells. Conclusion : These results suggest the possibility that endothelial cell derived cytokines or other secreted products with the increased endothelial permeability might directly contribute to nerve cell injury followed by hypoxia.

Differential Embryo Development among Tibetan Chicken, DRW and Shouguang Chicken Exposed to Chronic Hypoxia

  • Li, Mei;Zhao, Chun-Jiang;Wu, Chang-Xin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2009
  • Avian embryos at high altitude are independent of maternal protection against hypoxia, which is contrary to mammals. It is well known that chronic hypoxic exposure at key points can significantly impact on avian development. Tibetan Chicken, a Chinese indigenous breed, living in Tibetan areas with an altitude of 2.2 to 4.1 thousand meters, has an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia. In the present study, fertilized eggs of Tibetan Chicken were incubated under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration. Two lowland chicken breeds, Shouguang Chicken, an indigenous chicken breed in Shandong Province of China, and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken, an imported breed in Beijing, were used as control groups. The embryo mass and some organs such as brain, heart, liver, stomach and eye weight in the three species were measured at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 39, 41, 43 and 45 under hypoxic and normal conditions. The results showed that in hypoxia Tibetan Chicken significantly differed from the two lowland chicken breeds in embryo mass at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 41, 43 and 45 (p<0.01). In particular, Dwarf Recessive White Chicken and Shouguang Chicken showed retarded growth in hypoxic incubation (p<0.01), whereas Tibetan Chicken showed no significant difference between hypoxic and normal conditions (p>0.05). In addition, heart and the other organs showed different susceptibility to hypoxia at the studied stages. In conclusion, chronic hypoxia induced a change in the embryo development of the three different species and Tibetan Chicken showed adaptation to hypoxia. Of note, the embryo developmental physiology of Tibetan Chicken in response to hypoxia will shed light on the process of physiological acclimation or evolutionary adaptation as well as the study of clinical disease.

Cardiorespiratory Regulations in the Japanese Amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) Exposed to Acute Hypoxia (저산소환경이 방어(Seriola quinqueradiata) 순환계의 산소운반 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • LEE Kyoung Seon;ISHIMATSU Atsushi;JEON Joong Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2005
  • We studied the cardio-respiratory properties in the Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) during acute hypoxia exposure. Fish were exposed to three levels of hypoxia (80, 60 or 50 mmHg) for 60 min at $25^{\circ}C$. Cardiovascular parameters (cardiac output; Q, heart rate; HR, stroke volume; SV, blood pressure; $P_{DA}$) changed little from pre-exposure values during both 80 and 60 mmHg of hypoxia. During 50 mmHg of hypoxia, the fish showed a bradycardia which significantly affected Q, whereas no change in SV. $P_{DA}$ increased transiently. Arterial oxygen partial pressure ($PaO_2$) immediately reduced along with a decrease of the water oxygen partial pressure ($P_WO_2$). Arterial $O_2$ content ($CaO_2$) decreased significantly only after 60 min of 50 mmHg of hypoxia. Arterial pH (pHa) and hematocrit value (Hct) did not change significantly. Comparing the effects of different levels of hypoxia, oxygen delivery to the tissues ($Q\;{\times}\;CaO_2$) should be maintained a constant over a broad range of $P_WO_2$, however, severely depressed below 50 mmHg of hypoxia.