• Title, Summary, Keyword: hyperglycemia

Search Result 531, Processing Time 0.044 seconds

The Effects of Electroacupuncture on SNCV and SEP in Acute Hyperglycemia Rats (전침자극이 초기 고혈당 백서의 감각신경전도속도 및 체성감각유발전위에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Young-Eun;Jeong, Jeong-Woo;Kim, Tae-Youl
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Clinical Electrophysiology
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.47-59
    • /
    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study were to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture(EA) on sensory nerve function in acute hyperglycemia rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250~270 g(8 weeks of age) were used in this study, and the induced hyperglycemia rats were produced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(70 mg/kg body weight). Only animals with blood glucose levels of 300 mg/dl or higher were used in this study. Animal were divided into two groups: the control group and EA group (n=7 in each group). For EA, two stainless-steel needles were inserted into Zusanli (ST36) which is located at the anterior tibial muscle and about 10mm below the knee joint. Pulsed current(2 Hz, 0.3 ms) were applied to the inserted needle for 20 mim. We measured glucose level, weigh, sensory nerve conduction and somatosensory evoked potential(5EP) before and after injecting streptozotocin, 2 weeks, 4 weeks. The change of blood glucose on EA group trended to decrease compared with the control group and there were significant differences(p<0.05). The body weight of the EA group trended to be reduced compared with the control group and there were significant differences(p<0.05). The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential on EA group to increase compared with the control group and there were significant differences(p<0.05). There were no significant differences in SEP. These results suggest that EA has beneficial effect on diabetic neuropathy and this effect may be related in part with prevention of hyperglycemia.

  • PDF

Diabetic Nephropathy in Childhood and Adolescence (II) ; Pathology and Pathophysiology (소아청소년기 당뇨병성 신병증 (II) ; 병리 소견 및 병태생리를 중심으로)

  • Ha, Tae-Sun
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.99-117
    • /
    • 2009
  • Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of chronic renal failure in developing countries, and the prevalence rate has markedly increased during the past decade. Diabetic nephropathy shows various specific histological changes not only in the glomeruli but also in the tubulointerstitial region. In the early stage, the effacement of podocyte foot processes and thickened glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is noticed even at the stage of microalbuminuria. Nodular, diffuse, and exudative lesions, so-called diabetic glomerulosclerosis, are well known as glomerular lesions. Interstitial lesions also exhibit fibrosis, edema, and thickened tubular basement membrane. Diabetic nephropathy is considered to be multifactorial in origin with increasing evidence that one of the major pathways involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy as a result of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces renal damage directly or through hemodynamic alterations, such as, glomerular hyperfiltration, shear stress, and microalbuminuria. Chronic hyperglycemia also induces nonhemodynamic dysregulations, such as, increased production of advanced glycosylation endproducts, oxidative stress, activation of signal pathway, and subsequent various cytokines. Those pathogenic mechanisms resulted in extracellular matrix deposition including mesangial expansion and GBM thickening, glomerular hypertrophy, inflammation, and proteinuria. In this review, recent opinions on the histopathologic changes and pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy will be introduced.

Alleviating Effects of Baechu Kimchi Added Ecklonia cava on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

  • Lee, Hyun-Ah;Song, Yeong-Ok;Jang, Mi-Soon;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.163-168
    • /
    • 2013
  • In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Baechu kimchi added Ecklonia cava on the activities of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase and its alleviating effect on the postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Baechu kimchi added Ecklonia cava (BKE, 15%) was fermented at $5^{\circ}C$ for 28 days. Optimum ripened BKE was used in this study as it showedthe strongest inhibitory activities on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylaseby fermentation time among the BKEs in our previous study. The BKE was extracted with 80% methanol and the extract solution was concentrated, and then used in this study. The BKE extract showed higher inhibitory activities than Baechu kimchi extract against ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase. The $IC_{50}$ values of the BKE extract against ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase were 0.58 and 0.35 mg/mL, respectively; BKE exhibited a lower ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity but a higher ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitory activity than those of acarbose. The BKE extract alleviated postprandial hyperglycemia caused by starch loading in normal and streptozotocin- induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the BKE extract significantly lowered the incremental area under the curve in both normal and diabetic mice (P<0.05). These results indicated that the BKE extract may delay carbohydrate digestion and thus glucose absorption.

Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Daraesoon (Actinidia arguta shoot) in animal models of diabetes mellitus

  • Lee, Ah-Yeon;Kang, Min-Jung;Choe, Eunok;Kim, Jung-In
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.262-267
    • /
    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the treatment of diabetes mellitus is the attainment of glycemic control. Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress which contributes to the progression of diabetic complications. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Daraesoon (Actinidia arguta shoot) in animal models of diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS/METHODS: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes received an oral administration of a starch solution (1 g/kg) either with or without a 70% ethanol extract of Daraesoon (400 mg/kg) or acarbose (40 mg/kg) after an overnight fast and their postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. Five-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed either a basal or high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet with or without Daraesoon extract (0.4%) or acarbose (0.04%) for 12 weeks after 1 week of adaptation to determine the effects of the chronic consumption of Daraesoon on fasting hyperglycemia and antioxidant status. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, rats that received Daraesoon extract (400 mg/kg) or acarbose (40 mg/kg) exhibited a significant reduction in the area under the postprandial glucose response curve after the oral ingestion of starch. Additionally, the long-term consumption of Daraesoon extract or acarbose significantly decreased serum glucose and insulin levels as well as small intestinal maltase activity in HFHS-fed mice. Furthermore, the consumption of Daraesoon extract significantly reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased glutathione levels in the livers of HFHS-fed mice compared to HFHS-fed mice that did not ingest Daraesoon. CONCLUSIONS: Daraesoon effectively suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia via the inhibition of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic consumption of Daraesoon alleviated fasting hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in mice fed a HFHS diet.

A Case Report of a Right-sided Hemichorea Patient Diagnosed with Chorea Hyperglycemia Basal Ganglia Syndrome : A Combined Western-Korean Medicine Approach (우반신 무도증을 호소하는 Chorea Hyperglycemia Basal Ganglia Syndrome 환자에 대한 증례보고 : 양한방 복합치료적 접근으로)

  • Kim, Sung Yoon;Park, Jun Hyeong;Ahn, Jae Hyun;Jo, Jung Jae;Lee, Seung Min;Kang, Jung Won;Nam, Dong Woo
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.117-125
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objectives : The purpose of this report is to introduce a rare case of a patient with Chorea Hyperglycemia Basal Ganglia syndrome (C-H-BG) whose initial medical interventions were started 2 weeks after the onset, and to suggest the possibility of treatment using a combined Western-Korean medicine approach. Methods : A 75-year-old female C-H-BG patient complaining of persistent right-sided hemichorea was treated with a therapy that combined Korean and Western medicine from April 4, 2015 to April 29, 2015. Improvements of symptoms were measured by a motor assessment of Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the number of involuntary movements. Results : Motor assessment of UHDRS, VAS and the number of involuntary movements all showed a gradually improving tendency during 26 days of admission treatment. However, the patient's hemichorea persisted. Conclusion : Rapid blood sugar control is the most important treatment for C-H-BG, because pathologic changes of basal ganglia seem to become irreversible as time goes by. A combined Western-Korean medicine approach to treating C-H-BG seems effective not only in reducing hemichorea, but also in the management of accompanying symptoms such as muscle pain and general weakness.

The Effects of Hoechunyanggyeok-san on hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in db/db mice (회춘양격산(回春凉膈散)이 db/db 마우스의 고혈당 및 지질대사에 미치는 효과)

  • Jang, Soo-Young;Jung, Yu-Sun;Shin, Hyeon-Cheol
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.70-78
    • /
    • 2014
  • Objectives : Hoechunyanggyeok-san (HYS) is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been clinically used for treating febrile and inflammatory diseases. HYS has been reported to be a useful treatment for diabetes, atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia in the type 1 diabetic model. However, the mechanism of the effects of HYS against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of ameliorative effect of HYS on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in vivo. Methods : HYS (10, 50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered every day for 2 weeks to db/db mice and its effect was compared with vehicle-treated db/db mice. To confirm serum glucose and triglyceride (TG) changes, serological testing was performed. The levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) activity and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ${\alpha}$ ($ACC{\alpha}$) expression were analyzed by western blot analysis. Results : The administration of HYS significantly decreased the elevated serum glucose and TG in db/db mice. HYS administration increased the levels of SIRT1 and AMPK expression compared with the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, HYS treatment significantly inhibited SREBP-1 activity and $ACC{\alpha}$ expression in the liver, while the vehicle-treated group exhibited their increase. Conclusions : In conclusion, HYS is suggested to have an improvement effect on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia by activating the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway and inhibiting SREBP-1.

Hyperglycemia aggravates decrease in alpha-synuclein expression in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model

  • Kang, Ju-Bin;Kim, Dong-Kyun;Park, Dong-Ju;Shah, Murad-Ali;Kim, Myeong-Ok;Jung, Eun-Jung;Lee, Han-Shin;Koh, Phil-Ok
    • Laboraroty Animal Research
    • /
    • v.34 no.4
    • /
    • pp.195-202
    • /
    • 2018
  • Hyperglycemia is one of the major risk factors for stroke. Hyperglycemia can lead to a more extensive infarct volume, aggravate neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. ${\alpha}$-Synuclein is especially abundant in neuronal tissue, where it underlies the etiopathology of several neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated whether hyperglycemic conditions regulate the expression of ${\alpha}$-synuclein in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection to induce hyperglycemic conditions. MCAO were performed four weeks after streptozotocin injection to induce focal cerebral ischemia, and cerebral cortex tissues were obtained 24 hours after MCAO. We confirmed that MCAO induced neurological functional deficits and cerebral infarction, and these changes were more extensive in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. Moreover, we identified a decrease in ${\alpha}$-synuclein after MCAO injury. Diabetic animals showed a more serious decrease in ${\alpha}$-synuclein than non-diabetic animals. Western blot and reverse-transcription PCR analyses confirmed more extensive decreases in ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression in MCAO-injured animals with diabetic condition than these of non-diabetic animals. It is accepted that ${\alpha}$-synuclein modulates neuronal cell death and exerts a neuroprotective effect. Thus, the results of this study suggest that hyperglycemic conditions cause more serious brain damage in ischemic brain injuries by decreasing ${\alpha}$-synuclein expression.

Effects of β3-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism on the Hyperglycemia in Korean Subjects (베타 3-아드레날린 수용체의 유전자형이 고혈당증 유발에 미치는 영향)

  • 오현희;최선미;양현성;김길수;윤유식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.83-90
    • /
    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of $\beta$3-adrenergic receptor polymorphism on the blood glucose level and obesity in 530 volunteers, who attended a weight loss program in a local obesity clinic. The age differences in total subjects and the distribution of male and female were 26.55$\pm$0.31 yr, 9.1% (n=48), 90.9% (n=492). The genotype distribution of $\beta$3-AR gene polymorphism were WW type 75%, WR type 22% and RR type 3%. Among many parameters, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in WR+RR type (p=0.001) compared with WW type. When the subjects were divided into two groups by 6.105 mmol/L of the fasting blood glucose level, the frequency of hyperglycemia was 23.3% in WW type subjects, while there was a increase to 35.6% in WR+RR type subjects (p=0.011, $\chi$$^2$-analysis). When hyperglycemia group was compared with normoglycemia group, obesity index (p=0.044), %body fat (p=0.046) and TG (p=0.000) were significantly higher, and HDL (p=0.006) was significantly lower in the hyperglycemia. When all of the above factors were included in stepwise logistic regression analysis to find risk factors of hyperglycemia, the results were that the odds ratio for hyperglycemia were 2.015 (p=0.011) for WR+RR type of $\beta$3-AR gene, 2.165 (p=0.000) for TG and 0.419 (p=0.059) for HDL cholesterol. There was a significantly positive correlation between the blood glucose vs BMI, WHR, body fat in the WW type (r=0.099, 0.119, 0.082) However, in the WR and RR type there were no significance between the blood glucose vs BMI, WHR, body fat. These data suggest that the WR+RR genotype of $\beta$3-AR has a very strong association with increased blood glucose level and might be a significant risk factor for hyperglycemia among Korean subjects.

Vitamin C Inhibits Visceral Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Lowers Blood Glucose Levels in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice

  • Park, Younghyun;Jang, Joonseong;Lee, Dongju;Yoon, Michung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.311-318
    • /
    • 2018
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplementation has been suggested to negatively correlate with obesity in humans and other animals. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity and related diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Mice received a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal fat), HFD (45% kcal fat), or the same HFD supplemented with vitamin C (HFD-VC, 1% w/w) for 15 weeks. Visceral adiposity and glucose intolerance were examined using metabolic measurements, histology, and gene expression analyses. Mice in the HFD-VC supplementation group had reduced body weight, mesenteric fat mass, and mesenteric adipocyte size compared with HFD-fed mice. Vitamin C intake in obese mice also decreased the mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes (i.e., stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) in mesenteric adipose tissues, inhibited hyperglycemia, and improved glucose tolerance. In addition, vitamin C attenuated the HFD-induced increase in the size of pancreatic islets. These results suggest that vitamin C suppresses HFD-induced visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and glucose intolerance in part by decreasing the visceral adipose expression of genes involved in lipogenesis.

Picrotoxin-induced Hyperglycemia and the Influences of Several Drugs on the Hyperglycemia (Picrotoxin의 과혈당작용(過血糖作用)과 그에 대(對)한 몇 약물(藥物)의 영향(影響))

  • Chun, Boe-Gwun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.14 no.1_2
    • /
    • pp.55-62
    • /
    • 1978
  • Ban formulated the concept of 'sympathetic center' and 'parasympathetic center' in the central nervous system, and Folkow et al. reported that the electric stimulation of the posterior part of hypothalamus induced the marked liberation of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Tatum reported that the hyperglycemic action of picrotoxin is contributed to the cathecholamines liberation from adrenal medulla by the excitation of hypothalamus via splanchnic nervous plexus. In this paper, the relationship between the convulsive action and the hyperglycemic effect of picrotoxin was investigated, with references to the influences of several drugs related with adrenergic function and two intravenous anesthetics on the picrotoxin hyperglycemia. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1) There was no difference between the convulsive dose(1. 5mg/kg) and the subconvulsive dose (0.75mg/kg) of picrotoxin in its hyperglycemic effect that was not affected with the phenobarbital pretreatment, but the efficacy of its hyperglycemic action was more prominent than that of strychnine. 2) The hyperglycemic effect of picrotoxin was markedly suppressed by the pretreatment of thiopental or ketamine. 3) The hyperglycemic effect was not affected by the reserpine pretreatment, but the effect was markedly suppressed by the pretreatment of iproniazid or chlorpromazine. 4) The hyperglycemic effect of picrotoxin was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of hexamethonium, propranolol or guanethidine, and the order of those suppressing efficacy was propranolol> hexamethonium> guanethidine.

  • PDF