• Title, Summary, Keyword: hyperglycemia

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Fatty Acids Intake and Its Association with Abdominal Obesity and Hyperglycemia in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey, 1998~2007 (한국 성인의 지방산 섭취와 복부비만 및 고혈당과의 관련성 -1998~2007 국민건강영양조사 자료에 근거하여-)

  • Park, Yong-Soon;Park, Hyo-Jin;Won, Sun-Im
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.147-162
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    • 2012
  • Abdominal obesity is an important factor of metabolic syndrome and is known as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatty acid intake pattern as well as the association between fatty acid intake and abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia in Korean adults. This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) I, II, III, and IV. After excluding subjects who had missing data for dietary intakes, anthropometric measurments, and laboratory tests, a total of 12,320 subjects aged 20~64y (5,266 men and 7,054 women) were included in the study. Trends in individual consumption of dietary fatty acids by year were analyzed by One-way ANOVA test, and the association between fatty acid intake and abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia was analyzed by logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, energy intake, marital status, job, education level, alcohol intake, and smoking status. In men, intakes of TFA, SFA, MUFA, FUFA, and n-6 PUFA significantly increased with year. On the other hand, intakes of TFA, SFA and FUFA significantly increased with year in women. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of abdominal obesity was significantly associated with intakes of PUFA, LNA and n-3 PUFA in women. However, there was no association with any fatty acid intakes in men. The risk of hyperglycemia was significantly and positively associated with intakes of TFA, SFA, PUFA, and LNA in men, but, there was no significant association with any fatty acid intakes in women. These results show that abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia are significantly associated with individual intake of fatty acids, suggesting that fatty acid type may be associated with risk of abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia. Futher, the macronutrients of measl must be properly balanced.

Gamma-tocopherol ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced hepatic inflammation associated with NLRP3 inflammasome in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

  • Lee, Heaji;Lim, Yunsook
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.377-383
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage has been recognized as one of the major cause of complications in diabetes. Hepatic complications are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetes. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that gamma-tocopherol (GT) supplementation ameliorates NLRP3 inflammasome associated hepatic inflammation in diabetes. MATERIALS/METHODS: Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg. BW) in ICR mice. All mice were fed with a control diet (AIN-76A). After diabetes was induced (fasting glucose level ${\geq}250mg/dL$), the mice were treated with tocopherol-stripped corn oil or GT-supplemented (35 mg/kg) corn oil, respectively, by gavage for 2 weeks. RESULTS: GT supplementation reduced fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic mice relative to non-treated diabetic mice. Moreover, GT supplementation ameliorated hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage by regulation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome associated inflammation represented by NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain, caspase-1, nuclear $factor-{\kappa}B$ pathway as well as oxidative stress demonstrated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1, catalase and glutathione-dependent peroxidase in diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that GT supplementation ameliorated hepatic damage by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, GT could be a beneficial nutrient that can ameliorate inflammatory responses associated with NLRP3 inflammasome in hyperglycemia-induced hepatic damage.

In vitro Inhibitory Effect of Coptidis Rhizoma before and after Processing and Berberine on the Advanced Glycation Endproducts(AGEs) formation

  • Kim, Jin-Sook;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Ki-Young
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.197.2-197
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    • 2003
  • One of the consequences of hyperglycemia is the excessive nonenzymatic glycation of proteins known as Millard reaction. Under hyperglycemia the irreversibly formed advanced glycation endproducts(AGEs) do not return to normal when hyperglycemia is corrected and continue to accumulate over the lifetime of protein. AGEs are largely involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. To find possible AGEs inhibitor, BSA was added to a mixture of sugars and unprocessed-, processed Coptidis Rhizoma, Berberine, its standard compound or AG(Aminoguanidine HCl: positive control). (omitted)

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Trauma-Associated Hyperglycemia after Fall Accident in Three Dogs

  • Ji, Sumin;Kim, Na-Yon;Kim, Myung-Chul;Lee, Hong-Seok;Hwang, Sung-Hyun;Kim, Yongbaek
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.67-69
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    • 2018
  • Three dogs were referred for emergency care after fall accidents. All cases showed hyperglycemia at initial testing, with no history of diabetes mellitus. After varying periods of time, the blood glucose levels in all cases returned to within the reference range. The present report describes three cases of typical trauma-associated hyperglycemia in dogs.

Comparison of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on the incidence of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing lung surgery

  • Kim, Hyuckgoo;Han, Jisoo;Jung, Sung Mee;Park, Sang-Jin;Kwon, Nyeong Keon
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2018
  • Background: The type and regimen of anesthesia may affect perioperative hyperglycemia following major surgical stress. This study compared the effects of sevoflurane and propofol on the incidence of hyperglycemia and clinical outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing lung surgery. Methods: This retrospective study included 176 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had undergone lung surgery. Blood glucose levels and clinical outcomes from the preoperative period to the first 2 postoperative days (PODs) were retrospectively examined in patients who received sevoflurane (group S, n= 87) and propofol (group P, n=89) for maintenance of general anesthesia. The primary endpoint was the incidence of persistent hyperglycemia (2 consecutive blood glucose levels >180 mg/dL [10.0 mmol/L]) during the perioperative period. The secondary composite endpoint was the incidence of major postoperative complications and 30-day mortality rate after surgery. Results: Blood glucose levels similarly increased from the preoperative period to the second POD in both groups (p=0.857). Although blood glucose levels at 2 hours after surgery were significantly lower in group P than in group S (p=0.022; 95% confidence interval for mean difference, -27.154 to -2.090), there was no difference in the incidence of persistent hyperglycemia during the perioperative period (group S, 70%; group P, 69%; p=0.816). The composite of major postoperative complications and all-cause in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were also comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Sevoflurane and propofol were associated with a comparable incidence of perioperative hyperglycemia and clinical outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing lung surgery.

Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease: Mechanisms and Nutritional Aspects

  • Lee, Hee Jae;Seo, Hye In;Cha, Hee Yun;Yang, Yun Jung;Kwon, Soo Hyun;Yang, Soo Jin
    • Clinical Nutrition Research
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.229-240
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    • 2018
  • Blood glucose homeostasis is well maintained by coordinated control of various hormones including insulin and glucagon as well as cytokines under normal conditions. However, chronic exposure to diabetic environment with high fat/high sugar diets and physical/mental stress can cause hyperglycemia, one of main characteristics of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Hyperglycemia impairs organogenesis and induces organ abnormalities such as cardiac defect in utero. It is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases in adults. Resulting glucotoxicity affects peripheral tissues and vessels, causing pathological complications including diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, vessel damage, and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia can deteriorate cognitive function and other aspects of mental health. Recent reports have demonstrated that hyperglycemia is closely related to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia, suggesting that there may be a cause-effect relationship between hyperglycemia and dementia. With increasing interests in aging-related diseases and mental health, diabetes-related cognitive impairment is attracting great attention. It has been speculated that glucotoxicity can result in structural damage and functional impairment of brain cells and nerves, hemorrhage of cerebral blood vessel, and increased accumulation of amyloid beta. These are potential mechanisms underlying diabetes-related dementia. Nutrients and natural food components have been investigated as preventive and/or intervention strategy. Among candidate components, resveratrol, curcumin, and their analogues might be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes-related cognitive impairment. The purposes of this review are to discuss recent experimental evidence regarding diabetes and cognitive impairment and to suggest potential nutritional intervention strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes-related dementia.

Sargassum yezoense Extract Inhibits Carbohydrate Digestive Enzymes In Vitro and Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice.

  • Park, Jae-Eun;Lee, Ji-Hee;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.166-171
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated whether Sargassum yezoense extract (SYE) could inhibit ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ activities, and alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Freeze-dried S. yezoense was extracted with 80% ethanol and concentrated for use in this study. The hypoglycemic effect was determined by evaluating the inhibitory activities of SYE against ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ as well as its ability to decrease postprandial blood glucose levels. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of SYE against ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ were $0.078{\pm}0.004$ and $0.212{\pm}0.064mg/mL$, respectively. SYE was a more effective inhibitor of ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ activities than the positive control, acarbose. The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was significantly alleviated in the SYE group compared with that in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the area under the curves significantly decreased with SYE administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that SYE is a potent inhibitor of ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ activities and alleviates postprandial hyperglycemia caused by dietary carbohydrates.

Canola Oil Influence on Azoxymethane-induced Colon Carcinogenesis, Hypertriglyceridemia and Hyperglycemia in Kunming Mice

  • He, Xiao-Qiong;Cichello, Simon Angelo;Duan, Jia-Li;Zhou, Jin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2477-2483
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    • 2014
  • Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent genotoxic carcinogen which specifically induces colon cancer. Hyperlipidemia and diabetes have several influences on colon cancer development, with genetic and environmental exposure aspects. Here, we investigated plasma lipid and glucose concentrations in Kunming mice randomized into four groups; control (no AOM or oil exposure), AOM control, AOM + pork oil, and AOM + canola oil. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose and organ weight were examined 32 weeks after AOM injection. Results revealed that AOM exposure significantly increased ACF number, plasma triglyceride and glucose level. Further, male mice displayed a much higher plasma triglyceride level than female mice in the AOM control group. Dietary fat significantly inhibited AOM-induced hypertriglyceridemia, and canola oil had stronger inhibitory effect than pork oil. AOM-induced hyperglycemia had no sex-difference and was not significantly modified by dietary fat. However, AOM itself not change plasma cholesterol level. AOM significantly increased liver and spleen weight in male mice, but decreased kidney weight in female mice. On the other hand, mice testis weight decreased when fed canola oil. AOM could induce colorectal carcinogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia in Kunming mice at the same time, with subsequent studies required to investigate their genome association.

Polyopes lancifolia Extract, a Potent α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

  • Min, Seong Won;Han, Ji Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 2014
  • This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Polyopes lancifolia extract (PLE) on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase activity, ${\alpha}$-amylase activitiy, and postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results of this study revealed a marked inhibitory effect of PLE on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase activities. The $IC_{50}s$ of PLE against ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase were 0.20 mg/mL and 0.35 mg/mL, respectively. PLE was a more effective inhibitor of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase activities than acarbose, the positive control. The postprandial blood glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic mice were significantly lower in the PLE treated group than in the control group. Moreover, PLE administration was associated with a decreased area under the curve for the glucose response in diabetic mice. These results indicate that PLE may be a potent inhibitor of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase activities and may suppress postprandial hyperglycemia.

Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

  • Choi, Sung-In;Park, Mi Hwa;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2016
  • This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) of G. procumbens extract against ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and ${\alpha}$-amylase was $0.092{\pm}0.018$ and $0.084{\pm}0.027mg/mL$, respectively, suggesting that the ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibition activity of the G. procumbens extract was more effective than that of the positive control, acarbose ($IC_{50}=0.164mg/mL$). The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly alleviated in the G. procumbens extract group than in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the curve significantly decreased with G. procumbens extract administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that G. procumbens extract may help alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes.