• Title, Summary, Keyword: hydroxyl radicals

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Recent Advances in Advanced Oxidation Processes

  • Huang, Chin-Pao
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.1-1
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    • 1998
  • Advanced (Chemical) oxidation processes (AOP) differ from most conventional ones in that hydroxyl radical(OH.) is considered to be the primary oxidant. Hydroxyl radicalcan react non-selectively with a great number of organic and inorganic chemicals. The typical rate constants of true hydroxyl radical reactions are in the range of between 109 to 1012 sec-1. Many processes are possible to generate hydroxyl radical. These include physical and chemical methods and their combinations. Physical means involves the use of high energy radiation such as gamma ray, electron beam, and acoustic wave. Under an applied high energy radiation, water molecules can be decomposed to yield hydroxyl radicals or aqueous electrons. Chemical means include the use of conventional oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone, two of the most efficient oxidants in the presence of promoter or catalyst. Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalyst such as divalent iron ions can readily produce hydroxyl radicals. Ozone in the presence of specific chemical species such as OH- or hydrogen peroxide, can also generate hydroxyl radicals. Finally the combination of chemical and physical means can also yield hydroxyl radicals. Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of acoustic wave or ultra violet beam can generate hydroxyl radicals. The principles for hydroxyl radical generation will be discussed. Recent case studied of AOP for water treatment and other environmental of applications will be presented. These include the treatment of contaminated soils using electro-Fenton, lechate treatment with conventional Ponton, treatment of coal for sulfur removal using sonochemical and the treatment of groundwater with enhanced sonochemical processes.

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Effects of Heating on Hydroxyl Radical-Generated Toxicity in Mouse Forebrain Tissue Culture

  • Lee, Jeong-Chae;Lim, Kye-Taek
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was carrid out to know the effects of heating and serum on hydroxyl radicals in embryonic mouse forebrain (cerebrum) culture. The heating to mouse embryonic cerebrum cells in culture was done in a water bath at 43${\circ}C$ for 60min. After that, two supernatants were prepared at 20 hrs and 48 hrs respectively after heat treatment to the brain cells. To find out the heating effects on neuron cells, mouse cerebrum cells (13 embryonic day) were cultured in hydroxyl radical generation system composed of 20mU/ml glucose oxidase (GO system), using condition of normal culture media (MEM, 5% serum, 5% $CO_2$or supernatant prepared after heating at 43${\circ}C$ for 60 min in a water bath. Supernatant prepared at 20 hrs after heat treatment had a greater protective effects against hydroxyl radical than supernatant prepared at 48 hrs after heat treatment . Otherwise, the protective effect of serum against hydroxyl radicals in the cultured brain cells is higher than that in the heat treatment. These results indicated that serum in culture media reduced cytotoxicity of hydroxyl radicals in mouse forebrain culture, also that heat treatment showed the protective effects against hydroxyl radicals generated with 20mU/ml GO system in mouse forebrain culture.

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Comparison with Some Antioxidants on Hydroxyl Radical in Mouse Whole Brain Culture

  • Lee, Jeong-Chae;Lim, Kye-Taek;Lee, Ki-Seoup;Jung, Hee-young
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.541-545
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    • 1998
  • This experiment carried out to compare the protective effects of some antioxidants to hydroxyl radicals in embryonic mouse whole brain tissue culture. The ICR mouse whole brain (13 embryonic day) was cultured in hydroxyl radical system in which radicals were generated by 20 mU / ml glucose oxidase (GO). In this experiment, to make ferrous iron from ferric iron, iron as an accelerator, and ascorbic acid as a reductant were used. For comparison of the protective effects to hydroxyl radicals, antioxidants such as desferrioxamine (DFX), laccase. water or ethanol extracts from Rhus Vemiciflua Stokes (RVS), and $\alpha$-tocopherol were used, because they relate to metal ion. The results of this experiment showed that all antioxidants protected effectively the cytotoxicity from hydroxyl radicals in the brain cultures. More than 70% of cell viabilities among different antioxidants was at 1 mM DFX, 1.43 $\mu\textrm{m}$ laccase, 12.5 $\mu\textrm{m}$ water extract, 12.5 $\mu\textrm{m}$ ethanol extract and 50 $\mu\textrm{m}$ $\alpha$-tocopherol individually, compared with 20 mU/ml GO alone. In comparison to the antioxidative activities of antioxidants, laccase and extracts from RVS showed strong antioxidative effects even at low concentration.

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Effect of $H_2O_2$ and Metals on The Sonochemical Decomposition of Humic Substances in Wastewater Effluent

  • Jung, Oh-Jun
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.10 no.S_3
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 2001
  • The sonochemical Process has been applied as a treatment method and was investigated its effect on the decomposition of humic substances(HS). The reaction kinetics and mechanisms in the Process of sonochemical treatment for humic substances(HS) in wastewater have also been discussed. It was observed that the metal ions such as Fe(II) and Mn(II) showed catalytic effects, while Al(III), Ca(II), and Mg(II) had inhibitory effects on the decomposition of humic substances in sonochemical reaction with hydrogen peroxide. Experimental results also showed factors such as hydrogen peroxide dose affected the formation of disinfection by-products. Two trihalomethanes, chloroform and dichlorobromomethane were formed as major disinfection by-products during chlorination. The mechanism of radical reaction is controlled by an oxidation process. The radicals are so reactive that most of them are consumed by HS radicals and hydroxyl radicals can be acted on organic solutes by hydroxyl addition, hydrogen abstraction, and electron transfer. The depolymerization and the radical reaction of HS radicals appear to occur simultaneously. The final steps of the reaction are the conversion of organic acids to carbon dioxide.

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Antioxidant Property of Aqua-Acupuncture Solution from Circium japonicum (대계 약침액의 항산화 효능)

  • Lee, Jeong-Joo;Moon, Jin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : Circium japonicum is a pharmacologically active used in traditional Korean medicine. An aqua-acupuncture solution of the Circium japonicum was assessed to determine the mechanism of its antioxidant activity. Materials : Circium japonicum was obtained from a Dongguk Korean Medicine Hospital (Kyung-ju, Kyungbuk). The freeze-dry powder was collected (yield 5.1%) for the aqua-acupuncture solution. Scavenging activity on DPPH free radicals by the Circium japonicum aqua-acupuncture solution (CJAS) was assessed according to the method followed by Gyamfi et al.. and then scavenging activity orl superoxide radicals $(O_2^-{\cdot})$ was assessed by the method described by Gotoh et al. with slight modification. Deoxyribose assay to determine the rate constant for the reactions between either antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals or antioxidants and iron ions. We tested by; (1) Non-site-specific scavenging assay (hydroxyl radicals, OH), (2) Site-specific scavenging assay (chelate iron ions), and (3) Pro-oxidant effect of the CJAS on iron dependent hydroxyl radical generation. Finally, we determined hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA nicking formation. Conclusion : Our study demonstrated that CJAS has antioxidant activities and we investigated the potential effectiveness of CJAS in preventing oxidative stress-mediated disease further.

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Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Germinated Giant Embryonic Rices (발아 거대배아미 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Kang, Mi-Young;Kim, Sul-Yi;Koh, Hee-Jong;Nam, Seok-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2004
  • Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of two giant embryonic rices, Nampung giant embryonic rice and Hwachung giant embryonic rice, were investigated mainly focusing on their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenge reactive oxygen species in comparison with those of general rice. The results showed that germination process increased reducing power, inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation and scavenging ability either on superoxide or hydroxyl radicals. Among the cultivars tested, increase in antioxidative action was found to be most prominent for Hwachung giant embryonic rice cultivar. For scavenging of superoxide radicals, the extract from Nampung giant embryonic rice has the most potent activity, however, increasing rate of scavenging activity by germination process was also found to be the greatest for Hwachung giant embryonic rice. We found that the scavenging mechanism for superoxide radicals was attributed to the direct scavenging of the radicals. The scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, the most toxic oxygen radical to biological system, by the rice extracts were also examined, and the results showed that either overall activity or the increasing rate of the activity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals by germination process was the greatest for Hwachung giant embryonic rice. Moreover, the results suggested that the scavenging action to hydroxyl radicals might be mediated by direct quenching of the radicals, not by chelating $Fe^{2+}$. Further studies showed that the antioxidant action of the rice extracts tested in vitro was also operative for suppressing ROS production induced in TPA-stimulated HL-60 cells.

Purification, Chemical Composition, and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Two Protein-bound Polysaccharides from Rapeseed Meal

  • Sun, Han-Ju;Jiang, Shaotong;Zi, Mingyang;Qi, Ding
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1386-1391
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    • 2009
  • Crude polysaccharides from rapeseed meal (PRM) were extracted with 0.3% NaOH aqueous solution, followed by further purifications and 2 fractions, namely PRM1 and PRM2, were separated with a DEAE-cellulose DE-52 column. Their primary compositions were analysed and antioxidant activity was determined, including scavenging activity toward superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and nitric oxide radicals, reducing power, and inhibitory effects against the microsomal lipid peroxidation, compared to that of L-ascorbic acid. The results indicated that PRM1 and PRM2 exhibited not only good reducing power and inhibitory effects on the microsomal lipid peroxidation, but also strong scavenging activity toward superoxide anion radicals, nitric oxide radicals, and hydroxyl radicals. In addition, positive correlations were also observed between the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity and the protein contents of the polysaccharides, and the reducing power and the sulfate contents. These findings thus clearly suggest the polysaccharides possess direct and potent antioxidant activity.

Baicalein and Baicalin from the Radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Inhibits Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis via its Antioxidant Activity

  • Garcia, Nellie Ann S.;Jeong, Hyung-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.489-497
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we evaluated and compared the protective effects of two major constituents, baicalein and baicalin, against oxidative DNA and cell damages caused by hydroxyl radical. Antioxidant properties were evaluated using DPPH and hydroxyl radicals scavenging assays and $Fe^{2+}$ chelating assay. ${\varphi}X$ 174 RFI plasmid DNA and intracellular DNA migration assay were used to evaluate the protective effect against oxidative DNA damage. Also, MTT and lipid peroxidation assays were used to evaluate their protective effects against oxidative cell damage. Both baicalein and baicalin prevented intracellular DNA and cells from oxidative damage caused by hydroxyl radical via antioxidant activities. Baicalein demonstrated a stronger antioxidant activity in scavenging DPPH radicals and chelating $Fe^{2+}$ while baicalin scavenged hydroxyl radicals more efficiently. The differences in the level of baicalein and baicalin pose a different pathological pathway for each. The antioxidant activity of baicalin was due to its ability to scavenge hydroxyl radical whilst baicalein was a stronger $Fe^{2+}$ chelator. Further investigation to compare the molecular mechanisms of antitumor activities of baicalein and baicalin is vital to anticancer research.

Antioxidant Property of the Gagam-Hyungbang-Gihwang-tang Using Biochemical Markers of Carcinogenesis (가감형방지황탕 열수 추출물이 항산화 작용에 미치는 영향)

  • Han Jin-Soo;Park Seong-Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.204-214
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The verity extract of the Gagam-Hyungbang-Gihwang-tang (GHG) was assessed to determine the mechanisms of its antioxidant activity. Methods : The fellowing effects were measured : GHG exhibited a concentration-treatment; scavenging ${\alpha},\;{\alpha}-diphenyl-\beta-picrylhydrazyl$ (DPPH) radical, linoleic acid oxidation in a thiocyanate assay system, and superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical-induced DNA nicking. We investigated mRNA levels such as superoxide-dismutase. Results : The GHG extract showed dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide anion, using different systems. The GHG was also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals in Fenton's reaction mixture. Furthermore, SOD-1 mRNA expression levels increased in tat hepatoma H4IIE cells Conclusions : We expect that GHG will to helpful to the development of antioxidant activity treatments.

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Methods for Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity: Application to Taurine (항산화 활성의 평가를 위한 연구법: 타우린의 적용)

  • Kim, Bong-Hee;Oh, Jung-Min;Yun, Kang-Uk;Kim, Chung-Hyeon;Kim, Sang-Kyum
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2007
  • Although taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) can inhibit oxidative stress in both animal and epidemiological studies, it is obscure whether taurine directly scavenges oxy-radicals or indirectly regulates oxidant production and/or antioxidant defense system. The reason for this discrepancy remains unknown but may be due, in part, to the lack of a validated assay system for evaluating oxy-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activities of taurine and hypotaurine (2-aminoethanesulfinic acid), a precursor of taurine, against peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites were determined by the total oxy-radical scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay and cell-based assay using H4IIE cells. tert-Butylhydroperoxide or hydrogen peroxide-induced cell toxicity determined by MTT assay was markedly inhibited by 10mM taurine or hypotaurine. The tert-butylhydroperoxide- or hydrogen peroxide-induced changes in oxidative stress markers, such as cellular glutathione and malondialdehyde, were ameliorated by 10mM taurine or hypotaurine. However, specific TOSC values calculated from the slope of the linear regression for taurine against peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals or peroxynitrites were all less than 1 TOSC/mM. On the other hand specific TOSC values for hypotaurine against peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals or peroxynitrites were 48, 2096, or 69 TOSC/mM, respectively. These results suggest that taurine protects cells against oxidative insults, which is not ascribed to directly scavenging activity of taurine against oxy-radicals. These results support the idea that the oxidation state of sulfur in antioxidants may be a determinant of oxy-radical scavenging capacity.