• Title, Summary, Keyword: human placenta

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Effects of Hominis Placenta on the Growth of Human Uterine Myoma Cells and Cell Apoptosis (자하거(紫河車)가 자궁근종세포(子宮筋腫細胞)의 성장억제(成長抑制)와 세포자멸사(細胞自滅死)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Wee, Hyo-Sun;Lee, Jin-Moo;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Cho, Jung-Hoon;Jang, Jun-Bock;Lee, Kyung-Sub
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.38-48
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Hominis Placenta (紫河車) on the growth of human uterine myoma cells and cell apoptosis. Methods: Human uterine leiomyoma cells were cultured and treated with Hominis Placenta extract for 48 hours. Cell proliferation and activity was analyzed by MTT assay. We analyzed the cell cycle of human uterine myoma cells treated Hominis Placenta extract by FACS. Expression of proteins related to cell apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2), cyclin-D1 and VEGF were evaluated by Western blotting method. Results: The human uterine myoma cells treated by Hominis Placenta extract didn't proliferate below the concentration of $10mg/m{\ell}$. And there was no remarkable difference on cell cycle analysis below the concentration of $10mg/m{\ell}$. The expression of Bax was decreased and the expression of Bcl-2 was increased after the treatment of Hominis Placenta extract. But the expressions of cyclin-D1 and VEGF were increased after the treatment of Hominis Placenta extract. Conclusion: This study suggests that Hominis Placenta induce uterine myoma cell apoptosis and have effect on the myoma cell proliferation in the concentraion below $10mg/m{\ell}$.

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The Review on Trend of Clinical Studies of Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture on Obstetrics & Gynecology Diseases (자하거약침의 부인과 질환 임상 연구에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Su-Ji;Kim, Dong-Il
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The aim of this study is to review clinical studies of Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncutre on Obstetrics & Gynecology diseases. Methods: Key words "Jahageo Yakchim", "Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture", "Human Placenta Pharmacopuncture", "Hominis Placenta Pharmacoacupuncutre" were searched on 6 database systems (DBpia, KISS, KTKP, NDSL, Pubmed, CENTRAL) on August 31th 2018. Results: 1 case reports and 4 controlled studies were collected in accordance with the selection and exclusion criteria. The study design, study results and method of intervention were analyzed. Conclusions: This review shows the necessity of large-scale well designed clinical studies of Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture on Obstetrics & Gynecology diseases to evaluate the efficacy and safety.

Use of Human Placentas for Practice of Microvascular Surgery (미세수술 술기 습득을 위한 태반의 사용)

  • Kang, Min-Gu;Yoon, Sang-Yup;Chang, Hak
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Microsurgical exercise has been performed with rat femoral vessels. But, it needs animal laboratory, anesthesia and its keeping facilities. Materials and Methods: Ten human placentas were studied for suitability in a microvascular exercise. The size and useful length of vessels were measured, and various microvascular anastomoses were performed. Result: The human placenta has many vessels traversing its fetal surface. A variety of sizes are available down to vessels of diameter 1 mm and up to vessels of diameter 6.5 mm (1.0

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Folate and Homocysteine Levels during Pregnancy affect DNA Methylation in Human Placenta (임산부의 혈중 엽산과 호모시스틴 수준이 태반세포의 DNA 메틸화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Bo-Hyun;Kim, Young-Ju;Lee, Hwa-Young;Ha, Eun-Hee;Min, Jung-Won;Park, Jong-Soon;Park, Hye-Sook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.437-442
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : DNA methylation is one of the best characterized epigenetic mechanisms that play a regulatory role in genome programming and imprinting during embryogenesis. In this present study, we investigated the association between DNA methylation in the human placenta and the maternal folate and homocysteine concentrations on the Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) genetic polymorphism during pregnancy. Methods : We investigated 107 pregnant women who visited Ewha Woman's University Hospital for prenatal care during their $24{\sim}28$ weeks-period of gestation. During the second trimester, we measured the serum homocysteine and folate concentrations . The MTHFR 677 genetic polymorphism was determine by performing PCR-RFLP assay. The expression of DNA methylation in the human placentas was estimated by using immunohistochemistry method. Results : Serum folate was negatively correlated with the serum homocysteine concentration for all the MTHFR genotypes. We found positive correlation between the folate concentrations and the DNA methylation in the human placenta (p<0.05). An increasing concentration of homocysteine was associated with reduced DNA methylation in the human placenta. The coefficient value was -2.03 (-3.77, -0.29) on the regression model (p<0.05). Conclusion : These findings suggest that the maternal folate and homocysteine levels along with the MTHFR 677 genetic polymorphism during pregnancy affect the DNA methylation in the human placenta.

Expression of the Second Isoform of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Chicken GnRH-II Type) in the First Trimester Human Placenta (임신초기 사람의 태반조직에서 GnRH-II mRNA와 Peptide의 발현)

  • Cheon, Kang-Woo;Hong, Sung-Ran;Lee, Hyoung-Song;Kang, Inn-Soo
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2001
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been known to play a role in the regulation of hCG secretion by human placenta. Recently, a gene encoding the second f개m of GnRH (GnRH-II) was identified in human. Herein, we demonstrate that GnRH-II is expressed in human placenta and assess GnRH-II expression by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in human placenta during the first trimester. We found that two altematively spliced transcripts of GnW-II mRNA were expressed in human placental tissues of first trimester and the shorter variant had a 21-bp deletion in GnRH-associated peptide (GAP). Immunoreactive GnRH-II was localized in both cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophoblastic cytoplasm. The immunostaining intensity was stronger in cytotrophoblast. Villous stromal cells also showed GnRH-II immunoreactiyiry. The results of our study report that the second isoform of GnRH (GnRH-II) is expressed in the first trimester human placenta and we suggest that GnRH-II may also play a regulatory role in maintenance of early pregnancy and hCG secretion in human placenta.

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Placenta Transfer and Toxicokinetics of Valproic Acid in Pregnant Cynomolgus Monkeys

  • Jeong, Eun-Ju;Yu, Wook-Joon;Kim, Choong-Yong;Chung, Moon-Koo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2010
  • Placenta transfer study in non-human primate (NHP) is one of the crucial components in the assessment of developmental toxicity because of the similarity between NHP and humans. To establish the method to determine placenta transfer in non-human primate, toxicokinetics of valproic acid (VPA), a drug used to treat epilepsy in pregnant women, were determined in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. After mating, pregnancy-proven females were daily administered with VPA at dose levels of 0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg by oral route during the organogenesis period from gestation day (GD) 20 to 50. Concentrations of VPA and its metabolite, 4-ene-VPA, in maternal plasma on GDs 20 and 50, and concentrations of VPA and 4-ene-VPA in placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus on GD 50 were analyzed using LC/MS/MS. Following single oral administration of VPA to pregnant monkeys, concentrations of VPA and 4-ene-VPA were generally quantifiable in the plasma from all treatment groups up to 4-24 hours post-dose, demonstrating that VPA was absorbed and the monkeys were systemically exposed to VPA and 4-ene-VPA. After repeated administration of VPA to the monkeys, VPA was detected in amniotic fluid, placenta and fetus from all treatment groups, demonstrating that VPA was transferred via placenta and the fetus was exposed to VPA, and the exposures were increased with increasing dose. Concentrations of 4-ene-VPA in amniotic fluid and fetus were below the limit of quantification, but small amount of 4-ene-VPA was detected in placenta. In conclusion, pregnant monkeys were exposed to VPA and 4-ene-VPA after oral administration of VPA at dose levels of 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg during the organogenesis period. VPA was transferred via placenta and the fetus was exposed to VPA with dose-dependent exposure. The metabolite, 4-ene VPA, was not detected in both amniotic fluid and fetus, but small amount of 4-ene-VPA was detected in placenta. These results demonstrated that proper procedures to investigate placenta transfer in NHP, such as mating and diagnosis of pregnancy via examining gestational sac with ultrasonography, collection of amniotic fluid, placenta and fetus after Caesarean section followed by adequate bioanalysis and toxicokinetic analysis, were established in this study using cynomolugus monkeys.

Isolation and Characterization of Proteoglycan Derived From Human Placenta and its Biological Activities

  • Lee, Kyung-Bok;Kim, Jong-Sig;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kwak, Sang-Tae;Song, Kyung-Sik;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2000
  • Chondroitin sulfates proteoglycans were isolated from human placenta. For the identification of enzymatic digestion products of isolated proteoglycan, strong anion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) was performed. By the action of chondroitin ABC and chondroitin B lyase, three unsaturated disaccharides 2-acetamide-2-deoxy-3-O-($\beta$-D-gluco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-D-galactose ($\delta$Di-OS), 2-acetamide-2-deoxy-3-O-($\beta$-D-gluco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-6-O-su lfo-D-galactose ($\delta$Di-6S) and 2-acetamide-2-deoxy-3-O-($\beta$-D-gl uco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-4-O-sulfo-D-galactose ($\delta$Di-4S) were produced from the human placenta proteoglycan. The anticoagulant activity of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assay and thrombin time (TT) assay. The clotting times of aPTT and TT were increased from 72 to 144 sec and 19 to 27 sec, respectively. The Immune-modulating activity of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was examined by cell proliferation assay and these results suggest that it may play a role in suppression of the function of immune-related cells.

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Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus HERV-W LTR Family in Placenta cDNA Library

  • Yi, Joo-Mi;Lee, Ji-Won;Shin, Kyung-Mi;Huh, Jae-Won;Lee, Won-Ho;Jang, Kyung-Lib;Kim, Heui-Soo
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.243-246
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    • 2001
  • Human endoqenous retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) have been found to be coexpressed with sequences of genes closely located nearby. It has been suggested that the LTR elements have contributed to structural changes or genetic variations of human genome connected to various diseases and evolution. Using cDNA library derived from placenta tissue, we performed PCR amplification and identified five new HERV-W LTR elements. Those LTR elements showed a high degree of sequence similarity (98-99%) with HERV-W LTR (AF072500). A phylogenetic tree obtained by the neighbor-joining method revealed that HERV-W LTR elements could be mainly divided into two groups through evolutionary divergence. Five new HERV-W LTR elements (pla-1, 4, 5, 6, 7) belonged to the group I with AX000960, AF072504, and AF072506 from GenBank database. The data suggest that several copy numbers of the HERV-W LTR elements are transcribed in placenta and may contribute to the understanding of biological function such as human placental morphogenesis.

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Studies on Placental Chorionic Gonadotropin (태반성성선자극(胎盤性性腺刺戟)홀몬에 관(關)한 검토(檢討))

  • Park, Wan-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 1975
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone(H.C.G.) is secreted from the villus tissues of the placenta and excreted in lange amount into the urine. Its isolation is chiefly made from the urine of a pregnant woman. Recently, Matsushima attempted isolation of H.C.G. directly from the placenta itself. In order to prepare H.C.G. from human placenta, general method of extractiag and purifying proteins was applied. Its way was as follow: Crude H.C.G. was extracted from placenta with pH 9.0 and pH 5.0 aqua ammonia, and purified with pH 8.0 ammonia and 50% ethanol at pH 4.8. The purified H.C.G. showed two moving bands on the anode by paper electrophoresis. On the other hand, the H.C.G. from pregnancy urine (Standard. Pharm. Co.) showed same two bands but their moving ratio were different. The purified H.C.G. showed gonadotropin effect when it was injected young fomale rats 40r/cc per day for 5 days and weighted the increased ovary weight.

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The Effect of Placenta Extract on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Chondrocytes (태반추출물이 인간 연골세포의 증식과 분화에 미치는 영향)

  • Huh, Jun;Suh, Man Soo;Park, Sae Jung;Lim, Yeung Kook;Shin, Jun Ho;Chung, Ho Yun;Cho, Byung Chae;Park, Jae Woo
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.616-620
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The isolated human chondrocytes for cartilage reconstruction and transplantation presents a major problem as these cells would change biologically in vitro. For more effective applications of these cells in the clinical field, it is necessary to get a large amount of cells in a short period without affecting their function and phenotype. Methods: This study reports the effects of placenta extract on chondrocytes in vitro. We initiated this study on the basis of the hypothesis that placenta extract can influence both the proliferation of chondrocytes and their biologic functions(for example, to express cell specific gene or to produce their own extracellular matrix). Chondrocytes in monolayer culture with or without placenta extract were collected and analyzed by MTT assay, ECM assay, and RT-PCR. Results: Placenta extract stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes in monolayer culture. The phenotype of chondrocytes was well maintained during the expansion in monolayers. Chondrocytes expanded in the presence of placenta extract produced ECM, glycosaminoglycan, abundantly. Compared to chondrocyte expanded in culture medium only, chondrocytes expanded with placenta extract demonstrated higher COL2A1 expression that was biochemically comparable to primary chondrocytes. This study provides an evidence that placenta extract is helpful to expand chondrocytes during tissue cultivation, to maintain their differentiated phenotype and to promote their function. Conclusion: These results suggest that placenta extract during cultivation play an important role in controlling cell behaviors. Furthermore, these results provide a biologic basis for cartilage tissue engineering.