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Effect of Chungkukjang supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant nutrients of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (청국장 식이 보충이 당뇨 쥐의 산화적 스트레스와 항산화 영양소 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Heyun-Sook;Kong, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Eon-Hee;Choi, Eun-Mi;Jang, Joung-Hyeon;Lee, Myoung-Hee;Hong, Ju-Yeon;Hwang, Su-Jung;Jung, Hyeon-A;Yang, Kyung-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of a supplemented Chungkukjang diet on oxidative stress and antioxidant nutrients in Streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg of BW, IP injection)-induced diabetic rats. Diets that contained soybean Chungkukjang powder (SC), Yakkong Chungkukjang powder (YC), and Yakkong Chungkukjang powder with black food added (YCB) were administered to the STZ-induced diabetic rats for seven weeks. The increased lipid peroxide contents of their serum and liver were slightly controlled by providing them three types of Chungkukjang. The retinol level in the serum was 7.5 times higher in the STZ-induced diabetic group after the provision of YC. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level in the serum was higher in the STZ-induced diabetic group after the provision of YCB. Also, the retinol and tocopherol levels in the liver of the STZ-induced diabetic rats increased after they were provided YCB, and the decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) /oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level in their liver improved after they were fed a diet that contained YC. Moreover, the decreased anthocyanin level in the liver of the STZ-induced diabetic group improved after the provision of three types of Chungkukjang powder. These findings suggest that the Chungkukjang diet is a valuable food for the management of the health of diabetic patients and for the prevention of diabetic complications.

Quality Characteristics of Steamed Bread with Brown Rice Sourdough (현미 Sourdough을 이용한 찐빵의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Dong-Sun;Park, Hyang-Suk;Lee, Myung-Ho
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out for the improvement of nutrition and quality of streamed bread. For this purpose, brown rice liquid starter and brown rice sourdough were made and steamed bread was made with different amounts of starter addition followed by a measurement of its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. The pH of dough and titratable acidity tended to decrease significantly according to brown rice sourdough. In addition, the titratable acidity of the control group had significant different by samples. As for the volume of dough, there was no significant difference between the control sample and each sample, but after 15 minutes of fermentation, the volume increased the most in the control sample, with sample D having the least volume. As for volume and specific volume of steamed bread, sample B had the largest at 3.34 and each sample had significant differences based on fermentation time. As for diameter, sample B was the largest at 88.11 and sample D was the smallest at 79.04, with significant differences among samples. As for height of steamed bread, the control group was the highest at 42.91 and sample D was the lowest at41.87, with significant differences among samples. As for the cross-section structure of steamed bread, the porous of sample B, which had the largest volume and specific volume, was the largest with uniform texture and even distribution. L value tended to be higher in the added sampleroups than in the control sample. a value increased as brown rice sourdough increased, and b value was lower when volume and specific volume of the steamed bread increased, which showed a similar trend with that a L value. As for hardness, viscosity, and chewing capacity, sample D was the highest and sample B was the lowest, with significant differences among samples. As a result of measurement of overall preference, sample B had the highest preference with the highest preference in flavor, taste, appearance and texture, and D had the lowest preference with the lowest preference in taste, appearance and texture, with significant differences among samples.

Quality Characteristics of Radish Pickle added with Different Amounts of White Wine (백포도주 첨가량에 따른 무 피클의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Ki-Bbeum;An, Dong-Gi;Hwang, Su-Young;Nam, Jung-Suk;Choi, Soo-Keun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.72-85
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to examine the quality characteristics of radish pickle added with different amounts of white wine (0, 3.75, 7.24, 10.48, and 13.50%), stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The sugar content of the pickle solution decreased significantly(p<0.001) as the concentration of white wine increased, and decreased significantly(p<0.001) as the period of storage lengthened. The pH value of the pickle solution increased significantly(p<0.001) as the concentration levels of white wine rose. And a period storage decreased significantly(p<0.001) during the period of storage from week 0 to week 4 [makes no sense; recommend deletion]. The L-value of the solution increased significantly(p<0.001) with increasing concentrations of white wine, while the a-value and b-value both decreased. In addition, the L-value of radish pickle decreased significantly(p<0.001) as white wine concentrations increased, while the a-value and b-value increased. The hardness of the radish pickle increased significantly(p<0.001) when white wine concentrations were increased after 1 week. Hardness decreased significantly(p<0.001) during the period of storage. According to the results of sensory tests, appearance, taste, and overall preference were higher in the 30% additional sample[I can't find what this refers to]. These results are expected to be useful in producing radish pickle of optimal quality and to contribute to the development of various foods and the advancement of the food industry.

Isolation, Identification, and Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Production of Fermented Soymilk which Has Improved Sensory Quality (관능이 개선된 발효두유 제조를 위한 젖산균 분리·동정 및 특성)

  • Jung, Min-Gi;Kim, Su-In;Hur, Nam-Youn;Seong, Jong-Hwan;Lee, Young-Geun;Kim, Han-Soo;Chung, Hun-Sik;Kim, Dong-Seob
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2016
  • In order to improve the sour taste and foul odor of fermented soymilk, bacteria were isolated from kimchi and identified. Of the 89 bacterial strains isolated from kimchi, 3 isolates produced fermented soymilk with a sour taste and foul odor. The selected bacterial strains R53, R83, and R84 were identified by morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA analyses as Weissella koreensis. The strain R83, which produced fermented soymilk having the mildest sour taste and foul odor, was selected for further investigation and named W. koreensis KO3. The optimum culture condition for the fermentation of soymilk by W. koreensis KO3 was at $30^{\circ}C$ for 12 h. When soymilk was fermented under the optimum culture conditions, the viable cell count reached up to $8.71{\times}10^8CFU/ml$ and pH and acidity reached as low as 6.02 and as high as 0.33%, respectively. Twenty-seven amino acids and their derivatives were detected in fermented soymilk. The amounts of serine, glycine, threonine, alanine, and aspartic acid, which contribute to a sweeter taste, increased during fermentation. Orinithine, which was not detected before fermentation, increased during fermentation. Sensory evaluation showed that W. koreensis KO3-fermented soymilk has improved bean, roasted nut, and sour flavors as well as an enhanced mouthfeel, appearance, preferability, and overall acceptability compared with those of standard fermented soymilk. With further study and development, soymilk fermented by W. koreensis KO3 could serve as a health-promoting food with favorable sensory qualities.

Effects of Maltogenic Amylase on Textural Properties of Dough and Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread (Maltogenic Amylase가 식빵반죽의 물성과 식빵의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Seongjun;Cho, Namji;Lee, Soo-Jeong;Moon, Sung-Won;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.752-760
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    • 2015
  • Effects of maltogenic amylase on textural properties of dough and quality characteristics of white pan bread were investigated. White pan bread was prepared with four different levels of maltogenic amylase contents (M-1: 0.048 U/g, M-2: 0.060 U/g, M-3: 0.072 U/g, M-4: 0.084 U/g). The setback by amylograph for the control was $480.0{\pm}12.25$ Brabender Unit (B.U.) while M-4 showed the a setback of $215.0{\pm}5.00B.U.$ The absorption, mixing tolerance index, and stability by farinogram were not significantly different (P>0.05) for across all treatments. The area under the curve (135 min) by extensogram was higher than all samples. The texture profile analysis results showed that there was significant decreasing in hardness for the maltogenic amylase infused bread (P<0.05). M-3 and M-4 showed higher springiness and cohesiveness but lower hardness than control over 1 to 3 days, indicating possibly extended shelf-life. Imaging scan showed that air cell size less than $0.4mm^2$ for the control and M-4 were at rates of 94.90% and 95.70%, respectively. For sensory evaluation, M-3 and M-4 showed higher intensities than the control for taste, flavor, texture, mouthfeel, and moistness quality. These results imply that the quality of white pan bread could be improved by adding maltogenic amylase without the use of chemical additives.

Quality Characteristics of Sponge Cake with Addition of Protease (단백질가수분해효소를 첨가한 스펀지케이크의 품질 특성)

  • Yoon, Seongjun;Cho, Namji;Moon, Sung-Won;Kim, Misook;Lee, Youngseung;Yoon, Ok Hyun;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.761-766
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the effect of protease on quality characteristics of sponge cake. Protease was used at levels of 0.0005 U (PC-1), 0.0010 U (PC-2), 0.0015 U (PC-3), and 0.0020 U (PC-4) for sponge cake preparation. Amylogram showed the setback was significantly decreased in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Height and baking loss rate of control sponge cake were $4.24{\pm}0.18cm$ and $12.01{\pm}0.29%$, respectively. PC-3 and PC-4 showed increased heights of $5.22{\pm}0.16$ and $5.24{\pm}0.11cm$ as well as slightly increased baking loss rates of $12.71{\pm}0.31%$ and $12.89{\pm}0.61%$, respectively. Specific volume and color difference measurements of control showed a specific volume of $3.53{\pm}0.06mL/g$, crust color difference of $53.05{\pm}0.28$, and crumb color difference of $29.84{\pm}0.52$. Measurements of specific volume, crust color, and crumb color of PC-3 and PC-4 were $4.18{\pm}0.02mL/g$, $56.19{\pm}0.84$, $29.05{\pm}0.43$, $4.21{\pm}0.02mL/g$, $56.85{\pm}0.43$, and $29.45{\pm}0.47$, respectively. Firmness measurements showed that the control had the highest firmness. PC-3 and PC-4 were effective at improving the shelf-life of sponge cake as indicated by reduced firmness. Sensory evaluation results demonstrated that all samples scored higher than the control. Throughout the results, the addition of protease increased volume and improved quality characteristics of sponge cake.

The Strategic Approach to FTA Governmental Negotiation Method between China (중국과의 FTA 협상방식을 위한 전략적 접근)

  • Na, Seung-Hwa
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2010
  • Since Korea establish diplomatic ties with China in 1992, korea and China have had rapid progress in most of field as politic, economy, society and culture through basing on cultural commonality and geographical adjacency. Especially, China is the biggest trading partner to korea, and also Korea is third-biggest trading country to China. They become strategic cooperating relation in 2008. Currently, in terms of international trade relation, WTO/DDA negotiation is proceeding in difficulty, but FTA has been growing and extending in the world, and the two country, china and korea, have been competitively trying wide and active FTA negotiation promotion. After Financial crisis in 1997, according to the requirement of local economic cooperation, China has shown the interest to several countries since the conclusion of FTA treaty with ASEAN in 2005. China also makes the active afford to conclude FTA with Korea. Last May 28th, this was mentioned in the meeting between president Lee and Premier Wen Jiabao, so it is anticipated that the negotiation for FTA will be started in the near future. There are many political suggestions and concerns in terms of way of negotiation korea would choose. Some economist said that "'Continuous FTA aimed at long-term protocol should be promoted between korea and China and negotiated includingly'" However, this research claims that commodity exchange, service, and investment areas should be included and it has to be comprehensive package settlement style in negotiation. This research has found out the characteristics of China's negotiation and implications through the China's existed FTA negotiation examples. Currently, China has taken Continuous or a phase-negotiation method to ASEAN, Pakistan, Chile and some other developing country and to advanced countries like New Zealand or Singapore, comprehensive package settlement method is used in FTA negotiation. In consider of the FTA negotiation between Korea and China, Korea has some problems in the commodity change area in agriculture maket's opening. While, for china, the issues would happen in service trade area, especially when encountering finance and communication industries are opened, China's economy could be exposed to some risk. In result, Korea should expand its negotiation range from commodity trade to service trade, in order to exchange both issues, then the negotiation will be concluded more easily. In other word, for FTA, korea should follow comprehensive package settlement way that is similar to New zealand and Singapore case. Through this kind of method, Korea can expect effect of creating trade, conversion of it and preoccupancy of service field in china's market against the advanced countries like Usa, Europe and Japan. Also, to have a successful FTA negotiation, korea should find out china's policy for FTA negotiation. With this information, korea will be able to suggest the way to make a profit. Systematic analysis and comparison about previous negotiation cases of china are needed before the negotiation begin.

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A Study of the Environmental Consciousness Influences on the Psychological Reaction of Forest Ecotourists (환경의식에 따른 산림생태관광객의 심리적 반응에 관한 연구)

  • Yan, Guang-Hao;Na, Seung-Hwa
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 2012
  • With the slowdown in environmental issues and the change of environmental consciousness, ecotourism is being discussed in various social fields. Ecotourism is being popularized for environmental protection, and now it is becoming a mainstream product from one of mass tourism. Ecotourism's emphasis on sustainable development in the tourism destination's society, economy, and environment, through ecotourism study and education, enable people to understand the core value of the ecological environment. 2011 was nominated as "the Year of World Forest" by the UN. In the recent years, forests are becoming increasingly important with their own values and functions in environment, economy, society, and culture. In particular, the global environmental issues caused by climate change are becoming an international agenda. Forests are the only effective solution for the carbon dioxide that causes global warming. Moreover, forests constitute a major part of ecotourism, and are now most used by ecotourists. For example, Korea, wherein 60% of the land is forest, attracts ecotourists. With the increasing interests in environment, the number of tourists visiting the ecosystem forest, which is highly valued for its conservation, is increasing significantly every year and is receiving considerable attention from the government. However, poor facilities in the forest ecotourism sites and improper market strategies are the reasons for the poor running of these sites. Furthermore, tourists' environmental awareness affects ecology environmental pollution or the optimization of forest ecotourism. In order to verify the relationships among tourist attractiveness, environmental consciousness, charm degrees of the attractions, and attitudes after tours, we established some scales based on existing research achievement. Then, using these scales, the researcher completed the questionnaire survey. From December 20, 2010 to February 20, 2011, after conducting surveys for 12 weeks, we finally obtained 582 valid questionnaires, from a total of 700 questionnaires, that could be used in statistical analysis. First, for the method of research and analysis, the researcher initially applied the Cronbach's (Alpha) for verifying the reliability, and subsequently applied the Exploratory factor analysis for verifying the validity. Second, in order to analyze the demographics, the researcher makes use of the Frequency analysis for the AMOS, measurement model, structural equation model computing, and also utilizes construct validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and nomological validity. Third, for the analysis of the ecotourists' environmental consciousness, impacts on tourist attractiveness, charm degrees of the attractions, and attitudes after the tour, the researcher uses AMOS 19, with the path analysis and equation of structure. After the research, researchers found that high awareness of natural protection lead to high tourist motivation and satisfaction and more positive attitude after the tour. Moreover, this research shows the psychological and behavioral reactions of the ecotourists to the ecotourist development. Accordingly, environmental consciousness does not affect the tourist attractiveness that has been interpreted as significant. Furthermore, people should focus on the change of natural protection consciousness and psychological reaction of ecotourists while ensuring the sustainable development of ecotourists and developing some ecotourist programs.

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Assessment of Nutrient Intakes of Lunch Meals for the Aged Customers at the Elderly Care Facilities Through Measuring Cooking Yield Factor and the Weighed Plate Waste (조리 중량 변화 계수 및 잔반계측법을 이용한 노인복지시설 이용자의 점심식사 영양섭취평가)

  • Chang, Hye-Ja;Yi, Na-Young;Kim, Tae-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.650-663
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    • 2009
  • The purposes of this study were to investigate one portion size of menus served and to evaluate nutrient intake of lunch at three elderly care facility food services located in Seoul. A weighed plate method was employed to measure plate wastes and consumption of the menus served. Yield factors were calculated from cooking experiments based on standardized recipes, and were used to evaluate nutrient intake. One hundred elderly participated in this study for measuring plate waste and were asked to complete questionnaire. Nutrient analyses for the served and consumed meal were performed using CAN program. The yield factors of rice dishes after cooking are 2.4 regardless of rice dish types, 1.58 for thick soups, 0.60 to 0.70 for meat dishes, and 1.0 to 1.25 branched vegetable. Average consumption quantity of dishes were 235.97 g for rice, 248.53 g for soup, 72.83 g for meat dishes, 39.80 g for vegetables and 28.36 g for Kimchi. On average the food waste rate is 14.0%, indicating the second highest plate waste percentage of Kimchi (26.2%), and meat/fish dish (17.3%). The evaluation results of NAR (Nutrition Adequacy Ratio) showed that iron (0.12), calcium (0.64), riboflavin (0.80), and folic acid (0.97) were less than 1.0 in both male and female elderly groups, indicating significant differences of NAR among three facilities. Compared to the 1/3 Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs) for the elderly groups, nutrient intake analysis demonstrated that calcium (100%) and iron (100%), followed by riboflavin, vitamin A, and Vitamin B6 did not met of the 1/3 EAR (Estimated Average Requirement). For the nutritious meal management, a professional dietitian should be placed at the elderly care center to develop standardized recipes in consideration of yield factors and the elderly's health and nutrition status.

Open Skies Policy : A Study on the Alliance Performance and International Competition of FFP (항공자유화정책상 상용고객우대제도의 제휴성과와 국제경쟁에 관한 연구)

  • Suh, Myung-Sun;Cho, Ju-Eun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.139-162
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    • 2010
  • In terms of the international air transport, the open skies policy implies freedom in the sky or opening the sky. In the normative respect, the open skies policy is a kind of open-door policy which gives various forms of traffic right to other countries, but on the other hand it is a policy of free competition in the international air transport. Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the United States has signed an open skies agreement with many countries, starting with the Netherlands, so that competitive large airlines can compete in the international air transport market where there exist a lot of business opportunities. South Korea now has an open skies agreement with more than 20 countries. The frequent flyer program (FFP) is part of a broad-based marketing alliance which has been used as an airfare strategy since the U.S. government's airline deregulation. The membership-based program is an incentive plan that provides mileage points to customers for using airline services and rewards customer loyalty in tangible forms based on their accumulated points. In its early stages, the frequent flyer program was focused on marketing efforts to attract customers, but now in the environment of intense competition among airlines, the program is used as an important strategic marketing tool for enhancing business performance. Therefore, airline companies agree that they need to identify customer needs in order to secure loyal customers more effectively. The outcomes from an airline's frequent flyer program can have a variety of effects on international competition. First, the airline can obtain a more dominant position in the air flight market by expanding its air route networks. Second, the availability of flight products for customers can be improved with an increase in flight frequency. Third, the airline can preferentially expand into new markets and thus gain advantages over its competitors. However, there are few empirical studies on the airline frequent flyer program. Accordingly, this study aims to explore the effects of the program on international competition, after reviewing the types of strategic alliance between airlines. Making strategic airline alliances is a worldwide trend resulting from the open skies policy. South Korea also needs to be making open skies agreements more realistic to promote the growth and competition of domestic airlines. The present study is about the performance of the airline frequent flyer program and international competition under the open skies policy. With a sample of five global alliance groups (Star, Oneworld, Wings, Qualiflyer and Skyteam), the study was attempted as an empirical study of the effects that the resource structures and levels of information technology held by airlines in each group have on the type of alliance, and one-way analysis of variance and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. The findings of this study suggest that both large airline companies and small/medium-size airlines in an alliance group with global networks and organizations are able to achieve high performance and secure international competitiveness. Airline passengers earn mileage points by using non-flight services through an alliance network with hotels, car-rental services, duty-free shops, travel agents and more and show high interests in and preferences for related service benefits. Therefore, Korean airline companies should develop more aggressive marketing programs based on multilateral alliances with other services including hotels, as well as with other airlines.

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