• Title, Summary, Keyword: homogeneous extension

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MR Imaging Findings of Uterine Cervical Adenocarcinoma (자궁경부 선암종의 자기공명영상 소견)

  • 김종철
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Because adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix have lower 5-year survival rate than squamous cell carcinomas due to early lymph node metastasis and local extension, scrutiny of lymph node metastasis and local extension by radiologic examination is necessary in case of clinically diagnosed or suspected adenocarcinomas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether there are specific findings of these tumors, compared with squamous cell carcinomas, through the analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. Materials and Methods : Of 21 pathologically proven cervical adenocarcinomas, MR imaging findings of 18 tumors (histologic staging : two Ib, four IIa, two IIb, one IIIa, and one IIIb) were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of 40 wquamous cell carcinoma in consecutive patients as a control group. T1-wetighted and fast spin echo T2-weighted images were obtained on the axial and sagittal planes, using a 1.5-T MR scanner. The largest diameter, location, signal intensity and degree of contrast enhancement contour, shape and longitudinal extent of the tumor and associated findings on MR image were analyzed. Results : The largest diameters of cervical adenocarcinomas ranged from 0.8 to 4.1 cm(mean, 2.2 cm). Of 18 adenocarcinomas, nine were of endocervical type. All adenocarcinomas were isointense to surrounding cervical stroma on T1-weighted images and hyperintense(homogeneous in ten, inhomogeneous in eight) on fast spin echo T2-weighted images. Adenocarcinomas enhanced on contrast study in all patients (homogeneous in six, inhomogeneous in 12 with hyperintese enhnacing rim in two). Eight adenocarcinomas had smooth contours and ten had irregular ones. The shape of adenocarcinoma was irregular in eight patients, barrel shape in six, papillary/polypod in three, and nodular in one. All adenocarcinomas involved lower half of the uterine cervix and six tumors extended up to the upper half. Pelvic lymph nodes of more than 1.5cm in diameter in two adenocarcinomas pateints and no detectable small pelvic lymph nodes on MR imaging in one patient were pathologically positive. Hydrometra was associated in two adenocarcinomas patients, and hematometra in one patient. Compared with squamous cell carcinomas, more frequent MR findings of endocervical type and barrel shape in cervical adenocarcinomas were statistically significant. Conclusion : Cervical adenocarcinomas had more frequent MR findings of endocervical type and barrel shape, compared with wquamous cell carcinomas. Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix may be suspected on MR imaging, when a cervical carcinoma is of barrel shape along the endocervical canal and tends to involve lymth nodes in earlier stages.

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High Strength Nanostructured Metastable Alloys

  • Eckert, Jurgen;Bartusch, Birgit;Schurack, Frank;He, Guo;Schultz, Ludwig
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.394-408
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    • 2002
  • Nanostructured high strength metastable Al-, Mg- and Ti-based alloys containing different amorphous, quasicrystalline and nanocrystalline phases are synthesized by non-equilibrium processing techniques. Such alloys can be prepared by quenching from the melt or by powder metallurgy techniques. This paper focuses on one hand on mechanically alloyed and ball milled powders containing different volume fractions of amorphous or nano-(quasi)crystalline phases, consolidated bulk specimens and, on the other hand. on cast specimens containing different constituent phases with different length-scale. As one example. $Mg_{55}Y_{15}Cu_{30}$- based metallic glass matrix composites are produced by mechanical alloying of elemental powder mixtures containing up to 30 vol.% $Y_2O_3$ particles. The comparison with the particle-free metallic glass reveals that the nanosized second phase oxide particles do not significantly affect the glass-forming ability upon mechanical alloying despite some limited particle dissolution. A supercooled liquid region with an extension of about 50 K can be maintained in the presence of the oxides. The distinct viscosity decrease in the supercooled liquid regime allows to consolidate the powders into bulk samples by uniaxial hot pressing. The $Y_2O_3$ additions increase the mechanical strength of the composites compared to the $Mg_{55}Y_{15}Cu_{30}$ metallic glass. The second example deals with Al-Mn-Ce and Al-Cu-Fe composites with quasicrystalline particles as reinforcements, which are prepared by quenching from the melt and by powder metallurgy. $Al_{98-x}Mn_xCe_2$ (x =5,6,7) melt-spun ribbons containing a major quasicrystalline phase coexisting with an Al-matrix on a nanometer scale are pulverized by ball milling. The powders are consolidated by hot extrusion. Grain growth during consolidation causes the formation of a micrometer-scale microstructure. Mechanical alloying of $Al_{63}Cu_{25}Fe_{12}$ leads to single-phase quasicrystalline powders. which are blended with different volume fractions of pure Al-powder and hot extruded forming $Al_{100-x}$$(Al_{0.63}Cu_{0.25}Fe_{0.12})_x$ (x = 40,50,60,80) micrometer-scale composites. Compression test data reveal a high yield strength of ${\sigma}_y{\geq}$700 MPa and a ductility of ${\varepsilon}_{pl}{\geq}$5% for than the Al-Mn-Ce bulk samples. The strength level of the Al-Cu-Fe alloys is ${\sigma}_y{\leq}$550 MPa significantly lower. By the addition of different amounts of aluminum, the mechanical properties can be tuned to a wide range. Finally, a bulk metallic glass-forming Ti-Cu-Ni-Sn alloy with in situ formed composite microstructure prepared by both centrifugal and injection casting presents more than 6% plastic strain under compressive stress at room temperature. The in situ formed composite contains dendritic hcp Ti solid solution precipitates and a few $Ti_3Sn,\;{\beta}$-(Cu, Sn) grains dispersed in a glassy matrix. The composite micro- structure can avoid the development of the highly localized shear bands typical for the room temperature defor-mation of monolithic glasses. Instead, widely developed shear bands with evident protuberance are observed. resulting in significant yielding and homogeneous plastic deformation over the entire sample.

Tectonic Link between NE China and Korean Peninsula, Revealed by Interpreting CHAMP Satellite Magnetic and GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

  • Choi, Sungchan;Oh, Chang-Whan;Luehr, Herrmann
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2006
  • The major continental blocks in NE-Asia are the North China Block and the South China Blo, which have collided, starting from the Korean peninsula. The suture zone in NE China between two blocks is well defined from the QinIing-Dabie-Orogenic Belt to the Jiaodong (Sulu) Belt by the geological and geophysical interpretation. The discovery of high pressure metamorphic rocks in the Hongsung area of the Korean peninsula can be used to estimate the suture zone. This indicates that the suture zone in the Jiaodong Belt might be extended to Hongsung area. However, due to the lack of geological and geophysical data over the Yellow sea, the extension of the suture zone to the Korean peninsula across the Yellow Sea is obscure. To find out the tectonic relationship between NE China and the Korean peninsula it is necessary to complete U-ie homogeneous geophysical dataset of NE Asia, which can be provided by satellite observations. The CHAMP lithospheric magnetic field (MF3) and CHAMP-GRACE gravity field, combined with surface measured data, allow a much more accurate in-ference of tectonic structures than previously available. The CHAMP magnetic anomaly map reveals significant magnetic lows in the Yellow Sea near Nanjing and Hongsung, where are characterized by gravity highs on U-ie CHAMP-GRACE gravity anomaly map. To evaluate the depth and location of poten-tial field anomaly causative bodies, the Euler Deconvolution method is implemented. After comparing the two potential field solutions with the simplified geological map containing tectonic lines and the distribution of earthquakes epicenters, it is found that the derived structure boundaries of both are well coincident with the seismic activities as well as with the tectonic lineaments. The interpretation of the CHAMP satellite magnetic and GRACE satellite gravity datasets reveal two tectonic boundaries in U-ie Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating U-ie norttiern and southern margins of the suture zone between the North China Block and the South China Block. The former is extended from the Jiaodong Belt in East China to the Imjingang Belt on the Korean peninsula, the later from Nanjing, East China, to Hongsung, the Korean peninsula. The tectonic movement in or near the suture zone might be responsible for the seismic activities in the western region of the Korean Peninsula and the development of the Yellow Sea sedimentary basin.

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Simple Mobility Management Protocol Based on P2P for Global IP Mobility Support (글로벌 IP 이동성 지원을 위한 P2P 기반 간단한 이동성 관리 프로토콜)

  • Chun, Seung-Man;Nah, Jae-Wook;Park, Jong-Tae
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.48 no.12
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2011
  • Most of the previous mobility management protocols such as IETF MIPv4/6 and its variants standardized by the IETF do not support global seamless handover because they require partially changes of the existing network infrastructure. In this article, we propose a simple mobility management protocol (SMMP) which can support global seamless handover between homogeneous or heterogeneous wireless networks. To do this, the SMMP employs separate location management function as DMMS to support global user and service mobility and the bidirectional tunnels are dynamically constructed to support seamless IP mobility by using the IEEE MIH extension server, which is extended the IEEE 802.21 MIH standards. The detailed architecture and functions of the SMMP have been designed. Finally, the mathematical analysis and the simulation have been done. The performance results show the proposed SMMP outperforms the existing MIPv6 and HMIPv6 in terms of handover latency, packet loss, pear signal noise ratio (PSNR).

Preparation of Coil-Embolic Material Using Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol) Gel Spun Fibers (교대배열 PVA 젤 섬유를 이용한 고분자 색전 코일 제조)

  • Seo, Young Ho;Oh, Tae Hwan;Han, Sung Soo;Joo, Sang Woo;Khil, Myeong Seob
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.486-493
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    • 2013
  • The structure, morphology, and physical properties of syndiotatic poly(vinyl alcohol) (s-PVA) gel spun fibers were investigated to prepare polymeric embolization coils. S-PVA was prepared by saponification of the poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl pivalate)(PVAc/PVPi) copolymer. The viscosity of s-PVA solutions showed shear thinning behavior and the solution formed a homogeneous phase. Based on shear viscosity change with concentration, the optimum dope concentration was selected as 13 wt%, after which s-PVA fibers were spun and the solvent was removed. The fibers were then drawn with a maximum draw ratio of 15. A polymeric embolization coil was made of the s-PVA gel-spun fibers. The fibers were wound densely onto rigid rod and then annealed at different annealing temperatures. The polymeric embolization coil annealed at $200^{\circ}C$ was similar to metallic coils and its shape was maintained well after extension. Overall, gel-spun PVA fibers performed well for the preparation of primary and secondary coils to replace metallic coils.