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Effects of Aqueous Azadirachta indica Extract on Hepatotoxicity in Rats (수용성 님추출물이 랫드의 간 독성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Kyung-Hun;Yoon, Hyunjoo;Han, Beom Seok;Lee, Je-Bong;Jeong, Mi Hye;Cho, Namjun;Om, Ae Son;Paik, Min-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica Extract(AIE) containing azadirachtin as active ingredient have been used worldwide as environment-friendly organic material having pest control properties. However, the extracts prepared with different solvent and from different plant site is very diverse and have different toxicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the four week repeated oral dose toxicity test of aqueous AIE in Sprague-Dawley rats was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of liver, main toxicity target organ of AIE. The male and female rats were divided into 4 groups, respectively; control(0 g/Kg bw), low-dose group(0.5 g/Kg bw), middle-dose(1.0 g/Kg bw) and high-dose group(2.0 g/Kg bw). As a results, relative liver weight increased with dose-dependent of AIE(p<0.05). Serum LDH in all AIE-treated groups were significantly lower than the control in male rats(p<0.05). However, serum GOT and GPT were significantly increased in all male AIE-treated groups in male rats(p<0.05) and, in particular, increase of serum GPT in dose-dependent manner raise the possibility of liver damage. Even through serum GLU was increased significantly in high-dose group in male rats compared to control, there were no significant differences of urinary GLU among all groups(p<0.05). In addition, histopathological examination of the liver did not reveal any lesions in all AIE-treated groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 4 weeks of the repeated oral administration of AIE 2.0 g/Kg to rats has resulted no toxic response in liver. Therefore, AIE was no indicated to have any toxic effect in the SD rats, when it was orally administrated below the dosage 2.0 g/Kg/day for 4weeks.

Study of Kidney Toxicity of Azadirachta Indica Extract for Oral Administration in Rats (님추출물의 경구투여에 따른 랫드의 신장독성 연구)

  • Yoon, Hyunjoo;Choe, Miseon;Cho, Hyeon-Jo;Han, Beom Seok;Park, Kyung-Hun;Oh, Jin-Ah;Cho, Namjun;Paik, Min-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica has been widely used as environment-friendly organic materials because of its insecticidal properties. This study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity and the subacute toxicity of Azadirachta indica extract(AIE) in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the oral acute toxicity test, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with 2.0 g/Kg bw of AIE. The $LD_{50}$ value was greater than 2.0 g/Kg bw for both male and female rats. For the subacute toxicity study, rats were treated with AIE at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/Kg bw once a day for 4 weeks(n=10 animals per each group). There were no significant changes in body weight, food intake and water consumption observed during the experimental duration. In addition, no difference of relative kidney weight was observed among all treated groups. Serum creatinine level in the AIE 2.0 g/Kg group increased significantly compared with that of control group in male rats, but serum blood urea nitrogen was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Significant increase of serum cholesterol levels were observed in all AIE groups, compared with the control group, in the female rats (p<0.05). However, histopathological examination of the kidney did not reveal any significant lesions in all groups. CONCLUSION: On the basis of results, it could be concluded that oral administration AIE didn't cause any toxic response in kidney, except the increased serum cholesterol.

Effect of Endoscopic Forceps on the Quality of Duodenal Mucosal Biopsy in Healthy Cats (고양이 십이지장 점막 생검 시 내시경 생검 겸자가 조직의 질에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Won, Jin-Hee;Hong, Il-Hwa;Jang, Hyo-Mi;Eom, Na-Young;Jee, Cho-Hee;Jung, Hae-Won;Kang, Byeong-Teck;Jeong, Dong Wook;Jung, Dong-In
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2015
  • Based on the results of previous studies, endoscopic biopsy sample's quality has a major impact on its adequacy for histopathology, and that the nature of the biopsy forceps can influence the specimen quality. The present study compared the effects of three different types of endoscopic biopsy forceps and two different operators on sample quality and adequacy for histopathology in three healthy cats. Every biopsy was performed between the major papilla and caudal duodenal flexure, and each operator performed five biopsies with each type of forceps on each cat, for a total of 90 biopsies. One pathologist evaluated the quality and adequacy of the obtained samples. Biopsies performed with large-cup forceps provided heavier and longer samples than the standard round forceps. With the same size forceps, the presence of alligator teeth had no effect on sample quality or adequacy for histopathological examination and assessment. Based on the results of the present study, although the standard round forceps could be used to obtain adequate samples for histopathology, large-cup forceps such as the standard oval and alligator jaw type have the advantage of obtaining high quality endoscopic samples.

Study on the Usefulness of Ultrasonography for Postpartum Depression and Thyroid Disease (출산 후 우울증과 갑상선질환에 대한 초음파검사의 유용성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Yi;Lim, Cheong-Hwan;Jung, Hong-Ryang;Park, Mi-Ja;You, In-Gyu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.237-248
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    • 2012
  • Postpartum depression(PPD) of women with depression increased frequency of thyroid disease, and so the correlations for depression and thyroid disease has been the subject of discussed whether. The purpose of this study was to predict the prevalence of PPD and the correlation between PPD and thyroid disease through ultrasonography. January 2010 to November 2011, Obstetrics & Gynecology in M-clinical center admitted 230 patients within 1 year postpartum were enrolled. EPDS by PPD scale depression screening and general characteristics of subjects were investigated and thyroid was examined that ultrasonography and thyroid blood tests. A total of 230 patients non PPD group were 53.0% and PPD group were 47.0%. In ultrasonography, among 27 patients who changed in size of thyroid, non PPD group were 14.8% and PPD group were 85.2%. Among 124 patients who thyroid nodules were presence, non PPD were 35.8% and PPD group were 64.2%. In ultrasonography, PPD group were higher incidence than non PPD group were changes in size of thyroid and the presence of nodules. There was significant difference between the changed in size of thyroid and thyroid nodules were presence the two group. Definitive histopathological diagnosis was benign in 33 patients (non PPD group were 45.5%, PPD group were 54.5%), malignancy in 5 patients (only PPD group were 100%), thyroiditis in 3 patients (non PPD group were 33.3%, PPD group were 66.7%). The results of thyroid blood tests, abnormal TSH level were 7 patients (non PPD group were 28.6%, PPD group were 71.4%) and abnormal Free T4 level were 9 patients (non PPD group were 44.4%, PPD group were 55.6%). There was no significant difference between the abnormal TSH level and Free T4 level of the two group. 5 patients were diagnosed as thyroid dysfunction. Of these, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism in non PPD group, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroidism and 1 patient was subclinical hyperthyroidism in PPD group. This study was significant the correlation between PPD and thyroid gland disease through ultrasonography. And the objective results of this study might be able to provide guideline that understanding, prevention and treatment for PPD and thyroid disease.

Development and Research on a Functional Hydrolyzed Whey Protein Powder Product with Sialic Acid as a Marker Compound - II. Repeated 90-day Oral Administration Toxicity Test using Rats Administered Whey Protein Powder containing Highly Concentrated Sialic Acid (23%) produced by Enzyme Separation and Solvent Enrichment Method - (Sialic Acid를 지표성분으로 하는 유청가수분해단백분말의 기능성식품 개발연구 - II. 효소분리 용매정제로 고농도 Sialic Acid가 함유된 유청가수분해단백분말(23%)의 랫드를 이용한 90일 반복경구투여 독성시험 평가 연구 -)

  • Noh, Hye-Ji;Cho, Hyang-Hyun;Kim, Hee-Kyong;Koh, Hong-Bum
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.117-135
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    • 2016
  • The present study was performed to develop a functional raw food material from hydrolyzed whey protein powder (23%-GNANA) medication containing sialic acid as a marker compound that is naturally occurring at 7% concentration in GMP (glycomacropeptide). GMP is used worldwide in foodstuffs for babies and infants and is obtained from the milk protein as safe food. While the purpose of our detailed evaluation was aimed to assess preliminary NOAEL values for and above 2,000 mg/kg/day, a clinical dose allowance for 23%-GNANA (as per characteristic of a functional health product, a highly refined test substance of 23% (v/v) sialic acid combined in GMP), at the same time we also wanted to assess the safety of GMP hydrolyzate lacking sialic acid but with identical properties as GMP. Animal safety evaluation was conducted using 23%-GNANA as the test substance, produced from hydrolyzed whey protein powder (product name: HELICOBACTROL-23; provided by Medinutrol Inc. [Korea]; composed of 23% sialic acid and GMP protein) after isolating the sialic acid using enzymes approved as food additives, with GMP as a raw material, and subsequently increasing the content of xx up to 23% through 80% (v/v) ethanol soaking and concentrating, in accordance with GLP Guideline. The animal safety evaluation mentioned above was made on the basis of toxicity in SPF Sprague-Dawley female and male rats dosed with 10 mL of the test substance diluted to 0, 1,250, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg directly into their stomachs for 90 d. This was determined in terms of the general symptoms and animal viability, weight and amount of feed intake, eye examination, uracrasia tests, hematological and blood biochemical disorder tests, blood coagulation test, abnormal intestine weight, abnormalities during postmortem and histopathological examinations. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Based on the toxicity determination, a certain minor effect associated with the test substance was observed in male rats with no major effects of the tested substance, in comparison with the control group dosed with sterilized water. Nevertheless, the NOAEL value, evaluated as per toxicity criteria, was verified as 5,000 mg/kg/day (P<0.05). Similarly, for female rats, a certain minor effect associated with the test substance was observed in 5,000 mg/kg/day dosed group, with no major effect, yet the NOAEL value (as assessed as per toxicity criteria) was determined to be 5,000 mg/kg/day (P<0.05), which was the same as for male rats. Accordingly, the NOAEL values of the test substances for all female and male rats were finally verified as 5,000 mg/kg/day (P<0.05). In conclusion, it was determined that the 23%-GNANA test substance exceeds 2,000 mg/kg/day, the clinical allowance characteristic for functional health food, and was finally evaluated to cause no safety concerns when used as a raw material in functional health food production, which was the ultimate goal of the present study.

Hepatoprotective Effects of Semisulcospira libertine Hydrolysate on Alcohol-induced Fatty Liver in Mice (알코올성 지방간 유발 마우스에서 다슬기 유래 가수분해물의 간 보호 효과)

  • Song, Eun Jin;Cho, Kyoung Hwan;Choo, Ho Jin;Yang, Eun Young;Jung, Yoon Kyoung;Seo, Min Gyun;Kim, Jong Cheol;Kang, Eun Ju;Ryu, Gi Hyung;Park, Beom Yong;Hah, Young-Sool
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.318-325
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    • 2017
  • Alcoholic steatosis is a fundamental metabolic disorder and may precede the onset of more severe forms of alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we isolated enzymatichydrolysate from Semisulcospira libertine by alcalase hydrolysis and investigated the protective effect of Semisulcospira libertine hydrolysate on liver injury induced by alcohol in the mouse model of chronic and binge ethanol feeding (NIAAA). In an in vitro study, the hydrolysate protects HepG2 cells from ethanol toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by histopathological examination, as well as by quantitating activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). After the administration of S. libertina hydrolysate, fat accumulation and infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver tissues were significantly decreased in the NIAAA mouse model. The elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities, along with the lipid contents of a damaged liver, were recovered in experimental mice administrated with S. libertina hydrolysate, suggesting its role in blood enzyme activation and lipid content restoration within damaged liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with S. libertine hydrolysate reduced the expression rate of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, and IL-6, which accelerate inflammation and induces tissue damage. All data showed that S. libertine hydrolysate has a preventive role against alcohol-induced liver damages by improving the activities of blood enzymes and modulating the expression of inflammation factor, suggesting S. libertine hydrolysate could be a commercially potential material for the restoration of hepatotoxicity.

The Clinical Features of Endobronchial Tuberculosis - A Retrospective Study on 201 Patients for 6 years (기관지결핵의 임상상-201예에 대한 후향적 고찰)

  • Lee, Jae Young;Kim, Chung Mi;Moon, Doo Seop;Lee, Chang Wha;Lee, Kyung Sang;Yang, Suck Chul;Yoon, Ho Joo;Shin, Dong Ho;Park, Sung Soo;Lee, Jung Hee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.671-682
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    • 1996
  • Background : Endobronchial tuberculosis is definded as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbiological and histopathological evidence. Endobronchial tuberculosis has clinical significance due to its sequela of cicatrical stenosis which causes atelectasis, dyspnea and secondary pneumonia and may mimic bronchial asthma and pulmanary malignancy. Method : The authors carried out, retrospectively, a clinical study on 201 patients confirmed with endobronchial tuberculosis who visited the Department of Pulmonary Medicine at Hangyang University Hospital from January 1990 10 April 1996. The following results were obtained. Results: 1) Total 201 parients(l9.5%) were confirmed as endobronchial tuberculosis among 1031 patients who had been undergone flexible bronchofiberscopic examination. The number of male patients were 55 and that of female patients were 146. and the male to female ratio was 1 : 2.7. 2) The age distribution were as follows: there were 61(30.3%) cases in the third decade, 40 cases(19.9%) in the fourth decade, 27 cases(13.4%) in the sixth decade, 21 cases(10.4%) in the fifth decade, 19 cases(9.5%) in the age group between 15 and 19 years, 19 cases(9.5%) in the seventh decade, and 14 cases(7.0%) over 70 years, in decreasing order. 3) The most common symptom, in 192 cases, was cough 74.5%, followed by sputum 55.2%, dyspnea 28.6%, chest discomfort 19.8%, fever 17.2%, hemoptysis 11.5%, in decreasing order, and localized wheezing was heard in 15.6%. 4) In chest X-ray of 189 cases, consolidation was the most frequent finding in 67.7%, followed by collapse 43.9%. cavitary lesion 11.6%, pleural effusion 7.4%, in decreasing order, and there was no abnormal findings in 3.2%. 5) In the 76 pulmanary function tests, a normal pattern was found in 44.7%, restrictive pattern in 39.5 %, obstructive pattern in 11.8%, and combined pattern in 3.9%. 6) Among total 201 patients, bronchoscopy showed caseous pseudomembrane in 70 cases(34.8%), mucosal erythema and edema in 54 cases(26.9%), hyperplastic lesion in 52 cases(25.9%), fibrous s.enosis in 22 cases(10.9%), and erosion or ulcer in 3 cases(1.5%). 7) In total 201 cases, bronchial washing AFB stain was positive in 103 cases(51.2%), bronchial washing culture for tuberculous bacilli in 55 cases(27.4%). In the 99 bronchoscopic biopsies, AFB slain positive in 36.4%. granuloma without AFB stain positive in 13.1%, chronic inflammation only in 36.4%. and non diagnostic biopsy finding in 14.1%. Conclusions : Young female patients, whose cough resistant to genenal antitussive agents, should be evaluated for endobronchial tuberculosis, even with clear chest roentgenogram and negative sputum AFB stain. Furthermore, we would like to emphasize that the bronchoscopic approach is a substantially useful means of making a differential diagnosis of atelectasis in older patients of cancer age. At this time we have to make a standard endoscopic classification of endobronchial tuberculosis, and well designed prospective studies are required to elucidate the effect of combination therapy using antituberculous chemotherapy with steroids on bronchial stenosis in patients with endobronchial tuberculosis.

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Multiplication of Infectious Flacherie and Densonucleosis Viruses in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori (가잠의 전염성 연화병 및 농핵병 바이러스 증식에 관한 연구)

  • 김근영;강석권
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1984
  • Flacherie, as one of the most prevalent silkworm diseases, causes severe economic damage to sericultural industry and its pathogens have been proved to be flacherie virus (FV) and densonucleosis virus (DNV). Multiplications of the viruses in the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, were studied by the sucrose density gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy. The quantitative and qualitative changes of nucleic acids and proteins were investigated from the midgut and hemolymph in the silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV. The histopathological changes of epithelial cells of infected midgut also were examined by an electron microscope. 1. Purified fractions of FV or DNV in a sucrose density gradient centrifugation yielded one homogenous and sharp peak without a shoulder, suggesting no heterogenous materials in the preparation. Electron microscopy also revealed that FV and DNV were spherical particles, 27nm and 21nm in diameter, respectively. 2. Silkworm larvae showed a decrease in body weight on the 6th day and in midgut weight on the 3rd day after inoculation with FV or DNV. 3. DNA content was higher in the midgut when infected with FV or DNV, but the hemolymph of the infected larvae showed no difference during first 6 days after inoculation, after which DNA concentration declined rapidly. 4. RNA synthesis of silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV was stimulated in the midgut, but RNA content was reduced in the hemolymph at the early stage of virus multiplication. At the late stage of virus multiplication, however, it was extremely reduced in both midgut and hemolymph. 5. The concentration of protein in the midgut and hemolymph of silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV showed no difference from that of the healthy larvae at the early stage of virus multiplication, but it was significantly reduced at the late stage of virus multiplication. 6. There was no difference in the electrophoretic patterns of RNAs extracted from the midgut of healthy or virus-infected larvae. 7. The electrophoresis of proteins extracted from the midgut infected with FV or DNV, when carried out on the 1st and 5th day after virus inoculation, showed no difference from that of the healthy larvae. But, there was an additional band with medium motility in the proteins on the 8th day after virus inoculation, while a band with low mobility shown in the proteins of healthy larvae disappeared in the infected larvae. However, a band with high mobility in the healthy larvae was separated into two fractions in the infected larvae. 8. The electrophoretic pattern of hemolymph proteins of the silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV was similar to that of the healthy larvae, but the concentration of hemolymph proteins in the infected larvae was lower than that of the healthy larvae at the late stage. 9. Two types of inclusion bodies were shown by the double staining of pyronin-methyl green in the columnar cell of the midgut on the 8th day after FV inoculation. 10. Electron microscopy of the infected midgut revealed that the 'cytoplasmic wall' of the goblet cell thickened on the 5th day after FV inoculation and several types of the cytopathogenic structures, such as virus$.$specific vesicles, virus particles, linear structures, tubular structures, and high electron-dense matrices were observed in the cytoplasm of the goblet cell. The virus particles were also observed in the microvilli and the structures similar to spherical virus particles were observed around the virus-specific vesicles, suggesting the virus assembly in the cytoplasm. 11. Fluorescence micrograph of the infected midgut stained with acridine orange showed that the nucleus, the site of DNV multiplication in the columnar cell, enlarged on the 5th day after virus inoculation. 12. Electron microscopic examination of DNV infected midgut revealed that the nucleolus of the columnar cell was broken into granules and those granules dispersed into apical region of the nucleus on the 5th day after virus inoculation. On the 8th day after inoculation, it was also observed that the nucleus of the columnar cell was full with the high electron-dense virogenic stroma which were similar to virus particles. These facts suggest that the virogenic stroma were the sites of virus assembly in the process of DNV multiplication.

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Studies on the Repeated Toxicity Test of Food Red No.2 for 4 Weeks Oral Administration in SD Rat (SD랫드에서 식용색소 적색2호의 4주간 경구투여에 따른 반복독성시험에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Jin-Gon;Jung, Ji-Youn
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the toxicity of food Red No.2 in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rat for 4 weeks. SD rats were orally administered for 28 days, with dosage of 500, 1,000, 2,000 mg/kg/day. Animals treated with food Red No.2 did not cause any death and show any clinical signs. They did not show any significant changes of body weight, feed uptake and water consumption. There were not significantly different from the control group in urinalysis, hematological, serum biochemical value and histopathological examination. In conclusion, 4 weeks of the repetitive oral medication of food Red No.2 has resulted no alteration of toxicity according to the test materials in the group of female rats with injection of 2,000 mg/kg. Therefore, food Red No.2 was not indicated to have any toxic effect in the SD rats, when it was orally administered below the dosage 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks.