• Title, Summary, Keyword: histology

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Expression of Thymosin β4 in Ameloblasts during Mouse Tooth Development

  • Choi, Baik-Dong;Lee, Seung-Yeon;Nho, Tae-Hee;Jeong, Soon-Jeong;Lim, Do-Seon;Bae, Chun-Sik;Jeong, Moon-Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 2016
  • Thymosin ${\beta}4$ ($T{\beta}4$) has been recently reported to play a role in dentinogenesis by regulating the expression of dentin matrix proteins. Based on previous studies, it is hypothesized that $T{\beta}4$ is associated with the formation of the enamel matrix and thus plays an important role in ameloblast. However, there is no report on the function of $T{\beta}4$ during tooth development so far. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of $T{\beta}4$ and its function in ameloblasts during mouse tooth development. $T{\beta}4$ was expressed strongly in the tooth bud at the bud stage and in the dental lamina and oral epithelium at the cap stage. In advanced bell stage at postnatal day 4, large elongated ameloblasts were observed and the expression of the $T{\beta}4$ protein was the highest, with the enamel being was thicker than that in the early bell stage. The length of ameloblasts increased from the presecretory to the secretory stage and decreased from the maturation to the protective stage. These results suggest that $T{\beta}4$ participates not only in the proliferation of oral epithelial cells during the early stage of tooth development but also regulates enamel protein secretion in ameloblasts and enamel mineralization.

The Effects of Cyclophosphamide on Apoptosis in Murine Lymphoma

  • Yang, Je-Hoon;Bae, Hyung-Joon;Seo, Deuk-Rok;Koh, Phil-Ok;Kwak, Soo-Dong
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.205-210
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    • 2001
  • Whereas apoptosis is a critical mode of cell deletion in normal organism development, apoptotic cells are also observed in tumor therapy. We therefore investigated the expression of apoptotic cells induced as a function of time and dose in murine A-20 lymphoma treated with cyclophosphamide in vivo, by H&E and TUNEL method. The percent of apoptotic cells were scored from tumor section using TUNEL method. The expression of apoptotic positive cell was determined over a 10-day period following treatment of the mice with 200 mg/kg. Apoptosis increased further with time, reaching a peak value between 12~24 hr (scored 6.7$\pm$1.0%~6.1$\pm$0.7%), and then slowly declined to background levels by 10 days after treatment. The dependence of induction of apoptosis on the dose of cyctophosphamide was determined by treatment with 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg at 12 hr after treatment. Apoptosis was dose dependent in that as the dose was increased the percentage of apoptosis increased. However, the increase in apoptosis at the lower dose used (50 mg/kg) was higher on a per unit dose basis than that at the higher dose used (200 mg/kg). This result show that the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide strongly induces apoptosis in murine lymphoma.

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Functional Anatomy and Histology of the Olfactory Organ in Korean Eel Goby, Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Pisces: Gobiidae)

  • Kim, Hyun Tae;Lee, Yong Joo;Park, Jong Young
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2018
  • For Odontamblyopus lacepedii with small and turbid eyes, the gross structure and histology of the olfactory organ, which is important for its survival and protection of the receptor neuron in estuarial environment and its ecological habit, was investigated using a stereo, light and scanning electron microscopes. Externally, the paired olfactory organs with two nostrils are located identically on each side of the snout. These nostrils are positioned at the anterior tip of the upper lip (anterior nostril) and just below eyes covered with the epidermis (posterior nostril). Internally, this is built of an elongated olfactory chamber and two accessory nasal sacs. In histology, the olfactory chamber is elliptical in shape, and lined by the sensory epithelium and the non-sensory epithelium. The sensory epithelium of a pseudostratified layer consists of olfactory receptor neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and lymphatic cells. The non-sensory epithelium of a stratified layer has swollen stratified epithelial cells and mucous cells with acidic and neutral sulfomucin. From these results, we confirmed the olfactory organ of O. lacepedii is adapted to its ecological habit as well as its habitat with burrows at the muddy field with standing and murky waters.

An Electron Microscopic Study on the Effect of Calcium-free Reperfusion in Isolated Perfused Guinea Pig Heart after Global Ischemia (허혈후 칼슘 결핍 용액의 재관류가 적출 관류 기니픽 심근 세포에 미치는 영향에 관한 전자현미경적 관찰)

  • Oh, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Ho-Dirk;Rah, Bong-Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.65-76
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    • 1990
  • The effect of calcium-free reperfusion for 5, 10, and 15 minutes, respectively, followed by continuous reperfusion with normal Tyrode solution containing 1.0mM calcium chloride, after global ischemia in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart by Langendorff techniques was examined with transmission electron microscope. Compared to the nomal Tyrode solution-perfused control hearts, the 5 minute calcium-free-reperfused hearts showed loss or thickening of Z lines, focal sarcolemmal disruption, mitochondrial swelling, clumping of chroma-tin, intracellular fluid accumulation, and some separation of cell junctions, especially the fasciae adherentes. These changes became more severe in the hearts of 10 minute calcium-free reperfusion. Subsarcolemmal larger bleb and near complete separation of cell junctions were noticed. In the 15 minute calcium-free-reperfused hearts, irreversible ultrastructural changes including contraction bands, biazrre mitochondria, and sarcolemmal destruction were widely distributed. The severity of myocardial changes were in accordance with the duration of calcium-free reperfusion. These changes indicate that calcium-free reperfusion regardless of its duration could not salvage the post-ischemic myocardium probably due to development of calcium paradox.

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Preparation of Reproducible and Responsive Scar Model and Histology Analysis

  • Kim, Sang-Cheol;ChoLee, Ae-Ri
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2010
  • Unlike human, with some exceptions, animals do not heal with excessive scar. The lack of suitable animal model has hindered the development of effective scar therapy. We previously reported that partial thickness rabbit ear wound model resembles human wound heal process. This study was designed to prepare a hypertropic scar wound model which can be employed for testing anti-scar therapy. Four wounds were created down to the bare cartilage on the anterior side of each rabbit ear using 8-mm dermal biopsy punch and histology analysis at post operation day (POD) 5, 28 and 48 were performed. As the outcome of scar formation is largely determined by the early inflammatory response to the wounding and the degree and the duration of occlusion, cephalodin(50 mg/kg) was injected daily and medical occlusive dressings were applied. Five micro wound and scar sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for quantification of epidermal regeneration and scar hypertrophy. Sections were also stained using Masson's trichrome and Sirius red to evaluate collagen organization and rete ridge formation. Wound closure process was assessed to 7wks post wounding. Complete removal of the epidermis, dermis and perichondrial layer caused delayed epithelialization, which results in hypertropic scarring. The inability of the wounds to contract and the delay in epithelialization in rabbit ear was likely due to cartilage and it created scar elevation. The results suggest that full thickness surgical punch wound model in rabbit ear could be employed as a reliable and reproducible scar wound model for testing anti-scar therapy.

Prognostic Factors in First-Line Chemotherapy Treated Metastatic Gastric Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Study

  • Inal, Ali;Kaplan, M. Ali;Kucukoner, Mehmet;Urakci, Zuhat;Guven, Mehmet;Nas, Necip;Yunce, Muharrem;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3869-3872
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    • 2012
  • Background: The majority of patients with gastric cancer in developing countries present with advanced disease. Systemic chemotherapy therefore has limited impact on overall survival. Patients eligible for chemotherapy should be selected carefully. The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors for survival in advanced gastric cancer patients undergoing first-line palliative chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 107 locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer patients who were treated with docetaxel and cisplatin plus fluorouracil (DCF) as first-line treatment between June 2007 and August 2011. Twenty-eight potential prognostic variables were chosen for univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Among the 28 variables of univariate analysis, nine variables were identified to have prognostic significance: performance status, histology, location of primary tumor, lung metastasis, peritoneum metastasis, ascites, hemoglobin, albumin, weight loss and bone metastasis. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazard model, including nine prognostic significance factors evident in univariate analysis, revealed weight loss, histology, peritoneum metastasis, ascites and serum hemoglobin level to be independent variables. Conclusion: Performance status, weight loss, histology, peritoneum metastasis, ascites and serum hemoglobin level were identified as important prognostic factors in advanced gastric cancer patients. These findings may facilitate pretreatment prediction of survival and can be used for selecting patients for treatment.

Effect of TGF-${\beta}1$ on Osteoclast Differentiation

  • Park, Su-Jin;Ko, Jea-Seung;Kim, Hyun-Man
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2005
  • Although it has been known that TGF-${\beta}1$ acts as a crucial cofactor in osteoclast differentiation, its mode of action is still unclear. In the present study, we studied the effect of TGF-${\beta}1$ on the differentiation of osteoclast depending on the developmental stages. Murine bone marrow cells were induced to differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). In the early stage of the differentiation TRAP(-) mononuclear precursor cells were obtained from nonadherent M-CSF dependent bone marrow cells, which further differentiated into mature osteoclasts. TGF-${\beta}1$ stimulated osteoclast differentiation, which was stronger when cells were stimulated by TGF-${\beta}1$ in the early stage than the later differentiation. TGF-${\beta}1$ increased the expression of RANK and synergistically stimulated RANKL-induced activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ MAP kinase in TRAP(-) mononuclear precursor cells. These results suggest that activation of osteoclast differentiation by TGF-${\beta}1$ may be ascribed to the both increased expression and activation of RANK in the osteoclast differentiation, especially in the early stage of differentiation.

Bacterial Population in Intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Probiotics or Probiotic SupernatantS

  • Sha, Yujie;Liu, Mei;Wang, Baojie;Jiang, Keyong;Qi, Cancan;Wang, Lei
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1736-1745
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    • 2016
  • The interactions of microbiota in the gut play an important role in promoting or maintaining the health of hosts. In this study, in order to investigate and compare the effects of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (HC-2), Enterococcus faecium NRW-2, or the bacteria-free supernatant of a HC-2 culture on the bacterial composition of Litopenaeus vannamei, Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that unique species exclusively existed in specific dietary groups, and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the intestinal bacterial community of shrimp fed with the bacteria-free supernatant of an HC-2 culture compared with the control. In addition, the histology of intestines of the shrimp from the four dietary groups was also described, but no obvious improvements in the intestinal histology were observed. The findings in this work will help to promote the understanding of the roles of intestinal bacteria in shrimps when fed with probiotics or probiotic supernatant.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer

  • Su, Min;Huang, Chun-Xia;Dai, Ai-Ping
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.905-910
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is one of the major threats to female health, and its incidence is rapidly increasing in many countries. Currently, breast cancer is treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both. However, a substantial proportion of breast cancer patients might have a risk for local relapse that leads to recurrence of their disease and/or metastatic breast cancer. Therefore searching for new and potential strategies for breast cancer treatment remains necessary. Immunotherapy is an attractive and promising approach that can exploit the ability of the immune system to identify and destroy tumors and thus prevent recurrence and metastatic lesions. The most promising and attractive approach of immunotherapeutic research in cancer is the blockade of immune checkpoints. In this review, we discuss the potential of certain inhibitors of immune checkpoints, such as antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), in breast cancer therapeutics. Immune checkpoint inhibitors may represent future standards of care for breast cancer as monotherapy or combined with standard therapies.

Clinicopathological Significance of DLC-1 Expression in Cancer: a Meta-Analysis

  • Jiang, Yan;Li, Jian-Ming;Luo, Huai-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7255-7260
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    • 2015
  • Background: Recent reports have shown that DLC-1 is widely expressed in normal tissues and is down-regulated in a wide range of human tumors, suggesting it may act as a tumor suppressor gene. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the correlation between DLC-1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in cancers. Materials and Methods: A detailed literature search was made for relevant publications from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases, Web of Science, CNKI. The methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. Analyses of pooled data were performed and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and summarized. Results: Final analysis was performed of 1,815 cancer patients from 19 eligible studies. We observed that DLC- 1 expression was significantly lower in cancers than in normal tissues. DLC-1 expression was not found to be associated with tumor differentiation status. However, DLC-1 expression was obviously lower in advance stage than in early-stage cancers and was more down-regulated in metastatic than non-metastatic cancers. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggested that DLC-1 expression is significantly lower in cancers than in normal tissues. Aberrant DLC-1 expression may play an important role in cancer genesis and metastasis.