• Title, Summary, Keyword: histology

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Polarization-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Pleural Reaction Caused by Talc in an ex vivo Rabbit Model (생체 외 토끼 모델에서의 탈크에 의해 유발되는 흉막 반응의 편광 민감 광 결맞음 단층촬영 이미징)

  • Park, Jung-Eun;Xin, Zhou;Oak, Chulho;Kim, Sungwon;Lee, Haeyoung;Park, Eun-Kee;Jung, Minjung;Kwon, Daa Young;Tang, Shuo;Ahn, Yeh-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2020
  • The chest wall, an organ directly affected by environmental particles through respiration, consists of ribs, a pleural layer and intercostal muscles. To diagnose early and treat disease in this body part, it is important to visualize the details of the chest wall, but the structure of the pleural layer cannot be seen by chest computed tomography or ultrasound. On the other hand, optical coherence tomography (OCT), with a high spatial resolution, is suited to observe pleural-layer response to talc, one of the fine materials. However, intensity-based OCT is weak in providing information to distinguish the detailed structure of the chest wall, and cannot distinguish the reaction of the pleural layer from the change in the muscle by the talc. Polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) takes advantage of the fact that specific tissues like muscle, which have optical birefringence, change the backscattered light's polarization state. Moreover, the birefringence of muscle associated with the arrangement of myofilaments indicates the muscle's condition, by measuring retardation change. The PS-OCT image is interpreted from three major perspectives for talc-exposure chest-wall imaging: a thickened pleural layer, a separation between pleural layer and muscle, and a phase-retardation measurement around lesions. In this paper, a rabbit chest wall after talc pleurodesis is investigated by PS-OCT. The PS-OCT images visualize the pleural layer and muscle, respectively, and this system shows different birefringence of normal and damaged lesions. Also, an analyisis based on phase-retardation slope supports results from the PS-OCT image and histology.

Asymptomatic Primary Hematuria in Children (소아의 무증상성 일차성 혈뇨에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jung-Mi;Park, Woo-Saeng;Ko, Cheol-Woo;Koo, Ja-Hoon;Kwak, Jung-Sik
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: This retrospective study of 126 children with symptomless primary hematuria was undertaken to determine the distribution of various histologic types by renal biopsy, clinical outcome according to the biopsy findings and also to find out feasibility of performing renal biopsy in these children. Patients and Methods : Study population consisted of 126 children with symptom-less primary hematuria who have been admitted to the pediatric department of Kyung-poot National University Hospital for the past 11 years from 1987 to 1998 and renal biopsy was performed percutaneously. Hematuric children with duration of less than 6 months, evidences of systemic illness such as SLE or Henoch-Schonlein purpura, urinary tract infection, and idiopathic hypercalciuria were excluded from the study. Results : Mean age of presentation was 9.2${\pm}$3.3 years (range ; 1.5-15.3 years) and male preponderance was noted with male to female ratio of 2:1. IgA nephropathy was the most common biopsy finding occuring in 60 children ($47.6\%$), followed by MsPGN in 13 ($10.3\%$), MPGN in 5 ($3.9\%$), TGBM in 6 ($4.7\%$), Alport syndrome in 2 ($1.6\%$), FSGS in 1 ($0.8\%$), and in 39 children ($30.9\%$), 'normal' glomeruli were noted. Recurrent gross hematuria was more common than persistent microscopic hematuria (84 versus 42), and especially in IgA nephropathy, recurrent gross hematuria was the most prevalent pattern of hematuria. In 58 out of 126 cases ($46.0\%$), hematuria was isolated without accompa-nying proteinuria and this was especially true In cases of MsPGN and 'normal' glomer-uli by biopsy finding. Normalization of urinalysis (disappearance of hematuria) in IgA nephropathy, MsPGN and 'normal' glomuli group were similar and it was $14\%,\;27\%\;and\;21\%$ respectively during 1-2 years of follow-up period, and $37.1\%,\;40\%\;and\;35\%$ respectively during 3-4 years of follow-up periods. However, abnormal urinalysis persi-sted in the majority of children with MPGN, TGBM. Alport syndrome and FSGS. Renal function deteriorated progressively in 6 cases (3 with IgA nephropathy, 2 with Alport syndrome and 1 with TGBM). Conclusion : In summary, present study demonstrates that in 126 children with symptomless primary hematuria, IgA nephropathy was the most common biopsy findings followed by MsPGN, MPGN, TGBM, Alport syndrome and FSGS, and 'normal glomeruli' was also seen in 39 cases ($30.9\%$). Renal histology could not be predictable on the clinical findings, so that to establish appropriate long-term planning for these children, we would recommend to obtain precise histologic diagnosis by renal biopsy.

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Human Lung Cancer Cell Xenografts Implanted under the Capsule of Kidney, Spleen and Liver (폐암 세포주를 사용한 신, 비장 및 간 피막하 분식법의 비교)

  • 김수현;김종인;이해영;조봉균;박성달;김송명
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.711-720
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    • 2003
  • Bakground : Complete resection by the surgery has been selected as the treatment of choice in lung cancer patients, but in cases of recurrence after excision or inoperable cases, the importance of anticancer chemotherapy has been emphasized. If one can select a set of the sensitive chemotherapeutic agents before anticancer chemotherapy, it will give more favourable results. Subrenal capsular assay has been recognized as a useful in-vivo chemosensitivity test of thoracic and abdominal tumors and it can be done in a short time for a rapid interpretation of tumor responsiveness to anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs. It has been reported that various kinds of cancer cells can be implantable to the kidney, but so far there is no comparative study of xenogeneic cell implantation on liver, spleen and kidney. The author implanted the human lung cancer cells under the capsule of S.D rat's liver, spleen and kidney respectively and compared the pattern of growth and histology. Material and Method: After incubation of human lung cancer cell line (SW-900 G IV) in RPMI 1640 (Leibovitz L-15 medium) culture media, 3${\times}$3${\times}$3 mm size fibrin clots which contain 108 cancer cells were made. Thereafter the fibrin clots were implanted at subcapsule area of liver, spleen and kidney of S.D. female rat. For immune suppression, cyclosporin-A (80 mg/Kg) was injected subcutaneously daily from post-implantation first day to sixth day. The body weight was measured at pre and post implantation periods. The growth pattern and the size of tumor mass were observed and the pathologic examination and serum tumor marker tests were performed. Result: Body weight increased in both of control and experimental groups. Serum Cyfra 21-1 was not detected. Serum levels of CEA and NSE revealed no significant change. The SCC-Ag increased significantly in implanted group. The growth rate of human lung cancer cells which was implanted on spleen was higher than on liver or kidney. The surface area, thickness, and volume of tumor mass were predominant at spleen. The success rates of implantation were 80% on kidney, 76.7% on spleen and 43.3% on liver. Pathologic examination of implanted tumors showed characteristic findings according to different organs. Tumors that were implanted on kidney grew in a round shape, small and regular pattern. In the spleen, tumors grew well and microscopic neovascularization and tumor thrombi were also found, but the growth pattern was irregular representing frequent daughter mass. Human lung cancer cells that were implanted in the liver, invaded to the liver parenchyme, and had low success rate of implantation. Microscopically, coagulation necrosis and myxoid fibrous lesion were observed. Conclusion: The success rate of implantation was highest in the kidney. And the mass revealed regular growth that could be measured easily. The SCC-Ag was presented earlier than CEA or Cyfra21-1. The Cyfra21-1 was not detected at early time after implantation. The best model for tumor implantation experiment for chemosensitivity test was subrenal capsular analysis than liver and spleen and the useful serum tumor marker in early period of implantation was the SCC-Ag.

The Role of Postoperative Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Resected Esophageal Cancer (식도암에서 근치적 절제술 후 방사선치료의 역할)

  • Lee Chang Geol;Kim Choong Bae;Chung Kyung Young;Lee Doo Yun;Seong Jinsil;Kim Gwi Eon;Suh Chang Ok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.316-322
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    • 2002
  • Objective : A retrospective study was peformed to evaluate whether postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy can improve survival and decrease recurrence as compared with surgery alone in resected esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods : From Jan. 1985 to Dec. 1993, among 94 esophageal cancer Patients treated with surgery, fifty-one patients were included in this study. Transthoracic esophagectomy was peformed in 35 patients and transhiatal esophagectomy in 16. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was peformed 4 weeks after surgery in 26 among 38 patients in stage II and III. A total dose of $30\~60\;Gy$ in 1.8 Gy daily fraction, median 54 Gy over 6 weeks, was delivered in the mediastinum+both supraclavicular lymph nodes or celiac lymph nodes according to the tumor location. Forty-seven patients$(92\%)$ had squamous histology. The median follow-up period was 38 months. Results : The overall 2-year and 5-year survival and median survival were $56.4\%,\;36.8\%$ and 45 months. Two-year and 5-year survival and median survival by stage were $92\%,\;60.3\%$ for stage I, $63\%,\;42\%$ and 51 months for stage II and $34\%,\;23\%$ and 19 months for stage III (p=0.04). For stage II and III patients, 5-year survival and median survival were $22.8\%$, 45 months for the surgery alone group and $37.8\%$, 22 months for the postoperative RT group (p=0.89). For stage III patients, 2-year survival and median survival were $0\%$, 11 months for the surgery alone group and $36.5\%$, 20 months for the postoperative RT group (p=0.14). Local and distant failure rates for stage II and III were $50\%,\;16\%$ for the surgery alone and $39\%,\;31\%$ for the postoperative RT group. For N1 patients, local failure rate was $71\%$ for the surgery alone group and $37\%$ for the postoperative RT group (p=0.19). Among 10 local failures in the postoperative RT group, in-field failures were 2, marginal failures 1, out-field 5 and anastomotic site failures 2. Conclusion : There were no statistically significant differences in either the overall survival or the patterns of failure between the surgery alone group and the postoperative RT group for resected stage II and III esophageal cancer. But this study showed a tendency of survival improvement and decrease in local failure when postoperative RT was peformed for stage III or N1 though statistically not significant. To decrease local failure, a more generous radiation field encompassing the supraclavicular, mediastinal, and celiac lymph nodes and anastomotic site in postoperative adjuvant treatment should be considered.

Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Oropharynx (구인두암의 방사선치료)

  • Park, In-Kyu;Kim, Jae-Choel
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : A retrospective analysis for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma who were treated with radiation was performed to assess the results of treatment and patterns of failure, and to identify the factors that might influence survival. materials and methods : From March 1985 through June 1993, 53 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma were treated with either radiation therapy alone or combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University Hospital. Patients' ages ranged from 31 to 73 years with a median age of 54 years. There were 47 men and 6 women, Forty-two Patients ($79.2\%$) had squamous cell carcinoma, 10 patients ($18.9\%$) had undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 patient ($19\%$) had adenoid cystic carcinoma. There were 2 patients with stage I, 12 patients with stage II, 12 Patients with stage III and 27 patients with stage IV. According to the TNM classification, patients were distributed as follows: T1 7, T2 28, T3 10, T4 7, TX 1, and N0 17, Nl 13, N2 21, N3 2. The primary tumor sites were tonsillar region in 36 patients ($67.9\%$), base of the tongue in 12 patients ($22.6\%$), and soft palate in 5 patients ($9.4\%$). Twenty-five patients were treated with radiation therapy alone and twenty-eight Patients were treated with one to three courses of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. Chemotherapeutic regimens used were either CF (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) or CVB (cisplatin, vincristine and bleomycin). Radiation therapy was delivered 180-200 cGy daily, five times a week using 6 MV X-ray with or without 8-10 MeV electron beams A tumor dose ranged from 4500 cGy to 7740 cGy with a median dose of 7100 cGy. The follow-up time ranged from 4 months to 99 months with a median of 21 months. Results : Thirty-seven patients ($69.8\%$) achieved a CR (complete response) and PR (partial response) in 16 patients ($30.2\%$) after radiation therapy. The overall survival rates were $47\%$ at 2 years and $42\%$ at 3 years, respectively. The median survival time was 23 months. Overall stage (p=0.02) and response to radiation therapy (p=0.004) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. The 2-year disease-free survival rate was $45.5\%$. T-stage (p=0.03), N-stage (p=0.04) and overall stage (P=0.04) were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival. Age, sex, histology, primary site of the tumor, radiation dose, combination of chemotherapy were not significantly associated with disease-free survival. Among evaluable 32 Patients with CR to radiation therapy, 12 patients were considered to have failed Among these, 8 patients failed locoregionally and 4 Patients failed distantly. Conclusion : T-stage, N-stage and overall stage were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer Since locoregional failure was the predominant pattern of relapse, potential methods to improve locoregional control with radiation therapy should be attempted. More controlled clinical, trials should be completed before acceptance of chemotherapy as a part of treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma.

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The Effect of External Radiation Therapy in Management of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice due to Porta Hepatis Metastasis from Stomach Cancer (위암의 간문맥 전이로 발생한 악성 폐쇄성 황달에 대한 외부 방사선치료 효과)

  • Yang, Kwang-Mo;Kim, Joon-Hee;Kim, Chul-Soo;Suh, Hyun-Suk;Kim, Re-Hwe
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.339-348
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : Since 1983, authors have conducted a study to evaluate the effect of external radiation therapy and to determine affected factors in management of the patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to porta hepatis metastasis from stomach cancer. Materials and Methods : Thirty two patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to porta hepatis metastasis from gastric cancer were presented. We have analysed 23 patients who were treated with external radiation therapy of more than 3000cGy. The radiation dose, disease extent at developement of jaundice, total bilirubin levels before radiation therapy, differentiation of histology, combind treatment, intent of primary surgery, initial stage of gastric cancer were analyzed to determine affected factors in radiation therapy. External radiation therapy was delivered with a daily dose of 180-300cGy, 5 times a week fractionation using 4 MeV linear accelerator. The radiation field included the porta hepatis with tumor mass by the abdominal ultrasonography or CT scan. In twenty three patients received more than 3000cGy, total irradiation dose was ranged from 3000cGy to 5480cGy, median 3770cGy. Among 23 patients, 13 patients were delivered more than equivalant dose of TDF 65(4140cGy/23fx). Results : Among 23 patients, complete, partial and no response were observed in 13, 5, 5 patients, respectively. The median survival for all patients was 5 momths. The significant prolongation of median survival was observed in complete responders(11 months) as compared to partial and no responders(5 months, 5 months respectively) Out of 13 patients with complete response, 6 patients lived more than a year Among 13 patients receiving more than 4140cGy equivalent dose, complete, partial and no response were observed in 10, 2 and 1 patients, respectively. The median survival for all these patients was 9.5 months. The median survival for complete responders(10/13) was 11.5 months. Among 10 patients receiving less than 4140cGy equivalent dose, complete, partial and no response were observed in 3, 3, 4 patients, respetively. The median survival for all these patients was 4.3 months Therefore, the radiation dose affected the results of treatment. For the complete response with prolongation of survival duration, at least 4140cGy equivalant dose should be delivered to porta hepatis. In evaluation of the disease extent, 7 patients of 13 complete responders showed localized disease in porta hepatis or peripancreatic area, but all patients with partial and no response showed wide extensive disease or persistant disease of primary gastric cancer. Therefore. the patients with the localized disease were the higher probability of complete response and long term survival. This study suggested that the radiation dose and the disease extent at developement of jaundice affected in radiation therapy for malignant obstructive jaundice. There were no serious complications related to external radiation therapy. Conclusion : External radiation therapy only could achieve the palliative effect in the patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to porta hepatis metastasis from stomach cancer. This study suggested that the prolongation of survival duration could be achived in complete responders and radiation dose, extent of disease affected the results of treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice.

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The Results of Curative Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of Uterine cervix (자궁 경부암의 근치적 방사선 치료 및 유도 화학요법과의 병행 치료성적)

  • Kang Ki Mun;Ryu Mi Ryeong;Chang Gee Young;Suh Tae Suk;Yoon Sei Chul;Bahk Yong Whee;Shinn Kyung Sub;Namkoong Sung Eun;Kim Seung Jo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 1993
  • This is a retrospective analysis of 135 patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with curative radiotherapy from March 1983 through October 1989 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Kang-Nam 51. Mary's Hospital. Among them, 78 patients received radiotherapy alone and 42 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and 15 patients were lost to follow up. All patients had follow up from 2 to 106 months (median; 62 months). Age of the patients ranged from 32 to 79 years at presentation (median; 59 years). According to FIGO classification, there were 20 ($16.7{\%}$) in stage IB, 19 ($15.8{\%}$) in stage IIA,49 ($40.8{\%}$) in stage IIB, 5 ($4.2{\%}$) in stage IIIA, 13 ($10.8{\%}$,) in stage IIIB,14 ($11.7{\%}$) in stage IVA. The pathological classification showed 96 ($80.0{\%}$) squamous cell carcinomas, 5 ($4.2{\%}$) adenocarcinomas and 19 ($15.8{\%}$) proven by cytology. The overall 5-year survival rates was $50.8{\%}$, and the 5-year survival rates by stage IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVA was $47.7{\%},\;70.2{\%},\;64.1{\%},\;40.0{\%},\;23.1{\%},\;14.3{\%}$, respectively. The 5-year survival rates was noted $51.2{\%}$ of radiotherapy alone and $50.4{\%}$of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The overall failure rate was $18.3{\%}$(22/120) including $11.7{\%}$ (14/120) locoregional failure, $5.8{\%}$ (7/120) distant metastasis and $0.8{\%}$(1/120) locoregional failure with distant metastasis. Treatment failure rates by the stages were $15{\%}$ (3/20) in stage IB. $10.5{\%}$ (2/19) in stage IIA, $10.2{\%}$, (5/49) in stage IIB, $20{\%}$ (1/5) in stage IIIA, $61.5{\%}$(8/13) in stage IIB, and $28.6{\%}$ (4/14) in stage IVA. The overall complication rate was $34.2{\%}$(41/120) including wet desquamation $7.5{\%}$, (9/120), diarrhea $6.7{\%}(8/120), radiation proctitis $5.8{\%}$(7/120) in decreasing order. A multivariate analysis of factors influencing the survival showed patient age (p < 0.0291), FIGO stage (p<0.0001), Karnofsky performance status (p<0.0043), initial hemoglobin level (p<0.0001), and intracavitary radiation (p<0.0004), but, no significancy in histology (p<0.29) and treatment method (p < 0.87).

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Usefulness of LIFE in diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma (기관지 암의 진단에서 형광기관지 내시경검사의 유용성)

  • Lee, Sang Hwa;Shim, Jae Jeong;Lee, So Ra;Lee, Sang Youb;Suh, Jung Kyung;Cho, Jae Yun;Kim, Han Gyum;In, Kwang Ho;Choi, Young Ho;Kim, Hark Jei;Yoo, Se Hwa;Kang, Kyung Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 1997
  • Background : Although the overall prognosis of patients with lung cancer is poor, highly effective treatment exists for the small subset of patients with early lung cancer(carcinoma in situ/micro- invasive cancer). But very few patients have benefit from them because these lesions are difficult to detect and localize with conventional white-light bronchoscopy. To overcome this problem, a Lung Imaging Fluorescence Endoscopic device(LIFE) was developed to detect and clearly delineate the exact location and extent of premalignant and early lung cancer lesions using differences in tissue autofluorescence. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to determine the difference of sensitivity and specificity in detecting dysplasia and carcinoma between fluorescence imaging and conventional white light bronchoscopy. Material and Methods : 35 patients (16 with abnormal chest X-ray, 2 with positive sputum study, 2 with undiagnosed pleural effusion, 15 with respiratory symptom) have been examined by LIFE imaging system. After a white light bronchoscopy, the patients were submitted to fluorescence bronchoscopy and the findings of both examinations have been classified in 3 categories(class I, II, III). From of all class n and III sites, 79 biopsy specimens have been collected for histologic examination: a comparison between histologic results and white light or fluorescence bronchoscopy has been performed for assessing sensitivity and specificity of the two methods. Results : 1) Total 79 sires in 35 patients were examined. Histology demonstrated 8 normal mucosa, 21 hyperplasia, 23 dysplasia, and 27 microinvasive and invasive carcinoma. 2) The sensitivity of white light or fluorescence bronchoscopy in detecting dysplasia was 60.9% and 82.6%, respectively. 3) The results of this study showed 70.3 % sensitivity for microinvasive or invasive carcinoma with LIFE system, versus 100% sensitivity for white light in 27 cases of carcinoma. The false negative study of LIFE system was 8 cases(3 adenocarcinoma and 5 small cell carcinoma), which were infiltrated in submucosal area and had normal epithelium. Conclusion : To improve the ability 10 diagnose and stage more accurately, fluorescence imaging may become an important adjunct to conventional bronchoscopic examination because of its high detection rate of premalignant and malignant epithelial lesion. But. it has limitation to detect in submucosal infiltrating carcinoma.

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Computed Tomography-guided Localization with a Hook-wire Followed by Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery for Small Intrapulmonary and Ground Glass Opacity Lesions (폐실질 내에 위치한 소결질 및 간유리 병변에서 흉부컴퓨터단층촬영 유도하에 Hook Wire를 이용한 위치 선정 후 시행한 흉강경 폐절제술의 유용성)

  • Kang, Pil-Je;Kim, Yong-Hee;Park, Seung-Il;Kim, Dong-Kwan;Song, Jae-Woo;Do, Kyoung-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.624-629
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    • 2009
  • Background: Making the histologic diagnosis of small pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacity (GGO) lesions is difficult. CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsies often fail to provide enough specimen for making the diagnosis. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) can be inefficient for treating non-palpable lesions. Preoperative localization of small intrapulmonary lesions provides a more obvious target to facilitate performing intraoperative. resection. We evaluated the efficacy of CT-guided localization with using a hook wire and this was followed by VATS for making the histologic diagnosis of small intrapulmonary nodules and GGO lesions. Material and Method: Eighteen patients (13 males) were included in this study from August 2005 to March 2008. 18 intrapulmonary lesions underwent preoperative localization by using a CT-guided a hook wire system prior to performing VATS resection for intrapulmonary lesions and GGO lesions. The clinical data such as the accuracy of localization, the rate of conversion-to-thoracotomy, the operation time, the postoperative complications and the histology of the pulmonary lesion were retrospectively collected. Result: Eighteen VATS resections were performed in 18 patients. Preoperative CT-guided localization with a hook-wire was successful in all the patients. Dislodgement of a hook wire was observed in one case. There was no conversion to thoracotomy, The median diameter of lesions was 8 mm (range: $3{\sim}15\;mm$). The median depth of the lesions from the pleural surfaces was 5.5 mm (range: $1{\sim}30\;mm$). The median interval between preoperative CT-guided with a hook-wire and VATS was 34.5 min (range: ($10{\sim}226$ min). The median operative time was 43.5.min (range: $26{\sim}83$ min). In two patients, clinically insignificant pneumothorax developed after CT-guided localization with a hook-wire and there were no other complications. Histological examinations confirmed 8 primary lung cancers, 3 cases of metastases, 3 cases of inflammation, 2 intrapulmonary lymph nodes and 2 other benign lesions. Conclusion: CT-guided localization with a hook-wire followed by VATS for treating small intrapulmonary nodules and GGO lesions provided a low conversion thoracotomy rate, a short operation time and few localization-related or postoperative complications. This procedure was efficient to confirm intrapulmonary lesions and GGO lesions.

Synchronized Synergism Using Ethanol, L-lysine and $NaBH_4$ Glutaraldehyde Treated Porcine Pericardium (글루타르알데하이드 고정 돼지 심낭에서 Ethanol, L-lysine, $NaBH_4$ 병합 처치시 상승효과)

  • Kim, Kwan-Chang;Kim, Yong-Jin;Kim, Soo-Hwan;Choi, Seung-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.685-695
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    • 2009
  • Background: Calcification is the most frequent cause of clinical failure of bioprosthetic tissues that are fabricated from Glutaraldehyde (GA)-fixed porcine valve or bovine pericardium. We recently used a multi-factorial approach of employing different mechanisms to investigate how to reduce the calcification of bioprosthetic tissues. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the synchronized synergism using ethanol, L-lysine and $NaBH_4$ in glutaraldehyde treated porcine pericardium from the standpoint of calcification and tissue elasticity. Material and Method: Porcine pericardium was fixed with 0.625% GA (commercial fixation). An interim step of ethanol (80%; 1 day at room temperature) or L-lysine (0.1 M; 2 days at $37^{\circ}C$) or $NaBH_4$ (0.1 M; 2 days at room temperature) was followed by completion of the GA fixation (2 days at $4^{\circ}C$ and 7 days at room temperature). The tensile strength and thickness of the samples were measured. The treated pericardiums were implanted subcutaneously into three-week old Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 weeks. The calcium content was assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the histology of the samples. Result: The amount of calcium in the pericardium pretreated with ethanol (13.6${\pm}$10.0 ug/mg, p=0.008), L-lysine (15.3${\pm}$1.0 ug/mg, p=0.002) and both (16.1${\pm}$11.1 ug/mg, p=0.012) was significantly reduced compared with the control (51.2${\pm}$8.5 ug/mg). However, $NaBH_4$ pretreatment (65.7${\pm}$61.8 ug/mg, p=0.653) and combined pretreatment that including ethanol, L-lysine and $NaBH_4$ (92.9${\pm}$58.3 ug/mg, p=0.288) were not significantly different from the controls(51.2${\pm}$8.5 ug/mg). Both the combined pretreatment using ethanol and L-lysine (7.60${\pm}$1.55, p=0.76) and the combined pretreatment that included ethanol, L-lysine and $NaBH_4$ (7.47${\pm}$1.85, p=0.33) increased the tensile strength/thickness ratio compared with that of the controls (4.75${\pm}$1.88). Conclusion: The combined pretreatment using ethanol and L-lysine seemed to decrease the calcification of porcine pericardium fixed with glutaraldehyde, as compared to single pretreatment, and it increase the tissue elasticity, but to the degree that showed synchronized synergism. $NaBH_4$ pretreatment seemed to increase the calcification of porcine pericardium, irrespective of whether single or combined pretreatment was used.