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Knockdown of GCF2/LRRFIP1 by RNAi Causes Cell Growth Inhibition and Increased Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

  • Li, Jing-Ping;Cao, Nai-Xia;Jiang, Ri-Ting;He, Shao-Jian;Huang, Tian-Ming;Wu, Bo;Chen, De-Feng;Ma, Ping;Chen, Li;Zhou, Su-Fang;Xie, Xiao-Xun;Luo, Guo-Rong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2753-2758
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    • 2014
  • Background: GC-binding factor 2 (GCF2) is a transcriptional regulator that represses transcriptional activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by binding to a specific GC-rich sequence in the EGFR gene promoter. In addition to this function, GCF2 has also been identified as a tumor-associated antigen and regarded as a potentially valuable serum biomarker for early human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. GCF2 is high expressed in most HCC tissues and cell lines including HepG2. This study focused on the influence of GCF2 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Materials and Methods: GCF2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cells was detected with reverse transcription (RT) PCR and Western blotting, respectively. RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to knock down GCF2 mRNA and protein expression. Afterwards, cell viability was analyzed with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), and cell apoptosis and caspase 3 activity by flow cytometry and with a Caspase 3 Activity Kit, respectively. Results: Specific down-regulation of GCF2 expression caused cell growth inhibition, and increased apoptosis and caspase 3 activity in HepG2 cells. Conclusions: These primary results suggest that GCF2 may influence cell proliferation and apoptosis in HepG2 cells, and also provides a molecular basis for further investigation into the possible mechanism at proliferation and apoptosis in HCC.

Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemic Cell Lines by Diallyl Disulfide via Modulation of EGFR/ERK/PKM2 Signaling Pathways

  • Luo, Nian;Zhao, Lv-Cui;Shi, Qing-Qiang;Feng, Zi-Qiang;Chen, Di-Long;Li, Jing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3509-3515
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    • 2015
  • Background: Diallyl disulfide (DADS) may exert potent anticancer action both in vitro and in vivo. Although its effects on cancer are significant, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we sought to elucidate possible links between DADS and pyruvate kinase (PKM2). Materials and Methods: $KG1{\alpha}$, a leukemia cell line highly expressing PKM2 was used with a cell counting kit (CCK)-8 and flow cytometry (FCM) to investigate the effects of DADS. Relationships between PKM2 and DADS associated with phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and MEK, were assessed by western blot analysis. Results: In $KG1{\alpha}$ cells highly expressing PKM2, we found that DADS could affect proliferation, apoptosis and EGFR/ERK/PKM2 signaling pathways, abrogating EGF-induced nuclear accumulation of PKM2. Conclusions: These results suggested that DADS suppressed the proliferation of $KG1{\alpha}$ cells, providing evidence that its proapoptotic effects are mediated through the inhibition of EGFR/ERK/PKM2 signaling pathways.

Senescence Effects of Angelica sinensis Polysaccharides on Human Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Stem and Progenitor Cells

  • Liu, Jun;Xu, Chun-Yan;Cai, Shi-Zhong;Zhou, Yue;Li, Jing;Jiang, Rong;Wang, Ya-Ping
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6549-6556
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    • 2013
  • Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) play important roles in leukemia initiation, progression and relapse, and thus represent a critical target for therapeutic intervention. Hence, it is extremely urgent to explore new therapeutic strategies directly targeting LSCs for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) therapy. We show here that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), a major active component in Dong quai (Chinese Angelica sinensis), effectively inhibited human AML $CD34^+CD38^-$ cell proliferation in vitro culture in a dose-dependent manner while sparing normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells at physiologically achievable concentrations. Furthermore, ASP exerted cytotoxic effects on AML K562 cells, especially LSC-enriched $CD34^+CD38^-$ cells. Colony formation assays further showed that ASP significantly suppressed the formation of colonies derived from AML $CD34^+CD38^-$ cells but not those from normal $CD34^+CD38^-$ cells. Examination of the underlying mechanisms revealed that ASP induced $CD34^+CD38^-$ cell senescence, which was strongly associated with a series of characteristic events, including up-regulation of p53, p16, p21, and Rb genes and changes of related cell cycle regulation proteins P16, P21, cyclin E and CDK4, telomere end attrition as well as repression of telomerase activity. On the basis of these findings, we propose that ASP represents a potentially important agent for leukemia stem cell-targeted therapy.

Effect of Trichostatin A on Anti HepG2 Liver Carcinoma Cells: Inhibition of HDAC Activity and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

  • Shi, Qing-Qiang;Zuo, Guo-Wei;Feng, Zi-Qiang;Zhao, Lv-Cui;Luo, Lian;You, Zhi-Mei;Li, Dang-Yang;Xia, Jing;Li, Jing;Chen, Di-Long
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7849-7855
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To investigate the effect of deacetylase inhibitory trichostatin A (TSA) on anti HepG2 liver carcinoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: HepG2 cells exposed to different concentrations of TSA for 24, 48, or 72h were examined for cell growth inhibition using CCK8, changes in cell cycle distribution with flow cytometry, cell apoptosis with annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining, and cell morphology changes under an inverted microscope. Expression of ${\beta}$-catenin, HDAC1, HDAC3, H3K9, CyclinD1 and Bax proteins was tested by Western blotting. Gene expression for ${\beta}$-catenin, HDAC1and HDAC3 was tested by q-PCR. ${\beta}$-catenin and H3K9 proteins were also tested by immunofluorescence. Activity of Renilla luciferase (pTCF/LEF-luc) was assessed using the Luciferase Reporter Assay system reagent. The activity of total HDACs was detected with a HDACs colorimetric kit. Results: Exposure to TSA caused significant dose-and time-dependent inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05) and resulted in increased cell percentages in G0/G1 and G2/M phases and decrease in the S phase. The apoptotic index in the control group was $6.22{\pm}0.25%$, which increased to $7.17{\pm}0.20%$ and $18.1{\pm}0.42%$ in the treatment group. Exposure to 250 and 500nmol/L TSA also caused cell morphology changes with numerous floating cells. Expression of ${\beta}$-catenin, H3K9and Bax proteins was significantly increased, expression levels of CyclinD1, HDAC1, HDAC3 were decreased. Expression of ${\beta}$-catenin at the genetic level was significantly increased, with no significant difference in HDAC1and HDAC3 genes. In the cytoplasm, expression of ${\beta}$-catenin fluorescence protein was not obvious changed and in the nucleus, small amounts of green fluorescence were observed. H3K9 fluorescence protein were increased. Expression levels of the transcription factor TCF werealso increased in HepG2 cells following induction by TSA, whikle the activity of total HDACs was decreased. Conclusions: TSA inhibits HDAC activity, promotes histone acetylation, and activates Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling to inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cell, arrest cell cycling and induce apoptosis.

Analysis of the morphological change and the expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in various cell lines after lipopolysaccharide stimulation

  • Choi, Baik-Dong;Choi, Jeong-Yoon;Jeong, Soon-Jeong;Park, Joo-Cheol;Kim, Heung-Joong;Bae, Chun-Sik;Lim, Do-Seon;Jeong, Moon-Jin
    • 한국전자현미경학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.127-129
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    • 2005
  • Bacterial lipopolysaccharide(LPS) is can stimulate the most LPS-responsive cells in the mammalian host. The macrophage response to LPS can protect the host from infection but high levels, contribute to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and destruction of host itself, The previously study, secretory leukocyte pretense inhibitor (SLPI) was known LPS-induced product of macrophage and had the function that antagonizes their LPS-induced activation of pro-inflammation signaling factors. Purpose of this study was to identify the expression of SLPI involving the infection in various cell lines including odontoblast cell line. Therefore, we conducted in vitro researches, which treated the LPS to the MDPC-23, and compared to NIH3T3, RAW264.7. To investigate the expressionof SLPI in mRNA level, the methods was used RT-PCR and western blotting for protein expression of SLPI. Moreover, we performed the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation for the morphological change. This work was supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation.

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In Vitro Effects of SB202190 on Echinococcus granulosus

  • Lv, Hailong;Li, Siyuan;Zhang, Jing;Liang, Weihua;Mu, Xiaoling;Jiang, Yufeng
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.255-258
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    • 2013
  • Spillage of cyst contents during surgical operation is the major cause of recurrence after hydatid cyst surgery. Instillation of a scolicidal agent into a hepatic hydatid cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent this complication. SB202190 is a pyridinyl imidazole derivative and is known to be a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of SB202190 was investigated. Freshly isolated Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices were subjected to SB202190 treatment (10, 20, 40, and $80{\mu}M$), and the effects on parasite viability were monitored by trypan blue staining. Corresponding effects were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Dose-dependent protoscolex death within a few days of SB202190 treatment was observed. Although the in vitro scolicidal effect of SB202190 was satisfactory, the in vivo efficacy of this drug and also possible side effects remain to be further investigated.

Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice

  • Kim, Hyung-Soo;Park, Sang-In;Choi, Seung-Hoon;Song, Chang-Hyun;Park, Soo-Jin;Shin, Yong-Kook;Han, Chang-Hyun;Lee, Young Joon;Ku, Sae-Kwang
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency.