• Title, Summary, Keyword: higher order irregular set

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ON HIGHER ORDER IRREGULAR SETS

  • Li, Jinjun;Wu, Min
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.87-99
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    • 2017
  • To indicate the statistical complexity of dynamical systems, we introduce the notions of higher order irregular set and higher order maximal Birkhoff average oscillation in this paper. We prove that, in the setting of topologically mixing Markov chain, the set consisting of those points having maximal k-order Birkhoff average oscillation for all positive integers k is as large as the whole space from the topological point of view. As applications, we discuss the corresponding results on a repeller.

Effect of natural frequency modes on sloshing phenomenon in a rectangular tank

  • Jung, Jae Hwan;Yoon, Hyun Sik;Lee, Chang Yeol
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.580-594
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    • 2015
  • Liquid sloshing in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) rectangular tanks is simulated by using a level set method based on the finite volume method. In order to examine the effect of natural frequency modes on liquid sloshing, we considered a wide range of frequency ratios ($0.5{\leq}fr{\leq}3.2$). The frequency ratio is defined by the ratio of the excitation frequency to the natural frequency of the fluid, and covers natural frequency modes from 1 to 5. When fr = 1, which corresponds to the first mode of the natural frequency, strong liquid sloshing reveals roof impact, and significant forces are generated by the liquid in the tank. The liquid flows are mainly unidirectional. Thus, the strong bulk motion of the fluid contributes to a higher elevation of the free surface. However, at fr = 2, the sloshing is considerably suppressed, resulting in a calm wave with relatively lower elevation of the free surface, since the waves undergo destructive interference. At fr = 2, the lower peak of the free surface elevation occurs. At higher modes of $fr_3$, $fr_4$, and $fr_5$, the free surface reveals irregular deformation with nonlinear waves in every case. However, the deformation of the free surface becomes weaker at higher natural frequency modes. Finally, 3-D simulations confirm our 2-D results.

Inheritence, linkage and Possible Use of Fractured Starch Mutant in Barley (Hordeum Vulga L.)

  • Chung, Tae-Young
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2001
  • In order to breed barley lines with reduced viscosity of wort, a fractured starch mutant of naked barley cultivar, Nubet, was obtained from the M2 seeds mutated by the diethyl sulfate treatment. Seeds of this fractured starch mutant were opaque and the endosperm consists of angular, irregular and fractured starch. The mutant was caused by single recessive mutation and assigned by the symbol fra. The gene was located on chromosome 4, distal in long arm by linkage recombinations using translocation homozygote lethal test set. The linkage value between the fractured starch mutant and 72-4a, 72-4d were 26.0$\pm$4.9, 34.2$\pm$3.1 percent respectively. In addition to the reduced seed size, fewer kernels per spike and higher tillering ability, lower $\beta$-glucan viscosity and higher lysine content of the grain were associated with this mutant. $\beta$-glucan viscosity of the Nubet grains increased from 3 weeks after anthesis to matury and most of the viscose substances appeared to be stored in the middle of the endosperm tissue. Since the mutant grains showed better milling property as compared to Nubet, it can be used as breeding resources to develope new barley cultivars for maltins and milling purpose.

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A Periodic Change of Landscape Charicteristics and Visual Preference with Open Space of Apartment Complex -Specially Focused on Apartment Sites in Cheongju City- (시대적변천에 따른 아파트단지의 경관적특성 및 선호도에 관한 연구 - 청주시 아파트 단지를 대상으로 -)

  • Shim, Sang-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.83-96
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    • 2011
  • The open space of apartment complex has changed diversely according to construction periods which were divided into the introduction stage (the 1980s), the development stage (the 1990s), and the maturity stage (after 1999). This study set out to analyze the periodic changes of visual characteristics and preference with the open space of apartment complexes in Cheongju City. For analysis of visual characteristics and preference, nineteen adjectives that were determined to sufficiently express the feeling of the open space of apartment complex. The results are as follows. As for adjective image assessment by using descriptive statistics, favorable images were shown in complexes of maturity stage phase that were constructed after the liberalization of apartment sale in 1999. These results may be caused both by quantitative increase and diversification of materials in planting and landscaping furniture and by nature-friendly designing. The results of factor analysis by Varimax rotation method showed that common variance was 73.9%, which indicates higher explanation. The nineteen adjectives could be divided into three factors, 'pleasantness factor,' 'negative factor,' and 'irregular factor.' Visual preference was analysed by using Least significant Difference (LSD) by analysis of variance : complexes of maturity stage phase that were constructed according to the liberalization of apartment sale in 1999 were highest in assessment. The correlation between view preference and adjective images was analyzed by multiple regression analysis, and 'feeling like walking,' 'well-arranged,' 'beautiful,' 'friendly,' and 'clean' (in order) were adjective images that most affected the preference. As for the analysis of the correlation between visual preference and physical components of view, the preference increased as the rate of pavement and greens was higher, while it decreased as size of building was larger. Therefore, backgrounds of walking and greens had strong effects on the preference.

Fluctuation of the Catch by the Set Net Fishery (정치망어업의 어획량변동에 관한 연구)

  • 장호영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 1987
  • The catch by the set net fishery from 1971 to 1985 were analyzed in order to reveal its fluctuation characteristics. Generally, the catch increased from 16,787M/T in 1971 to 84,103M/T in 1985 and showed maximum in 1979 with 99,475M/T of catch. This trend was mainly related to the higher production of file fish which accounts for 64% of the total catch in 1979, and the change of catch statistical classification according to the revising of fishery law in 1976. It was also closely related to the variation of the sea water temperature in coastal area. The main fishing period of the set net fishery appeared from October to November. Catch of the set net fishery was led by that in the southern coast before 1976 and by that in the eastern coast from 1977 to 1980, the tendency changed irregular from 1981. Three groups of fishes could be distinguished by principal component analysis of the annual catch. A group showing steady decreasing tendency was composed of the fishes such as whiting, sand fish, hair tail and anchovy. The another group composed of small alaska pollack, round herring, goby, gizzard shad, sand lance and file fish revaled an increasing tendency. The other fishes did not show any annual tendency.

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