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Preparation of High Quality Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Extract by High-Pressure Extraction Process

  • Seo, Il-Ho;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2009
  • Safflower seed extract was prepared by a high-pressure extraction technology and its quality characteristics were compared to that of other conventional extraction techniques, such ultrasonic and reflux extractions. Safflower seeds were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol by three above extraction methods, and further fractionated with Diaion HP-20 column chromatography to obtain a partially purified safflower seed extract (PPSSE). Among the three extraction techniques examined, the reflux extraction showed the higher yields of EtOH extract and PPE than the ultrasonic and high-pressure extractions. Levels of most phenolic compounds in the EtOH extract of safflower seed are higher in reflux and ultrasonic extractions than the high pressure extraction, but levels of two serotonin aglycones, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin (CS) and N-feruloylserotonin (FS), in PPSSE were higher in the high pressure extraction than the reflux and ultrasonic extractions. In addition, color values (L and a) of the PPSSE were higher in the high-pressure extraction than the reflux and ultrasonic extractions, although there were no significant differences in pH and UV maxima absorption spectra among three extraction techniques. These results indicate that the high-pressure extraction technology is a simple and effective extraction for preparation of a high quality of safflower seed extract containing CS and FS with anti-wrinkle activity.

Introduction of Modifying Solvents to Carbon Dioxide in Supercritical Extractions

  • 이정미정;David J. Chesney
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1351-1355
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    • 1998
  • A simple apparatus for adding a modifying solvent to supercritical CO2 extractant was described. Small, fixed volumes (typically 100 μL) of liquid modifying solvents were delivered during the extraction process by use of an in-line high pressure loop injector and an air pump. Without disconnecting the extraction cell from the supercritical fluid extraction system, the modifying solvent was repeatedly delivered. The solvent modification device was optimized during the extraction of carbaryl and bis(acetylacetonato) copper(Ⅱ). Extraction recoveries from spiked filter paper and soil samples ranged between 22% and 109%, depending on the analyte and matrix components. The addition of polar modifying solvents were necessary to improve the extractability of the nonpolar CO2.

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The Analysis of Minerals and Free Amino Acid in Brown Stockwith Extracted Methods Varied (추출방법을 달리한 브라운 스톡의 무기질 및 유리아미노산 분석)

  • Jang, Hyuk-Rae;Lee, Bo-Soon;Choi, Soo-Keun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.210-222
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    • 2008
  • This study showed that the brown stock, which is the base of demi-glace sauce, extracted by using a high pressure heating extractor is more advantageous than that extracted by the traditional extraction method for the mass production. We compared the former with the latter in terms of minerals and free amino acids. The results of this study are summarized as follows. When mineral contents were compared, the brown stock extracted by high.pressure heating extraction showed the tendency of increase in mineral contents in proportion to heating temperature and heating time, but, from extraction temperature of 140$^{\circ}C$, the contents of K, Mg, Na and P decreased with the increase of extraction time. In addition, mineral contents in the brown stock extracted by high-pressure heating extraction were generally lower than those in brown stock extracted by the traditional extraction method. This result was produced probably because materials were added repeatedly in the traditional method. Amino acids contents in brown stock according to the extraction methods were also examined. They increased with the increase in the number of extractions in the brown stock extracted by the traditional method, and those in the brown stock extracted using a high pressure heating extractor increased with the increase in heating temperature and extraction time. The results of this study are expected to be useful as a practical material for the mass production of brown stock products.

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Effects of Antioxidant Activities of Small Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) by using Ultra High Pressure Extraction Process (초고압 처리가 꼬마칼라감자의 항산화 증진에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sung-Jin;Kwon, Min-Soo;Hwang, Young-Jeong;Choi, Mi-Sook;Rha, Young-Ah
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2014
  • We investigated a method to improve antioxidant activities of colored potato extracts by ultra high pressure extraction process. The colored potato was extracted by water at $60^{\circ}C$(WE) and 300 MPa for 15 min (High Pressure Extraction, $HPE_{15}$) and 30 min (High Pressure Extraction, $HPE_{30}$). The extractions yielded by different extraction processes were 1.73(WE), 2.10($HPE_{15}$), and 2.41($HPE_{30}$)%. Total phenolic acid contents of different extraction processes were estimated as 48.21(WE), 50.20($HPE_{15}$) and 51.34($HPE_{30}$) GAL mg/g, respectively. The flavonoids contents of different extraction processes were measured as 13.12(WE), 14.35($HPE_{15}$) and 15.17($HPE_{30}$) RE mg/g, respectively. Generally, for the contents of phenolic acid and flavonoids, the samples from HPE were higher than those from conventional extraction process. $HPE_{30}$ showed 76.21% of DPPH radical scavenging activity (EDA, %) in 1,000 ug/mL. The reducing power of $HPE_{30}$ also showed the high activity as 0.42. In generally, antioxidant activities of colored potato were increased by high pressure extraction process. We could tell that the HPE extracts of colored potato had a higher antioxidant activity than those from conventional water extraction. The results of HPE showed obvious advantages in higher efficiency, shorter extraction time.

Antioxidant and physiological activities of Hijikia fusiforme by extraction methods (추출방법에 따른 톳 추출물의 항산화 및 생리활성 특성)

  • Kwon, Yu-ri;Youn, Kwang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.631-637
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    • 2017
  • The physiological properties of extracts from Hizikia fusiforme with different extraction methods (hot water extraction, autoclave extraction and high pressure extraction) were investigated. The amounts of substances related to polyphenol and flavonoids contents were the highest in autoclave extract (30.51 mg/g and 4.78 mg/g, respectively). The DPPH radical scavenging activity was the highest in the autoclave extract (81.80%) at the 5 mg/mL. Autoclave extract exhibited the strongest ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing power among the three extraction methods. However, ferrous ion chelating, TBA reactive substances and xanthine oxidase inhibition activity of high pressure extract were higher than those of the other extracts. Additionally, the tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities of high pressure extract with a concentration of 1 mg/mL were higher than those of the other extracts. These results suggest that extracts of Hizikia fusiforme have a potential to act as functional materials, and autoclave and high pressure extractions are superior to hot water extraction for enhancement of the biological activity.

Effect of Process Parameters and Kraft Lignin Additive on The Mechanical Properties of Miscanthus Pellets

  • Min, Chang Ha;Um, Byung Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.703-719
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    • 2017
  • Miscanthus had a higher lignin content (19.5 wt%) and carbohydrate (67.6 wt%) than other herbaceous crops, resulting in higher pellet strength and positive effect on combustion. However, miscanthus also contains a high amount of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface, cuticula, which limits the pellet quality. The glass transition of lignin and cuticula were related to forming inter-particle bonding, which determined mechanical properties of pellet. To determine the effects of surface waxes, both on the pelletizing process and the pellet strength were compared with raw and extracted samples through solvent extraction. In addition, to clarify the relationship between pellet process parameters and bonding mechanisms, the particle size and temperature are varied while maintaining the moisture content of the materials and the die pressure at constant values. Furthermore, kraft lignin was employed to determine the effect of kraft lignin as an additive in the pellets. As results, the removal of cuticula through ethanol extractions improved the mechanical properties of the pellet by the formation of strong inter-particle interactions. Interestingly, the presence of lignin in miscanthus improves its mechanical properties and decreases friction against the inner die at temperatures above the glass transition temperature ($T_g$) of lignin. Consequently, it could found that the use of kraft lignin as an additive in pellet reduced friction in the inner die upon reaching its glass transition temperature.

Electroacupuncture-Assisted Craniotomy on an Awake Patient

  • Sidhu, Amritpal;Murgahayah, Trushna;Narayanan, Vairavan;Chandran, Hari;Waran, Vicknes
    • Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.45-48
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    • 2017
  • Although acupuncture has existed for over 2000 years, its application as an anesthetic aid began in the 1950s in China. The first surgical procedure performed under acupuncture anesthesia was a tonsillectomy. Soon thereafter, major and minor surgical procedures took place with electroacupuncture alone providing the anesthesia. The procedures performed were diverse, ranging from cardiothoracic surgery to dental extractions. Usage of acupuncture anesthesia, specifically in neurosurgery, has been well documented in hospitals across China, especially in Beijing, dating back to the 1970s. We present a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with right-sided body weakness. He had a past medical history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea requiring use of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure device during sleep. We performed a computed tomography brain scan, which revealed a left-sided acute on chronic subdural hemorrhage. Due to his multiple comorbidities, we decided to perform the surgical procedure under electroacupuncture anesthesia. The aim of this case report is to describe a craniotomy performed under electroacupuncture on an elderly patient with multiple comorbidities who was awake during the procedure and in whom this procedure, if it had been performed under general anesthesia, would have carried high risk.

CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS : A CASE REPORT (해면 정맥동 혈전증(Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis) 치험례)

  • Chang, Hyun-Suk;Jang, Myung-Jin;Kim, Yong-Kwan;Kim, Kyoung-Won
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.447-455
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    • 1995
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis is one of the major complications of abscesses of the maxillofacial region. The initial symptoms of CST are usually pain in the eye and tenderness to pressure. this is associated with high fluctuating fever, chills, rapid pulse, and sweating. Venous obstruction subsequently causes edema of the eyelids, lacrimation, proptosis, chemosis and retinal hemorrhages. Blindness is sometimes an accompaniment of cavernous sinus thrombosis when the infection also involves the orbit. There is also cranial nerve involvement (oculomotor, troclear, abducence) and ophthalmoplegia, diminished or absent corneal reflex, ptosis, and dilation of the pupil occur. The terminal stages bring signs of advanced toxemia and meningitis. Infections of the face can cause a septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus. Furunculosis and infected hair follicles in the nose are frequent causes. Extractions of maxillary anterior teeth in the presence of acute infection and especially curettage of the sockets under such circumstances can cause this condition. The infection is usually staphylococcal. The inflection may spread directly through the pterygoid plexus of veins and the pterygomaxillary space and then ascend into the sinus or it may spread directly from the pterygopalatine space to the orbit. This is possible because of the absence of valves in the angular, facial, and ophthalmic veins. The treatment is empirical antibiotic therapy followed by specific anbibiotic therapy based on blood or pus culture. The inflection usually involves one side, however, it may easily spread to the opposite side through the circulus sinus. Unless it is treated early, the prognosis is poor even in this doses. Occasionally the antibiotics will not adequately resolve the septic thrombus, and death ensues. the use of anticoagulants to prevent venous thrombosis has been recommended, but the efficacy of such therapy has not been substantiated. Surgical access through eye enucleation has been suggested. We report a case which demonstrates cavernous sinus thrombosis by the infection after the functional neck dissection and the intraoral reconstruction with auriculomastoid fascio-cutaneous island flap.

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Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Oleoresin by Supercritical Fluid Extraction (초임계유체 추출에 의한 생강(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Oleoresin의 항균활성)

  • Lee, Myung-Hee;Lee, Kyoung-Hae;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2012
  • The study indicated that antimicrobial activity about gram positive and gram negative bacteria of ginger-oleoresin(GO) extract with the condition of ethanol and supercritical fluid extractions. As the concentration of extraction increases, the clear zone of GO ethanol extract also increased dependently. This led the antimicrobial activity of gram positive bacteria to take bigger place than gram negative bacteria especially in Listeria monocytogenes. There was a high antimicrobial activity in E-III treatment where the ratio of the ginger powder extract to ethanol extraction was 1:6. It was quite effective to treat the antimicrobial activity of GO ethanol extract under $80^{\circ}C$ and there was not big difference in the intervals which were the extraction time - 1 to 7 hours. The antimicrobial activity of supercritical fluid extract seemed to take the biggest place in Listeria monocytogenes. From the supercritical fluid extract, it was shown the strong ability of antimicrobial activity in the condition with 100 bar $35^{\circ}C$, 250 bar $35^{\circ}C$ and 250 bar $65^{\circ}C$. Furthermore, according to the case of solvent extract, there was not any significant difference in the antimicrobial activity with condition of extraction. However, there was significant antimicrobial activity in E-III treatment of 100 bar and 500 bar of extraction pressure, and $35^{\circ}C$ and $65^{\circ}C$ of extraction temperature.