• Title, Summary, Keyword: high-incidence

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Effects of Incidence Angle on the Three-Dimensional Flow and Aerodynamic Loss Downstream of a High-Turning Turbine Rotor Blade (입사각이 고선회 터빈 동익 하류에서의 3차원 유동 및 압력손실에 미치는 영향)

  • Chae, Byoung-Joo;Lee, Sang-Woo
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2591-2596
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    • 2007
  • The effect of incidence angle on the three-dimensional flow and aerodynamic loss in the downstream region of a high-turning turbine rotor blade has been investigated with a straight miniature five-hole probe. The incidence angle is changed to be +10, +5, 0, -10, -20, -30 and -40 degrees. The results show that the positive incidence reinforces the three-dimensional vortical flows within the turbine passage including the passage vortex, but the negative incidence weaken them significantly. A small increment in the positive incidence angle results in a remarkable aerodynamic loss increase, while increasing the incidence angle in the negative range leads to a very small change in the aerodynamic loss.

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Incidence and Mortality from Mucosal Head and Neck Cancers amongst Australian States and Territories: What It Means for the Northern Territory

  • Singh, Jagtar;Jayaraj, Rama;Baxi, Siddhartha;Ramamoorthi, Ramya;Thomas, Mahiban
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5621-5624
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    • 2013
  • Mucosal head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that develop in the upper-aero digestive epithelium. Together they constitute the sixth most common cancer with an estimated 900,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths each year reported worldwide. The risk factors are tobacco, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Our research team initially reported a high incidence rate of HNC in the indigenous population of the Northern Territory. Mortality rates also vary in the Australian States and Territories, with particularly high mortality observed in the Northern Territory. There is a paucity of incidence studies of HNC for the Australian States and Territories. Therefore this review primarily focuses on variation in incidence and mortality iacross the country and highlights specifically the high incidence and mortality in the Northern Territory. Attention is also given to sex-specific incidence and mortality rates.

Lack of an Apparent Association between Mycotoxin Concentrations in Red Chili Peppers and Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer in India : an Ecological Study

  • Ikoma, Toshikazu;Kapoor, Vinay Kumar;Behari, Anu;Mishra, Kumudesh;Tsuchiya, Yasuo;Asai, Takao;Endoh, Kazuo;Okano, Kiyoshi;Nakamura, Kazutoshi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3499-3503
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    • 2016
  • Our recent studies conducted in South America have shown that mycotoxin contamination of red chili peppers (RCPs) may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Whether this relationship exists in India, a country with a high incidence of GBC and high consumption of RCPs, is unclear. We therefore measured concentrations of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in RCPs from areas of low, medium, and high incidence of GBC in India, and compared these concentrations with GBC incidence in each area. Twenty-one RCP samples were collected from nine cities (eight from a low-incidence area, five from a medium-incidence area, and eight from a high-incidence area). Concentrations of AFs and OTA were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences in mean concentrations of AFs and OTA were found in the three areas. AFB1 levels in the low-incidence area ($10.81{\mu}g/kg$) and high-incidence area ($12.00{\mu}g/kg$) were more than 2.2 and 2.4 times higher compared with the maximum permitted level of AFB1 in spices ($5.0{\mu}g/kg$) set by the Commission of the European Communities, or that ($4.4{\mu}g/kg$) obtained in our previous study in Chile. Our results show that the mean concentrations of mycotoxins in RCPs are similar among the three areas in India with different incidences of GBC. Further studies with human subjects are needed to evaluate any association between AFB1 and GBC.

Spatial and Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Kazakhstan, 1999-2013

  • Beysebayev, Eldar;Bilyalova, Zarina;Kozhakeeva, Lyazzat;Baissalbayeva, Ainur;Abiltayeva, Aizhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6795-6798
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    • 2015
  • Breast cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are considered to be increasing but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for the whole country, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 1999-2013. Age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups. It was determined that during the studied period 45,891 new cases of breast cancer were registered and 20,122 women died of this pathology. Average breast cancer incidence and mortality were $37.9{\pm}1.10/10^5$ and $16.7{\pm}0.20/10^5$ respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.44. Incidence tended to increase (T = + 2.3%), and mortality to decrease (T of =-0.3%). Peaks of incidence and mortality were noted in those aged 60-74 years and 75-84, respectively. Particularly high incidences were established in large cities of Kazakhstan, Astana ($46.8{\pm}1.80/10^5$) and Almaty ($49.7{\pm}1.30/10^5$), and high mortality was observed in the Pavlodar region ($17.9{\pm}0.60/10^5$) and Almaty city ($20.1{\pm}0.40/10^5$). Considerable variation in the mortality/incidence ratio was noted, suggesting the need for more stress on access to screening and clinical care in some regions of the country.

Global Incidence and Mortality Rates of Stomach Cancer and the Human Development Index: an Ecological Study

  • Khazaei, Salman;Rezaeian, Shahab;Soheylizad, Mokhtar;Khazaei, Somayeh;Biderafsh, Azam
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1701-1704
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    • 2016
  • Background: Stomach cancer (SC) is the second leading cause of cancer death with the rate of 10.4% in the world. The correlation between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and human development index (HDI) has not been globally determined. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and HDI in various regions. Materials and Methods: In this global ecological study, we used the data about the incidence and mortality rate of SC and HDI from the global cancer project and the United Nations Development Programme database, respectively. Results: In 2012, SCs were estimated to have affected a total of 951,594 individuals (crude rate: 13.5 per 100,000 individuals) with a male/female ratio of 1.97, and caused 723,073 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 10.2 per 100,000 individuals). There was a positive correlation between the HDI and both incidence (r=0.28, P<0.05) and mortality rates of SC (r=0.13, P = 0.1) in the world in 2012. Conclusions: The high incidence and mortality rates of SC in countries with high and very high HDI is remarkable which should be the top priority of interventions for global health policymakers. In addition, health programs should be provided to reduce the burden of this disease in the regions with high incidence and mortality rates of SC.

Observations on Foot Disease of Slaughter Cattle (도축우(屠畜牛)의 제질환(蹄疾患)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Myung-cheol
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 1985
  • Incidence of foot disease of Korean native cattle (231 cases) and Holstein (310 cases) in slaughter house was observed from July August, 1984. 1. Incidence rate of foot disease was 9.09%, 12.90% and 11.27% for Korean native cattle, Holstein and total respectively. 2. Chronic necrotic pododermatitis showed the highest incidence among all foot disease and it's incidence rate was 6.47% in all cattle observes. 3. Topographical incidence rate of chronic necrotic pododermatitis was 25.7%, 60.0% and 14.3% for forefoot, hind foot and not specified respectively, so the disease showed high incidence rate in hind foot.

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Effects of colostrum-conferred passive immunity on disease incidence in Korean native calves during the suckling period (한우 송아지의 초유섭취에 의한 수동면역이 포유기간 중의 질병발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Doo;Han, Hong-ryul
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 1989
  • The effects of the serum total protein and immunoglobulin levels of the colostrumconferred Korean native calves at 2 days of age on the disease incidence during the suckling period were studied. The results obtained were summerized as follows: 1. Serum total protein, total immunoglobulin, IgG, and IgM levels of 6 Korean native claves died from septicemia were lower than those of calves survived (p<0.05). 2. Korean native calves having low serum total protein and immunoglobulins were affected with diarrhea earlier in life, when compared with calves having high serum levels (p<0.05). 3. Korea native calves having low serum total protein were affected with bronchopneumonia earlier in life, when compared with calves having high serum levels (p<0.05). 4. Korean native calves having low serum neutralizing antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus had high incidence rate of BVD, when compared with calves having high serum neutralizing antibody titers (p<0.05).

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Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer

  • Ikoma, Toshikazu;Tsuchiya, Yasuo;Asai, Takao;Okano, Kiyoshi;Ito, Naoko;Endoh, Kazuo;Yamamoto, Masaharu;Nakamura, Kazutoshi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5987-5991
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    • 2015
  • Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits ($5{\mu}g/kg$), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit ($15{\mu}g/kg$). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean $355{\mu}g/kg$, range < $5-1,059{\mu}g/kg$) and Bolivia (mean $207{\mu}g/kg$, range $0.8-628{\mu}g/kg$), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru ($14{\mu}g/kg$, range < $5-47{\mu}g/kg$), which has an intermediate GBC incidence. The OTA contamination in the red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cell with Random Textured Anti Glare (RTAG) Glass

  • Kim, Geon Ho;Jeon, Bup Ju
    • Applied Science and Convergence Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2016
  • The surface treatment of cover glass for conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cell is important to reduce reflectivity and to increase the incident light. In this work, random textured anti glare (RTAG) glass was prepared by wet surface coating method. Optical properties due to the changes of surface morphology of RTAG glass were compared and conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cell was researched. Grain size and changes of surface morphologies formed with surface etching time greatly affected optical transmittance and transmission haze. Current density (Jsc) were high at the condition when surface morphologies reflection haze were low and transmission haze were high. Jsc was $40.0mA/cm^2$ at glancing angle of $90^{\circ}$. Incidence light source was strongly influenced by surface treatment of cover glass at high incidence angle but was hardly affected light source at the low angle of incidence.

Epidemiological Aspects of Morbidity and Mortality from Cervical Cancer in Kazakhstan

  • Igissinov, Nurbek;Nuralina, Indira;Igissinova, Gulnur;Kim, Sergei;Moore, Malcolm;Igissinov, Saginbek;Khassenova, Zauresh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2345-2348
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    • 2012
  • Epidemiological studies of cancer incidence in Kazakhstan have revealed an uneven distribution for cervical cancer. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated for different regions of the republic, including the two major cities of Almaty and Astana, in 1999-2008. Defined levels for cartograms for incidence were low (up to 12.8/100,000), medium (12.8 to 15.9) and high (above 15.9) and for mortality were up to 7.1, 7.1 to 10.8 and more than 10.8, respectively. Basically high incidence rates were identified in the eastern, central and northern parts of the country and in Almaty. Such differences in cervical cancer data, and also variation in mortality/ incidence ratios, from a low of 0.4 in Almaty to a high of 0.71 in Zhambyl, point to variation in demographic and medical features which impact on risk and prognistic factors for cervical cancer in the country. Further research is necessary to highlight areas for emphasis in cancer control programs for this important cancer.