• Title, Summary, Keyword: high risk population

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Estimation of High-Risk Drinkers and Drinking Behavior in Korea - Focusing on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and Korean Statistical Information Service Data -

  • Hwang, Seonghee
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.65-77
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study investigated the average number of drinkers in Korea, the number of high-risk drinkers, the average amount of alcohol consumed by high-risk drinkers, and the types of alcohol consumed according to the characteristics of the group of dependent drinkers. Methods: The results were obtained by analyzing the following data: The Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health; Country Profile 2014; WHO Country Profile 2014; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014, Korean Statistical Information Service; National Tax Statistics-Liquor Tax; Gallup Drinking Frequency Survey 2015 Results: This study found that a large proportion of drinkers in Korea are already high-risk drinkers, and even among drinkers, alcohol consumption was highly biased. It was reported that 49.8% of men in the problem, abuse, and dependence groups accounted for 92.4% of total alcohol consumption among the male population. Notably, the 9.6% of men making up the dependent group consumed more than 30% of the alcohol ingested among males. Women had significant variations within groups that were considered high-risk and exhibited a large share of alcohol consumption in the problem (10.0% of the female population), abuse (1.8% of the female population), and dependence (1.5% of the female population) groups, constituting 72.8% of total alcohol consumption. The average amount of alcohol consumed by drinkers in Korea seems to have exceeded the level of intake by high-risk groups. Alcohol-dependent groups consumed 900.7 mL of soju, 405.2 mL of table wine, and 2,043.8 mL of beer, which is very similar to the consumption average of 2,031 mL of beer and 895.2 mL of soju in the drinking group. Conclusion: It has been shown that men's dependence on alcohol is serious, and it is possible to infer that alcohol consumption in some vulnerable groups is very high. As the average alcohol intake among alcohol-dependent groups and ordinary drinkers is very similar, it is highly likely that the drinker is an alcohol-dependent consumer in Korea.

Sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infection in the elderly population of South Korea

  • Kim, Hee Youn;Choe, Hyun-Sop;Lee, Dong Sup;Yoo, Je Mo;Lee, Seung-Ju
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To study the sexual behavior and status of sexually transmitted urethritis (STU) in the elderly population of South Korea. Materials and Methods: Congregating places for elderly population, which were selected on the expected risk of sexually transmitted infections, were visited to study their sexual behavior, awareness on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and STU status using a specially developed survey and urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. In addition, analysis of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA) database was done to study the nationwide status and trends of STU of the elderly population. Results: The study found that approximately 42% of elderly South Koreans were sexually active. Elderlies in the high-risk group showed a higher percentage of multiple sexual partners and prostitution than elderlies in the low-risk group. Only 3% and 14% in the low-risk group and high-risk group used condoms, showing a very low rate of condom use. Both the urine PCR results and HIRA database analysis showed that the prevalence of STU was not high and it remained stable in recent years, implying that currently, STU is not a significant burden on public health in the elderly population of South Korea. Conclusions: The current study presented the sexual behavior in the elderly population of South Korea, as well as the recent prevalence and trend of STU in the elderly population. These results may be used as baseline data for future study, education, prevention and public campaign plan for STDs in the elderly population.

Cost-Effectiveness of Voluntary HIV Testing Strategies in a Very Low-Prevalence Country, the Republic of Korea

  • Lee, Young Hwa;Bang, Ji Hwan;Park, Sang Min;Kang, Cho Ryok;Cho, Sung-Il;Oh, Myoung-don;Lee, Jong-Koo
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.33 no.46
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    • pp.304.1-304.7
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    • 2018
  • Background: The Republic of Korea has a very low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the number of new HIV diagnoses has steadily risen, strongly indicating a large number of undetected HIV infections. Thus, it is important for Korean public health authorities to adopt and encourage cost-effective HIV detection tools, such as rapid HIV screening tests. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and rapid tests in a public health center (PHC) setting. Methods: We developed a decision analytic model to assess the per-examinee cost and the cost-effectiveness of identifying HIV patients in a PHC setting using two HIV testing strategies: conventional HIV screening by ELISA versus rapid HIV testing. Analysis was performed in two scenarios: HIV testing in an average-risk population and in a high-risk population. Results: Compared to the ELISA, the rapid test was cost-saving and cost-effective. The per-examinee cost was USD 1.61 with rapid testing versus USD 3.38 with ELISA in an average-risk population, and USD 4.77 with rapid testing versus USD 7.62 with ELISA in a high-risk population. The cost of identifying a previously undiagnosed HIV case was USD 26,974 with rapid testing versus USD 42,237 with ELISA in an average-risk population, and USD 153 with rapid testing versus USD 183 with ELISA in a high-risk population. Conclusion: Rapid testing would be more cost-effective than using conventional ELISA testing for identifying previously undiagnosed HIV-infected cases in Korea, a country with extremely low HIV prevalence.

Strategies to reduce risk factors of non-communicable diseases in South Korea (만성질환 위험요인 감소를 위한 전략과 방향)

  • Khang, Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This review is to suggest strategies to reduce risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in South Korea. Methods: Prior research findings on the burden of NCD and associated risk factors and the effectiveness of intervention programs were reviewed. Strategies regarding the control of NCD risk factors were conceived. Results: The author presented research findings from the Global Burden of Disease study on the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) and associated risk factors in South Korea. Strengths and limitations of population and high-risk strategies for preventing NCDs were introduced. The author also reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of multiple cardiovascular risk factor interventions and community-based intervention programs on cardiovascular diseases conducted in industrialized countries. Finally, strategies to reduce NCD risk factors in South Korea were suggested. Conclusions: The evidence-based interventions and the importance of population strategies in NCD prevention were highlighted. The author indicated that strategies employed by unhealthy commodity industries to undermine effective public health policies and programs should be actively monitored. It has been suggested that effective high-risk strategies with ecological models to address social risks rather than medical risks among disadvantaged population should be further developed in South Korea.

Drinking Patterns Among Korean Adults: Results of the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey

  • Ryu, So Yeon;Crespi, Catherine M.;Maxwell, Annette E.
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: In Korea, the proportion of deaths due to alcohol is estimated at 8.9%, far exceeding the global estimate of 3.8%. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the factors associated with low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk drinking patterns in Korean adults and to identify target populations for prevention and control of alcohol-related diseases and deaths. Methods: We analyzed data from 230 715 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between socio-demographic and health-related factors and patterns of alcohol use. Results: A substantially larger proportion of men than women engaged in high risk (21.2% vs. 3.4%) and moderate-risk alcohol use (15.5% vs. 8.2%). In both sexes, moderate- and high-risk uses were associated with younger age, higher income, being currently employed, smoking, being overweight/obese, and good self-rated health. Conclusions: Given the large proportion of the population that is engaging in moderate- and high-risk drinking and given the social norms that support this behavior, public health policies and campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption targeting the entire population are indicated.

Interactions of Behavioral Changes in Smoking, High-risk Drinking, and Weight Gain in a Population of 7.2 Million in Korea

  • Kim, Yeon-Yong;Kang, Hee-Jin;Ha, Seongjun;Park, Jong Heon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.234-241
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: To identify simultaneous behavioral changes in alcohol consumption, smoking, and weight using a fixed-effect model and to characterize their associations with disease status. Methods: This study included 7 000 529 individuals who participated in the national biennial health-screening program every 2 years from 2009 to 2016 and were aged 40 or more. We reconstructed the data into an individual-level panel dataset with 4 waves. We used a fixed-effect model for smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, and overweight. The independent variables were sex, age, lifestyle factors, insurance contribution, employment status, and disease status. Results: Becoming a high-risk drinker and losing weight were associated with initiation or resumption of smoking. Initiation or resumption of smoking and weight gain were associated with non-high-risk drinkers becoming high-risk drinkers. Smoking cessation and becoming a high-risk drinker were associated with normal-weight participants becoming overweight. Participants with newly acquired diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer tended to stop smoking, discontinue high-risk drinking, and return to a normal weight. Conclusions: These results obtained using a large-scale population-based database documented interactions among lifestyle factors over time.

Estimating the Burden of Diseases due to High Alcohol Consumption in Korea: (고도음주로 인한 우리나라 국민의 질병부담 측정)

  • Kim, Yong-Ik;Yoon, Seok-Jun;Lee, Jin-Yong;Lee, Hee-Young;Park, Jong-Hyock;Shin, Young-Soo;Lee, Jung-Kyu
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: This study estimated the burden of disease due to high alcohol consumption using DALY, a composite indicator recently developed by the Global Burden of Disease study group. The results were analyzed by age and sex. Methods: Firstly, high alcohol consumption-related diseases, and their relative risk (RR), were selected. Secondly, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were computed using formulae, including the relative risk (RR) and prevalence of exposure (Pe). Thirdly, the DALYs of high alcohol consumption-related diseases were estimated. Lastly, the attributable burdens of diseases due to high alcohol consumption wereconcluded as being the sum of the products that multiplied the DALYs of high alcohol consumption-related diseases by their population attributable fraction (PAF). Results : The burden of high alcohol consumption in Korea was 2992.3 person years (PYs) per 100,000 persons in men, and 1426.6 in women. For men, the high alcohol consumption-induced diseases with the five biggest burdens were liver cirrhosis, hypertensive disease, liver cancer, cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. For women, these were cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertensive disease, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Conclusion: This study highlighted the attributable fraction of diseases due to exposure to high alcohol consumption, by quantifying the results of exposure to risk factors. Therefore, it is now possible to assess interventions for risk factors in quantifiable terms in each population. Finally, measuring the risk factor burdens was expected to contribute to priority setting and effective resource allocation in public health policy.

Association between Omega Fatty Acid Intake and Suicidality : Sex Differences in the General Korean Population

  • Hur, Yang-Im;Lee, Jung Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : Epidemiological studies in other countries show that a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) increases the risk of depression or suicidality. However, no studies have investigated the associations of suicidality with omega-3 FAs in Korea. Hence, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the effects of omega FAs on suicidality in the general South Korean population. Methods : The data in this study were sourced from adults (n=215,860) who completed the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI), and the associations between omega FAs and suicidality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regressions. Results : Our results demonstrated that high omega-3 FA intake was associated with a decreased risk of suicide (OR=0.83, 95% CI : 0.71-0.98) and the high omega-6 to omega-3 FA ratio was associated with an increased risk of suicide (OR=1.25, 95% CI : 1.02-1.54). Additionally, a high intake of omega-3 FAs was associated with a decreased risk of suicide in men, but not in women (OR=0.72, 95% CI : 0.59-0.88). Conclusions : Overall, our findings suggest that a lower intake of omega-3 FA is associated with the increased risk of suicidality in the general Korean population, especially in men.

Distribution of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Bua Yai District, Nakhon Ratchasima of Thailand Using Google Map

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Sangkudloa, Amnat;Kaewthani, Sarochinee;Khemplila, Kritsakorn;Cherdjirapong, Karuna;Kujapun, Jirawoot;Norkaew, Jun;Chavengkun, Wasugree;Ponphimai, Sukanya;Polsripradist, Poowadol;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Joosiri, Apinya;Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart;Loyd, Ryan A;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1433-1436
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a major problem of health in Thailand, particularly in Northeastern and Northern regions, is generally incurable and rapidly lethal because of presentation in stage 3 or 4. Early diagnosis of stage 1 and 2 could allow better survival. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a distribution map of populations at risk for CCA in BuaYai district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeast Thailand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 10 sub-districts and 122 villages, during June and November 2015. The populations at risk for CCA were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) and then risk areas were displayed by using Google map (GM). Results: A total of 11,435 individuals from a 26,198 population completed the KCVST. The majority had a low score of risk for CCA (1-4 points; 93.3%). High scores with 6, 7 and 8 points accounted for 1.20%, 0.13% and 0.02%. The population at risk was found frequently in sub-district municipalities, followed by sub-district administrative organization and town municipalities, (F=396.220, P-value=0.000). Distribution mapping comprised 11 layers: 1, district; 2, local administrative organization; 3, hospital; 4, KCVST opisthorchiasis; 5, KCVST praziquantel used; 6, KCVST cholelithiasis; 7, KCVST raw fish consumption; 8, KCVST alcohol consumption; 9, KCVST pesticide used; 10, KCVST relative family with CCA; and 11, KCVST naive northeastern people. Geovisual display is now available online. Conclusions: This study indicated that the population at high risk of CCA in Bua Yai district is low, therefore setting a zero model project is possible. Key success factors for disease prevention and control need further study. GM production is suitable for further CCA surveillance and monitoring of the population with a high risk score in this area.

Diet and Cancer Risk in the Korean Population: A Meta-analysis

  • Woo, Hae Dong;Park, Sohee;Oh, Kyungwon;Kim, Hyun Ja;Shin, Hae Rim;Moon, Hyun Kyung;Kim, Jeongseon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8509-8519
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    • 2014
  • Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.