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High glucose diets shorten lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans via ectopic apoptosis induction

  • Choi, Shin-Sik
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.214-218
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    • 2011
  • Diets based on carbohydrates increase rapidly the blood glucose level due to the fast conversion of carbohydrates to glucose. High glucose diets have been known to induce many lifestyle diseases. Here, we demonstrated that high glucose diet shortened the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through apoptosis induction. Control adult groups without glucose diet lived for 30 days, whereas animals fed 10 mg/L of D-glucose lived only for 20 days. The reduction of lifespan by glucose diet showed a dose-dependent profile in the concentration range of glucose from 1 to 20 mg/L. Aging effect of high glucose diet was examined by measurement of response time for locomotion after stimulating movement of the animals by touching. Glucose diet decreased the locomotion capacity of the animals during mid-adulthood. High glucose diets also induced ectopic apoptosis in the body of C. elegans, which is a potent mechanism that can explain the shortened lifespan and aging. Apoptotic cell corpses stained with SYTO 12 were found in the worms fed 10 mg/L of glucose. Mutation of core apoptotic regulatory genes, CED-3 and CED-4, inhibited the reduction of viability induced by high glucose diet, which indicates that these regulators were required for glucose-induced apoptosis or lifespan shortening. Thus, we conclude that high glucose diets have potential for inducing ectopic apoptosis in the body, resulting in a shortened lifespan accompanied with loss of locomotion capacity.

High Glucose Inhibitory Effects on Bone Formation in UMR106 Cells

  • Kwon, Eun-Hee;Jung, In-Ok;Kim, Sung-Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.81-84
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    • 2003
  • Recently, diabetes has been found to be associated with osteoporosis. Specially in IDDM. In both type I and type II diabetes, glucose levels are elevated. Thus, a linkage between high glucose and osteoporosis can not be ruled out. In this study, an attempt has been made to observe the effect of high glucose on bone formation; osteoblast like UMR 106 cells were treated with high glucose (22 mM, 33 mM) for 1, 3 or 7 days. The high concentration of glucose inhibited markers. of bone formation activity such as alkaline phosphatase and collagen synthesis. In addition, reduction in the level of total cellular protein in response to high glucose was also observed. This study showed high glucose concentration could alter the bone metabolism leading to a defective bone formation and thus paving the linkage of such situation to diabetic complications.

The Regulation of Insulin-Like Growth (IGF) Factors and IGF Binding Proteins by High Glucose in Mesangial Cells

  • Park Soo-hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.203-210
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    • 2004
  • It has been reported that glomerulosclerosis mediated by the dysfunction of mesangial cells and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is not yet known the effect of high glucose on IGF-I, -II secretion, IGF-I receptor, and IGFBPs expression in the mesangial cells. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the effect of high glucose on IGF system and its involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and oxidative stress in mesangial cells. In this study, high glucose (25 mM) increased IGF-I and IGF-II secretion and mRNA expression (P<0.05), which was blocked by PKC inhibitor (staurosporine, 10/sup -8/ M) and antioxidant (N-acetyl cystein, 10/sup -5/ M). High glucose decreased IGFBP-1 and -2 expression but increased IGFBP-5 expression. These alteration of IGFBPs by high glucose was also prevented by staurosporine and NAC, suggesting the role of PKC and oxidative stress. Indeed, high glucose increased PKC activity. Furthermore, high glucose-induced increase of lipid peroxide (LPO) formation was blocked by PKC inhibitors. In conclusion, high glucose alters IGF system via PKC-oxidative pathways in mesangial cells.

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Protective Effect of Padina arborescens Extract against High Glucose-induced Oxidative Damage in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

  • Park, Mi Hwa;Han, Ji Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2013
  • Dysfunction of endothelial cells is considered a major cause of vascular complications in diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of Padina arborescens extract against high glucose-induced oxidative damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). High-concentration of glucose (30 mM) treatment induced cytotoxicity whereas Padina arborescens extract protected the cells from high glucose-induced damage and significantly restored cell viability. In addition, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO) levels induced by high glucose treatment were effectively inhibited by treatment of Padina arborescens extract in a dose-dependent manner. High glucose treatment also induced the overexpressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2) and NF-${\kappa}B$ proteins in HUVECs, but Padina arborescens extract treatment reduced the over-expressions of these proteins. These findings indicate the potential benefits of Padina arborescens extract as a valuable source in reducing the oxidative damage induced by high glucose.

Effect of Polyopes lancifolia Extract on Oxidative Stress in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Induced by High Glucose

  • Min, Seong Won;Han, Ji Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2013
  • The protective effect of Polyopes lancifolia extract on high glucose-induced oxidative stress was investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). High concentration of glucose (30 mM) treatment induced HUVECs cell death, but Polyopes lancifolia extract, at concentrations of 25, 50, and $100{\mu}g/mL$, protected cells from high glucose-induced damage. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide levels increased by high glucose treatment were effectively decreased by treatment with Polyopes lancifolia extract in a dose-dependent manner. Also, Polyopes lancifolia extract treatment reduced the overexpressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor-kappa B proteins activation that was induced by high glucose in HUVECs. These results indicate that Polyopes lancifolia extract is a potential therapeutic material that will reduce the damage caused by high glucose-induced-oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

The effect of high concentration of glucose on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide induced by lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathic bacteria (고농도의 글루코스가 치주질환 병인균주의 세균내독소에 의한 염증성 cytokine 및 nitric oxide의 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Jo
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.511-520
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders manifested by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. Mounting evidence demonstrates that diabetes is a risk factor for gingivitis and periodontitis. The circulating mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia are chronically exposed to high level of serum glucose. Thus, this study attempted to determine the effect of pre-exposure of monocytes and macrophages to high concentration of glucose on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Material and Methods: For this purpose, cells were cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) for 4-5 weeks before treatment for 24 h with LPS. LPS was highly purified from Porphyromonas gingivalis or Prevotella intermedia by phenol extraction. Result: Results showed that prolonged pre-exposure of cells to high glucose markedly increased LPS-stimulated NO secretion when compared to normal glucose. In addition to NO, high glucose also augmented LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-$\alpha$ secretion after cells were exposed to high glucose for 4 weeks. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that pre-exposure of mononuclear phagocytes with high glucose augments LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators. These findings may explain why periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients is more severe than that in non-diabetic individuals.

Effect of High glucose on JNK/ERK signaling pathway in UMR106 cells

  • Jung, In-Ok;Jin, Mei-Hua;Kim, Sung-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.79-79
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    • 2003
  • Recently diabetes has been found to be associated with metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In the present study, attempts have been made-to explore the effect of high glucose in bone formation. Osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells were treated with high glucose (22mM, 33mM, 44mM) for 1 or 2 days. High glucose significantly inhibited proliferation of UMR106 cells in a time- and dose- dependent manner as evidenced by MTT assay. For the evaluation of collagen synthesis, UMR 106 cells were cultured in high glucose media (44mM) for 24 h and the ratio of collagen content to total protein was measured. In addition, gene expression pattern of type I collagen was assessed by RT-PCR. The high concentration of glucose inhibited a collagen synthesis, a marker of bone formation activity. JNK, c- Jun N-terminal Kinase, is known to play an important role in stress-associated cell death. In this regard, we tested to determine whether high glucose has any effect on JNK activity. It has been found that treatment of high glucose induced phosphorylation of JNK. On the other hand, ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by high glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, Therefore these results indicate that inhibition of proliferation in UMR 106 cells following high glucose is related to JNK/ERK containing signal pathways. This study showed high glucose concentration could alter the bone metabolism leading to defective bone formation, suggesting that high glucose due to diabetes may playa significant role in the development of metabolic bone disease.

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The regulatory mechanism of insulin like growth factor secretion by high glucose in mesangial cell: involvement of cAMP (Mesangial 세포에서 고포도당에 의한 insulin-like growth factor의 분비조절기전에 관한 연구: cAMP와의 관련성)

  • Heo, Jung-sun;Kang, Chang-won;Han, Ho-jae;Park, Soo-hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.563-571
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    • 2003
  • Dysfunction of mesangial cells has been contributed to the onset of diabetic nephropathy. Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) are also implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is not yet known about the effect of high glucose on IGF-I and IGF-II secretion in the mesangial cells. Furthermore, the relationship between cAMP and high glucose on the secretion of IGFs was not elucidated. Thus, we examined the mechanisms by which high glucose regulates secretion of IGFs in mesangial cells. Glucose increased IGF-I secretion in a time- (>8 hr) and dose- (>15 mM) dependent manner (p<0.05). Stimulatory effect of high glucose on IGF-I secretion is predominantly observed in 25 mM glucose (high glucose), while 25 mM glucose did not affect cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. High glucose also increased IGF-II secretion. The increase of IGF-I and IGF-II secretion is not mediated by osmotic effect, since mannitol and L-glucose did not affect IGF-I and IGF-II secretion. 8-Br-cAMP mimicked high glucose-induced secretion of IGF-I and IGF-II. High glucose-induced stimulation of IGF-I and IGF-II secretion was blocked not by pertussis toxin but by SQ 22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor). Rp-cAMP (cAMP antagonist), and myristoylated protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor amide 14-22 (protein kinase A inhibitor). These results suggest that cAMP/PKA pathways independent of Gi protein may mediate high glucose-induced increase of IGF-I and IGF-II secretion in mesangial cells. Indeed, glucose (>15 mM glucose) increased cAMP formation. In conclusion, high glucose stimulates IGF-I and IGF-II secretion via cAMP/PKA pathway in mesangial cells.

High Glucose Potentiates the Alloxan-induced Cytotoxicity in Cultured Rat Insulinoma Cells (흰쥐 인슐린종세포에서 고농도 포도당의 Alloxan 독성 증강 효과)

  • 이병래;차종희;박재윤;고춘남;박평심
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.875-880
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    • 2000
  • Reactive oxygen species are produced under diabetic conditions and possibly cause various forms of tissue damage in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of high glucose on the alloxan-induced beta cell injury. The insulinoma (RINm5F) cells were clutured either with high glucose (22.2 mM) or normoglucose (5.6 mM) in RPMI 1460 media for 3 days. The SOD activities were determined by spectrophotometric assay and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) stain. The effects of high glucose on the cytotoxicity of alloxan were also investigated in RINm5F cells and the cells viability were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods. Results showed that the CuZn-SOD activity was decreased but Mn-SOD activity was increased significantly in RINm5F cells cultured with high glucose (22.2 mM) media. The cytotoxicity of alloxan was increased by high glucose compared with normoglucose in RINm5F cells. Diethyl-dithiocarbarmate (DDC), as inhibitor of CuZn-SOC, also potentiate the alloxan-induced cytotoxocity in RINm5F cells. These results suggest that, in RINm5F cells, short term culture with high glucose media decreases Cu-Zn-SOD activity and the decreased activity of CuZn-SOD many one of the causative factors of beta-cell injury induced by high glucose.

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The relationship between high glucose-induced secretion of IGFs and PKC or oxidative stress in mesangial cells (Mesangial 세포에서 고포도당에 의한 IGFs 분비와 PKC 및 산화성 스트레스와의 관련성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Su-hyun;Heo, Jung-sun;Kang, Chang-won;Han, Ho-jae
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.497-505
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    • 2004
  • The proliferation of mesangial cells has been associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. The cell proliferation has been regulated by diverse growth factors. Among them, insulin like growth factors(IGFs) are also involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is not yet known about the effect of high glucose on IGF-I and IGF-II secretion and the relationship between high glucose-induced secretion of IGFs and PKC or oxidative stress in the mesangial cells. Thus, we examined the mechanisms by which high glucose regulates secretion of IGFs in mesangial cells. High glucose(25 mM) increased IGF-I and IGF-II secretion. High glucose-induced increase of IGF-I and IGF-II secretion were blocked by taurine($2{\times}10^{-3}$ M), N-acetyl cystein(NAC, $10^{-5}M$), or GSH($10^{-5}M$) (antioxidants), suggesting the role of oxidative stress. High glucose-induced secretion of IGF-I and IGF-II were blocked by H-7, staurosporine, and bisindolylmaleimide I(protein kinase C inhibitors). On the other hand, high glucose also increased lipid peroxide (LPO) formation in a dose dependent manner. In addition, high glucoseinduced stimulation of LPO formation was blocked by PKC inhibitors. These results suggest that PKC is responsible for the increase of oxidative stress in the action of high glucose-induced secretion of IGF-I and IGF-II in mesangial cells. In conclusion, high glucose stimulates IGF-I and IGF-II secretion via PKCoxidative stress signal pathways in mesangial cells.