• Title, Summary, Keyword: herbicide tolerance

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Genetic Analysis of Thiobencarb Tolerance in Rice(Oryza sativa L.) (제초제(除草劑) Thiobencarb에 대한 벼 내성(耐性)의 유전(遺傳))

  • Shin, D.H.;Moody, K.;Zapata, F.J.;Kim, K.U.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 1990
  • Five parents which showed differential response to thiobencarb and their $F_1$ hybrids were treated with thiobencarb (S-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]diethylcarbamothioate) at 2 and 4 kg ai/ha in order to investigate the inheritance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to the herbicide. In the analysis of diallel crosses for tolerance of rice cultivars to the herbicide, highly significant GCA (general combining ability) and SCA (specific combining ability) effects were observed at both herbicide rates using the parameters of plant height and dry weight ; the GCA effect being greater than the SCA effect. The additive effects appeared to be more prevalent than dominance effects, and partial dominance was recognized in relation to herbicide tolerance in the different rice cultivars. Higher heritabilities in the narrow and broad senses were observed at 4 kg ai/ha. The heritabilities in the narrow sense for plant height and dry weight were 0.726 and 0. 743, respectively. IR9660-50-3-1 which showed the highest GCA effects seemed to possess more dominant genes related to herbicide tolerance than the other rice cultivars tested.

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Overexpression of ginseng cytochrome P450 CYP736A12 alters plant growth and confers phenylurea herbicide tolerance in Arabidopsis

  • Khanom, Sanjida;Jang, Jinhoon;Lee, Ok Ran
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.645-653
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    • 2019
  • Background: Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze a wide range of reactions in plant metabolism. Besides their physiological functions on primary and secondary metabolites, P450s are also involved in herbicide detoxification via hydroxylation or dealkylation. Ginseng as a perennial plant offers more sustainable solutions to herbicide resistance. Methods: Tissue-specific gene expression and differentially modulated transcripts were monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. As a tool to evaluate the function of PgCYP736A12, the 35S promoter was used to overexpress the gene in Arabidopsis. Protein localization was visualized using confocal microscopy by tagging the fluorescent protein. Tolerance to herbicides was analyzed by growing seeds and seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium containing chlorotoluron. Results: The expression of PgCYP736A12 was three-fold more in leaves compared with other tissues from two-year-old ginseng plants. Transcript levels were similarly upregulated by treatment with abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and NaCl, the highest being with salicylic acid. Jasmonic acid treatment did not alter the mRNA levels of PgCYP736A12. Transgenic lines displayed slightly reduced plant height and were able to tolerate the herbicide chlorotoluron. Reduced stem elongation might be correlated with increased expression of genes involved in bioconversion of gibberellin to inactive forms. PgCYP736A12 protein localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Conclusion: PgCYP736A12 does not respond to the well-known secondary metabolite elicitor jasmonic acid, which suggests that it may not function in ginsenoside biosynthesis. Heterologous overexpression of PgCYP736A12 reveals that this gene is actually involved in herbicide metabolism.

Resistance of Plants to Herbicide (제초제(除草劑)에 대한 식물(植物)의 저항성(抵抗性))

  • Kim, Kil-Ung
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.96-106
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    • 1984
  • Changes in weed floras and development of plant resistance to herbicides seemed to be closely related with increased and repeated use of herbicides. Herbicide use increased from 5% of the total consumption of pesticide in 1950 to 45% in 1976 in world basis. About 200 herbicides have been introduced to agriculture so as to control about 206 weed species which have been recorded important to human beings. In Korea, there was about 351 times in increased use of herbicides from 1966 to 1982. Interspecific selection by herbicide is mainly responsible for changes in weed floras and resulted in varying tolerance or susceptibility to herbicides, together with the changes of agricultural practices. The present trend toward continuous cereal cultivation throughout world will lead to type of changes in weed floras favorable to therophyte which can survive under unfavorable conditions as seeds rather than the types of geophyte which can survive unfavorable seasons as buds placed below soil surface. However, geophyte such as Sagitaria pygmaea, and Scirpus jurtcoides, and Cyperus rotundus and Cynodon dactylon in temperate warm climate become severe paddy weeds, presumably because of the removal of annual weeds by herbicides. Since differential tolerance to 2,4-D was firstly reported in Agrostis stolofera, about 30 species of weeds in 18 genera are presently known to have developed resistance to triazine herbicides. Resistance of weed biotypes to triazine herbicide is not mainly due to limited absorption and translocation or to the difference in metabolism, but is the result of biochemical changes at the site of metabolic activity, such as a loss of herbicide affinity for triazine binding site in the photosystem II complex of the chloroplast membrane. Genetical study showed that plastid resistance to triazine was wholly inherited through cytoplasmic DNA in the case of Brassica campestris. Plant tissue culture method can be utilized as an alternate mean of herbicide screening and development of resistance variants to herbicides as suggested by Chaleff and Parsons. In this purpose, one should be certain that the primary target process is operational in cell culture. Further, there are a variety of obstacles in doing this type of research, particularly development of resistance source and it's regeneration because cultured cells and whole plants represent different developmental state.

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Studies on the herbicide Application for Use in Pasture Establishment by Overseeding II. Influence of herbicide residue in soils on the growth of introduce pasture grasses (겉뿌림 초지조성지에서 제초제 처리방법에 관한 연구 II. 제초제의 토양 잔류성과 목초의 생육장해)

  • 김정갑
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 1991
  • Iterbicide resduc. cauicd ~rljul-y to ovcrsown pasture grasses \\hen herbicide appliccl for use in pasturc est;~blish~nt~nt lo gro~vth contro! ol n;rtivc ~r ~:cds and shrubs. 'l'hih L~sperirnel~t was conducted to cv;lluati. (he herbicidr residue anti its ph!:totosical ~riiiuence on the growth of introtluccd pasturts species. Esperimcmtal soils was treated with buthitlazolc, ~ o d l ~ l m chlorate, glyphosatc. U-46 anti paraquat each at twt) applici~tion rates. Lhcf~1i.s glowl~mlc~ including othrr pasture grasses and le~urnes were evaluatrd for tolerance to herbicide. IIerbicide residue in the amount ot injury caused to introduced pasture grasses was found in order of buthidazole, sodium chlorate, U-46 and glyphosate. Euthidazole was not available for use in pasture establishment because of their long persist of toxic herbicide residues. A great stand redl~ction of subseq ~ ~ c n t oversown pastures was also observed In sodium chlorate treatment. However, normal vegetative stand and grass production was obtained, when thc pasture grasses seeded 45-60 days later herbicide treatments. Glyphosate did not affect subsequent oversown pasture species in both grasses and legumes. fistuccr arundinc~cea and Pou pratensis were the most tolerant pasture species to herbicide residue while 7'rzfi,lium pyatense and Medicugo suti~u showed a wsceptible response regardless of herbicide.

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Mechanisms of Tolerance to Diphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen in Rice Cultivars (Diphenyl Ether계 제초제 Oxyfluorfen에 대한 벼 품종간 저항성기구)

  • Choi, S.H.;Kim, N.Y.;Lee, J.J.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.362-371
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    • 1996
  • In this study, the relationships between sensitivity to oxyfluorfen, absorption of the herbicide, protoporphyrin IX(Proto IX) accumulation and activities of antioxidative enzymes were examined to identify the tolerance mechanism against oxyfluorfen in various rice cultivars having different level of tolerance to this herbicide. Absorption of oxyfluorfen in tolerant rice cultivars was slower than in susceptible cultivars. Proto IX accumulation in various rice cultivars treated with oxyfluorfen was higher in susceptible cultivars than in tolerant ones. In susceptible cultivars especially, Proto IX accumlated rapidly during the herbicide treatment in the dark. Large amounts of Proto IX accumulation were considered to cause membrane lipid peroxidation in the light. However, among the tested rice cultivars, there was little relationship between their tolerance to oxyfluorfen and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Therefore, it is assumed that differential susceptibility of rice cultivars to oxyfluorfen was due to difference in their capability to absorb the herbicide and to subsequently accumulate Proto IX.

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Molecular Breeding for Plant Disease Resistance : Prospects and Problems

  • Park, Hyo-Guen
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2001
  • The technique of plant transformation has started to show off its great power in the area of plant breeding by commercially successful introduction of transgenic varieties such as herbicide tolerant soybean and insect resistant corn in USA with an unimaginable speed. However, in contrast with the great success in the commercialization of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, the transformation works on disease resistance has not yet reached the stage of full commercialization. This review surveys the current status of molecular breeding for plant disease resistance and their limits and problems. Some novel ideas and approaches in molecular breeding for disease resistance are introduced.

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Selection of Herbicide Tolerant Cell lines from $\gamma$-ray-Irradiated Cell Cultures in Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Ilpumbyeo)

  • Bae, Chang-Hyu;Lee, Young-Ill;Lim, Yong-Pyo;Seo, Yong-Won;Lee, Do-Jin;Yang, Deuk-Chun;Lee, Hyo-Yeon
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2002
  • Herbicide tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Ilpumbyeo) cell lines were selected from $\gamma$-ray-irradiated anther-derived cell cultures. The anther-derived cell clusters were small (300 to 400 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in diameter) and uniform ones that were screened by miracloth filtering. The cell suspensions were very efficient to plate one layer onto agar medium and to screen target cell lines. Herbicide tolerant cell lines were selected by 5 mg/L cyhalofop butyl (CHB) treatment by using the small cell suspensions on agar N6 medium containing 1 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/L kinetin. Of the cell lines, one line (CHB-1) showed stable tolerance at 10 mg/L concentration after 6-month culture without herbicide suspension. Growth stability of CHB-1 was similar to that of control cell line on 10 mg/L CHB containing medium. In this experiment we established herbicide tolerant cell line selection system by using anther-derived uniform-cell suspensions with $\gamma$-ray-irradiation.

Development of Seashore Paspalum Turfgrass with Herbicide Resistance

  • Kim, Kyung-Moon;Song, In-Ja;Lee, Hyo-Yeon;Raymer, Paul;Kim, Beom-Seok;Kim, Wook
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.427-432
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    • 2009
  • Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) is a warm season grass and indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of coastal areas worldwide. The species is used as feed for cattle and horses and has been very successful for golf courses worldwide. One of the most outstanding characteristics of seashore paspalum is its tolerance to saline soils compared to other warm season turfgrasses. The development of new seashore paspalum cultivars with improved traits could be facilitated through the application of biotechnological strategies. The purpose of this study was to product for herbicide resistant seashore paspalum using Arobacterium-mediated transformation and this study is the first report on transformation and herbicideresistant transgenic plants in seashore paspalum. Embryogenic calli were induced from the seeded variety of pseashore paspalum. Embryogenic calli were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 with two genes encoding gusA and bar. Transformed calli and plants were selected on medium containing 3 mg/l PPT. PCR detected the presence of the gusA and bar gene, indicating both genes are integrated into the genome of seashore paspalum. A chlorophenol red assay was used to confirm that the bar gene was expressed. By application of herbicide BASTA, the herbicide resistance in the transgenic seashore paspalum plants was confirmed.

Effect of Thiobencarb on Various Agronomic Traits of Rice(Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars (제초제(除草劑) Thiobencarb 처리(處理)가 벼 주요형질(主要形質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Shin, D.H.;Moody, K.;Zapata, F.J.;Kim, K.U.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 1990
  • This study was conducted to determine which of the different agronomic traits of rice (Oryza saliva L.) has greater weight in predicting thiobencarb (S-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]diethylcarbamothioate) tolerance. Differences in plant height, tiller number, culm length, panicle number, and spikelet number per panicle between tolerant and susceptible cultivars were greater at the higher herbicide rate. However, days to heading and percent filled spikelets were not affected by herbicide rate. At the higher thiobencarb rate, the coefficients for all characters except plant height, tiller number, and percent filled spikelets were significant. Spikelet number per panicle and panicle number which had positive significant coefficients at both concentrations are the most useful indicators of total filled spikelets.

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Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana SIK (Stress Inducible Kinase) Gene in a Potato Cultivar (Solanum tuberosum L. 'Taedong Valley')

  • Yoon Jung-Ha;Fang Yi-Lan;Park Eung-Jun;Kim Hye-Jin;Na Yun-Jeong;Lee Dong-Hee;Yang Deok-Chun;Lim Hak-Tae
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2005
  • Osmotic stress is one of major limiting factors in crop production. In particular, seasonal drought often causes the secondary disease in the field, resulting in severe reduction in both quality and productivity. Recent efforts have revealed that many genes encoding protein kinases play important roles in osmotic stress signal transduction pathways. Previously, the AtSIK (Arabidopsis thaliana Stress Inducible Kinase) mutants have shown to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses, accompanying with higher expression of abiotic stress-related genes than did the wild-type plants. In this study, we have transformed potato (cv. Taedong Valley) with the AtSIK expression cassette. Both PCR and RT-PCR using AtSIK-specific primers showed stable integration and expression of the AtSIK gene in individual transgenic lines, respectively. Foliar application of herbicide ($Basta^{(R)}$) at commercial application rate (0.3% (v/v)) revealed another evidence of stable gene introduction of T-DNA which includes the bar gene for herbicide resistance. Overexpression of the AtSIK gene under dual CaMV35S promoter increased sensitivity to salt stress (300 mM NaCl), which was demonstrated by the reduction rate of chlorophyll contents in leaves of transgenic potato lines. These results suggest that possible increase of osmotic tolerance in potato plants may be achieved by antisense expression of AtSIK gene.

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