• Title, Summary, Keyword: hematologic toxicity

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A Study on GHS Classification of 3-Methylpentane by Subacute Inhalation Toxicity (아급성흡입독성시험을 이용한 3-Methylpentane의 GHS 분류·표시)

  • Chung, Yong Hyun;Han, Jeong Hee;Shin, Seo Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.6-17
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding Globally Harmonized System(GHS) classification and health hazards that may result from a 4 weeks inhalation exposure of 3-Methylpentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods : The testing method was conducted in accordance with OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 412(Subacute Inhalation Toxicity). The Rats were divided into 4 groups(5 male and 5 female rats in each group) and exposed to 0 ppm, 284 ppm, 1,135 ppm, 4,540 ppm 3-Methylpentane in each exposure chamber for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. After two weeks, the test animals were autopsied and carried out blood test and biochemical tests and histopathological examination. We used PRISTIMA (Toxicology data management system) to confirm the system and to have confidence of the raw data. Results : No death and particular clinical presentation including weight change and change of feed rate was observed. Relationship between dose, gender and response was also not significantly changed in hematologic examination, biochemical examination of blood and blood coagulation time. The histopathologic lesions caused by the test substance did not appear. Conclusions : NOAEL(No Observable Adverse Effect Level) of 3-Methylpentane is more than 4,540 ppm in male group and female group and the Ministry of Employment and Labor Guidance Announcement No. 2013-37(criteria for the classification marks and Safety of Chemicals) Specific target organ toxicity(repeated exposure) was determined with a substance that is not the separator material.

The Study on Safety of Scolopendrid Aqua-acupuncture (오공약침(蜈蚣藥鍼)의 안전성(安全性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lim, Seung-Il;Kim, Sung-Nam;So, Ki-Suk;Choi, Hoi-Kang;Lim, Jeong-A;Lee, Sang-Kwan;Moon, Hyung-Cheol;Soh, Kyung-Sun;Kim, Sung-Chul
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.37-51
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    • 2004
  • Objective : Recently scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture has been a good effect on pain control but it has not been known about clinical safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate acute toxicity of scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture. Method : In order to prove the clinical safety of scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture, We have observed a bacteriological examination and clinical pathology test after scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture treatment. Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with Scolopendrid aquaacupuncture treatment for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test. We analyzed physical reaction(side effect)and clinical pathology test before and after Scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture treatment of mice and 20 patients suffering from pain, who admitted department of Acupunture and Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Won-Kwang University Kwangju hospital. Results : In the Blood agar plate and Nutrient agar plate, a bacteriological examination did not show a bacillus. In acute $LD_{50}$ toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. In the 20 patients treated with Scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture, hematologic test did not show remarkable change. In the 20 patients treated with Scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture, Liver function test(AST, ALT, ALP) showed a slight decrease on the contrary, and abnormal rate showed a decrease of 5.0% compared with previous study. Reanl function test(BUN, Cr) and abnormal rate showed a decrease of 5.0% compared with previous study. In the 20 patients treated with Scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture, Electrolyte were normal range before and after treatment. In the Urine analysis of 20 patients, Leukocyte, Protein, Glucose, Keton, Bilirubin, U-bilinogen were not detected before and after Scolopendrid aqua-acupuncture treatment, and the rest almost made no difference.

Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

  • Bae, Bong Kyung;Kang, Min Kyu;Kim, Jae-Chul;Kim, Mi Young;Choi, Gyu-Seog;Kim, Jong Gwang;Kang, Byung Woog;Kim, Hye Jin;Park, Soo Yeun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.208-216
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), by comparing with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Materials and Methods: Patients who were treated with PCRT for LARC from 2015 January to 2016 December were retrospectively enrolled. Total doses of 45 Gy to 50.4 Gy with 3D-CRT or SIB-IMRT were administered concomitantly with 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin or capecitabine. Surgery was performed 8 weeks after PCRT. Between PCRT and surgery, one cycle of additional chemotherapy was administered. Pathologic tumor responses were compared between SIB-IMRT and 3D-CRT groups. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hematologic, and skin toxicities were compared between the two groups based on the RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: SIB-IMRT was used in 53 patients, and 3D-CRT in 41 patients. After PCRT, no significant differences were noted in tumor responses, pathologic complete response (9% vs. 7%; p = 1.000), pathologic tumor regression Grade 3 or higher (85% vs. 71%; p = 0.096), and R0 resection (87% vs. 85%; p = 0.843). Grade 2 genitourinary toxicities were significantly lesser in the SIB-IMRT group (8% vs. 24%; p = 0.023), but gastrointestinal toxicities were not different across the two groups. Conclusion: SIB-IMRT showed lower GU toxicity and similar tumor responses when compared with 3D-CRT in PCRT for LARC.

Efficacy and Safety of Pemetrexed in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (진행성 비소세포폐암 환자에서 Pemetrexed의 효과와 안전성)

  • Lee, Gyu Jin;Jung, Mann Hong;Jang, Tae Won;Ok, Chul Ho;Jung, Hyun Joo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.67 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2009
  • Background: Pemetrexed has been prescribed newly as a second line chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The aim of study was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of pemetrexed in advanced NSCLC. Methods: Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC were evaluated from June 2006 to December 2008. The patients had relapsed or progressed after prior chemotherapy treatment. They were treated with intravenous pemetrexed $500mg/m^2$ for 10 min on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Results: A total of 89 patients were eligible for analysis. The response rate and disease control rate were 11% and 66%. Non-squamous cell carcinoma histology was significantly associated with a superior response rate (p=0.035) and disease control rate (p=0.009) than squamous cell carcinoma histology. The median survival time was 13 months and the median progression free survival time was 2.3 months. The median survival time of patients with ECOG PS 0~1 was 13.2 months, whereas median survival time was 11.6 months for patients with PS 2 (p=0.002). The median progression free survival time of patients with PS 0~1 were 3.8 months, but 2.1 months for patients with PS 2 (p=0.016). The median progression free survival time of smokers with non-squamous cell carcinoma was 3.4 months, which was significant (p=0.014). Grade 3~4 neutropenia were seen in 7.9% patients. Conclusion: Pemetrexed has efficacy in patients who had prior chemotherapy with advanced NSCLC and less hematologic toxicity.

Treatment Outcomes of Gemcitabine in Refractory or Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

  • Chanpanitkitchot, Saranya;Tangjitgamol, Siriwan;Khunnarong, Jakkapan;Thavaramara, Thaowalai;Pataradool, Kamol;Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5215-5221
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    • 2014
  • Background: To study the response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity profiles of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients treated with gemcitabine. Materials and Methods: Recurrent EOC patients who were treated with gemcitabine between January 2000 and December 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital were identified and medical records were reviewed. Clinico-pathological features including data of gemcitabine treatment, response and toxicity were collected. Results: We identified 43 EOC patients who had gemcitabine treatment. All except one patient who did not receive any adjuvant treatment, had received platinum-based chemotherapy. Among these 42 patients, 31.0% had refractory cancer to first-line chemotherapy while 69.0% had recurrence with 48.8% being platinum-sensitive. The total cycles of gemcitabine used were 203 (median 4, range 2-9 cycles). Overall RR was 11.6%: 19% in platinum-sensitive vs 4.5% in platinum-resistant groups (p=0.158) and 42.9% in the patients having gemcitabine together with platinum vs 5.6% using gemcitabine alone (P=0.024). Median PFS was 3.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.73-4.49 months): 8.1 months (95% CI, 2.73-4.49 months) in combination regimen vs 3.2 months (95% CI, 2.01-4.42 months) in single regimen (p=0.077) and 8.1 months (95% CI, 4.73-11.48 months) with the gemcitabine combination vs 2.7 months (95% CI, 1.98-3.38 months) by single gemcitabine in platinum sensitive patients (P=0.007). Common toxicities were hematologic which were well tolerated and manageable. Conclusions: Gemcitabine has modest activity in pre-treated EOC. A combination regimen had higher activity than single agent in platinum sensitive patients with a significant improvement in RR and PFS.

Treatment Interruption During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy of Uterine Cervical Cancer; Analysis of Factors and Outcomes

  • Krusun, Srichai;Pesee, Montien;Supakalin, Narudom;Thamronganantasakul, Komsan;Supaadirek, Chunsri;Padoongcharoen, Prawat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5653-5657
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    • 2014
  • Background: To evaluate factors which effect treatment interruption during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and overall survival in patients with uterine cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA in Srinagarind Hospital. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2007, 107 patients with stage IB2-IVA as FIGO staging, 2000, were treated with CCRT in Srinagarind Hospital. Factors which caused treatment interruptions and impacted on overall survival were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Twenty of 107 patients had treatment interruption during CCRT in patients with uterine cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA in Srinagarind Hospital. The causes of treatment interruption were as follows: hematologic toxicity was found in 16 of 20 cases, 12 cases with grade 2 and 4 cases with grade 3; three of 20 cases had gastrointestinal toxicities, 1 case with grade 2 and 2 cases with grade 3; one case had grade 3 skin toxicity. The mean total treatment time of the uninterrupted and interrupted groups were significantly different (78.98 days vs 161.80 days, p <0.001). The patients who could tolerate ${\geq}5$ cycles of cisplatin administration had significantly higher mean white blood counts (WBC) ($9,769cells/mm^3$ vs $7,141cells/mm^3$, p=0.02). The mean initial hemoglobin (Hb) in the uninterrupted group was significantly higher than the interrupted group (11.5 mg% vs 10.3 mg%, p=0.03). Other factors including age, KPS, initial platelets, initial serum creatinine levels showed no statistical significance. The 3-year overall survival of the uninterrupted group was better than in the interrupted group (78.6% vs 55.0%, p=0.03). Conclusions: The initial Hb and WBC levels were significantly correlated with treatment interruption during CCRT in patients with uterine cervical cancer. The 3-year overall survival of the uninterrupted group was significantly better than interrupted group. These factors may then be used indirectly to predict the outcomes of treatment.

Ifosfamide and Doxorubicin Combination Chemotherapy for Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

  • Dede, Didem Sener;Aksoy, Sercan;Cengiz, Mustafa;Gullu, Ibrahim;Altundag, Kadri
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2225-2228
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    • 2012
  • Background: We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of ifosfamide and doxorubicin combination chemotherapy (CT) regimen retrospectively in Turkish patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: A total of thirty patients who had received cisplatin based chemotherapy/chemoradiotherapy as a primary treatment received ifosfamide 2500 $mg/m^2$ days 1-3, mesna 2500 $mg/m^2$ days 1-3, doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 day 1 (IMA), repeated every 21 days. Eligible patients had ECOG PS< 2, measurable recurrent or metastatic disease, with adequate renal, hepatic and hematologic functions. Results: Median age was 47 (min-max; 17-60). Twenty six (86.7 %) were male. Median cycles of chemotherapy for each patient were 2 (range:1-6). Twenty patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. No patient achieved complete response, with nine partial responses for a response rate of 30.0% in evaluable patients. Stable disease, and disease progression were observed in five (16.7%) and six (20.0%) patients, respectively. Clinical benefit was 46.7%. Median time to progression was 4.0 months. Six patients had neutropenic fever after IMA regimen and there were one treatment-related death due to tumor lysis syndrome in first cycle of the CT. No cardiotoxicity was observed after CT and treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusion: Ifosfomide and doxorubicin combination is an effective regimen for patients with recurrent and metastatic NPC. For NPC patients demonstrating failure of cisplatin based regimens, this CT combination may be considered as salvage therapy.

The Acute Toxicity of Naphthalene on Hematologic Properties in Juvenile Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (넙치 치어 Paralichthys olivaceus의 혈액학적 성상에 미치는 나프탈렌의 급성독성영향)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Seon;Ryu, Hyang-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2011
  • Naphthalene was composed of a substantial fraction of polycyclic aromatic ydrocarbons(PAHs) in crude oil and causes acute toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxicity of different kinds concentrations 0, 1000, 1800, 3200, 5600, $10000{\mu}g/L$ of naphthalene to juvenile flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus for 24h to determine 24-median lethal concentration($LC_{50}$) and acute effect on the hematological properties. 24h-$LC_{50}$ value of this species was $3600{\mu}g/L$. Hematocrit value significantly increased at 5600 and $10000{\mu}g/L$ naphthalene exposed group by 24h compared to control fish. Plasma. Glucose was significantly higher in the $10000{\mu}g/L$ (P<0.05). Plasma osmolality was significantly higher in the 3200, 5600 and $10000{\mu}g/L$. Plasma [$Na^+$] and [$K^+$] significantly increased in the 5600 and $10000{\mu}g/L$, however [$Cl^-$] was not affected by acute naphthalene exposure. The results of this study suggest the acute exposure to naphthalene affects both ionoregulation and osmoregulation in juvenile flounder.

A case of dapsone syndrome (Dapson 증후군 1례)

  • Won, Yoo Jong;Kim, Ok Lan;Yu, Seung Taek;Yoon, Young Wook;Choi, Du Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.493-496
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    • 2007
  • Diamino-diphenyl-sulfone (Dapsone) is widely used in the treatment of leprosy and a variety of blistering skin diseases. It sometimes has adverse side effects with common usual doses, such as skin, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney and hematologic toxicity. One of these side effects is a rare but serious hypersensitivity reaction called dapsone syndrome, which occurs several weeks after the initial administration of the drug and results in unpredictable, sometimes fatal outcomes. This report deals with a 13-year-old girl's case with typical features of dapsone syndrome that included fever, exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, hemolytic anemia and pleural effusion after being treated with dapsone for four weeks.

Gemcitabine in Treating Patients with Refractory or Relapsed Multiple Myeloma

  • Zheng, Hua;Yang, Fan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9291-9293
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    • 2014
  • Background: Patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma are considered to have a very poor prognosis, and new regimens are needed to improve the outcome. Gemcitabine, a nucleoside antimetabolite, is an analog of deoxycytidine which mainly inhibits DNA synthesis through interfering with DNA chain elongation and depleting deoxynucleotide stores, resulting in gemcitabine-induced cell death. Here we performed a systemic analysis to evaluate gemcitabine based chemotherapy as salvage treatment for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the impact of gemcitabine based regimens on response and safety for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were identified by using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: In gemcitabine based regimens, 3 clinical studies which including 57 patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 15.7% (9/57) in gemcitabine based regimens. Major adverse effects were hematologic toxicity, including grade 3 or 4 anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia i. No treatment related death occurred with gemcitabine based treatment. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that gemcitabine based regimens are associated with mild activity with good tolerability in treating patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.