• Title, Summary, Keyword: hematologic toxicity

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Impact of the Copper Transporter Protein 1 (CTR1) Polymorphism on Adverse Events among Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Carboplatin-Gemcitabine Regimen

  • Kumpiro, Siriluk;Sriuranpong, Virote;Areepium, Nutthada
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4391-4394
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    • 2016
  • Background: Platinum-based regimens are effective treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the five-year survival rate is still less than 20%. One possible factor appears to be resistance involving polymorphisms in the CTR1 gene which plays an importance role in accumulation of platinum in the cytoplasm. Purpose: To establish both prevalence of CTR1 polymorphism and its impact on treatment related toxicity in Thai advanced NSCLC patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two advanced NSCLC participants received carboplatin and gemcitabine during January to June 2016 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) were recruited for analysis of the CTR1 rs12686377 genotype. These participants were planning to be treated with platinum-based chemotherapy for at least two cycles. Results: Allele frequency of CTR1 polymorphism $G{\rightarrow}T$ was found to be 25%. The results showed that genetic polymorphism at CTR1 rs12686377 was associated with emesis side effects (P = 0.020) and neuropathic symptoms (P = 0.010). In addition, hematologic side effects in terms of anemia also tended to be related to this polymorphism. Conclusions: This is the first study suggesting that polymorphism at CTR1 rs12686377 may be associated with toxicity from platinum-based regimens. Therefore, it could be a factor to aid in treatment decision-making.

Twenty-Eight-Day Repeated Inhalation Toxicity Study of Nano-Sized Neodymium Oxide in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

  • Kim, Yong-Soon;Lim, Cheol-Hong;Shin, Seo-Ho;Kim, Jong-Choon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.239-253
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    • 2017
  • Neodymium is a future-oriented material due to its unique properties, and its use is increasing in various industrial fields worldwide. However, the toxicity caused by repeated exposure to this metal has not been studied in detail thus far. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential inhalation toxicity of nano-sized neodymium oxide ($Nd_2O_3$) following a 28-day repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed to nano-sized $Nd_2O_3-containing$ aerosols via a nose-only inhalation system at doses of $0mg/m^3$, $0.5mg/m^3$, $2.5mg/m^3$, and $10mg/m^3$ for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week over a 28-day period, followed by a 28-day recovery period. During the experimental period, clinical signs, body weight, hematologic parameters, serum biochemical parameters, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathological findings were examined; neodymium distribution in the major organs and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues were analyzed. Most of the neodymium was found to be deposited in lung tissues, showing a dose-dependent relationship. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were the main observations of lung histopathology. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the $2.5mg/m^3$ and higher dose treatment groups. PAP was observed in all treatment groups accompanied by an increase in lung weight, but was observed to a lesser extent in the $0.5mg/m^3$ treatment group. In BALF analysis, total cell counts, including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, increased significantly in all treatment groups. After a 4-week recovery period, these changes were generally reversed in the $0.5mg/m^3$ group, but were exacerbated in the $10mg/m^3$ group. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration of nano-sized $Nd_2O_3$ was determined to be $0.5mg/m^3$, and the target organ was determined to be the lung, under the present experimental conditions in male rats.

Imatinib-Mesylate Induced Interstitial Pneumonitis in Two CML Patients

  • Kim, Tae-Hoon;Kim, Byung-Gyu;Cho, Sung-Woo;Cho, Sung-Kyun;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Yuh, Young-Jin;Kim, Sung-Rok
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.71 no.3
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    • pp.210-215
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    • 2011
  • Imatinib mesylate, a selective inhibitor of BCR-ABL kinase activity, has demonstrated significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). It has become the standard of treatment for these diseases. Although the toxicity profile of imatinib is superior to that of interferon or other cytotoxic agents, some adverse events including edema, gastrointestinal toxicities and hematologic toxicities are commonly observed in the patients treated by imatinib. We present two cases of imatinib induced interstitial pneumonitis during the treatment of a chronic phase of CML.

Comparison of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Adjuvant Chemotherapy Versus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Alone in Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: a Meta-analysis of 793 Patients from 5 Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Liang, Zhong-Guo;Zhu, Xiao-Dong;Zhou, Zhi-Rui;Qu, Song;Du, You-Qin;Jiang, Yan-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5747-5752
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy compared with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The search strategy included Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Internet Web, Chinese Biomedical Database and Wanfang Database. We also searched reference lists of articles and the volumes of abstracts of scientific meetings. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.1.0. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system (GRADE) was used to rate the level of evidence. Results: Five studies were included. Risk ratios of 1.02 (95%CI 0.89-1.15), 0.93 (95%CI 0.72-1.21), 1.07 (95%CI 0.87-1.32), 0.95 (95%CI 0.80-1.13) were observed for 3 years overall survival, 5 years failure-free survival, 5 years locoregional failure-free survival and 5 years distant metastasis failure-free survival. There were no treatment-related deaths in both groups of five studies. Hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity were the most significant for patients during adjuvant chemotherapy. The level of evidence was low. Conclusion: Compared with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone, concurrent chemotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy did not improve prognosis. More toxicity was found during adjuvant chemotherapy.

Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Radical Anti-cancer Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Patients in an Oncology Ward in India

  • Roy, Soumyajit;Mallick, Supriya;Raza, Md. Waseem;Haresh, Kunhi Parambath;Gupta, Subhash;Sharma, Daya Nand;Julka, Pramod Kumar;Rath, Goura Kisore
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3587-3592
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    • 2014
  • Burden of cancer is progressively increasing in developing countries like India which has also led to a steep rise in toxicity due to anti-cancer therapy. A cross-sectional analysis was here conducted for patients with different malignancies (except leukaemia) who while undergoing radical anti-cancer therapy were admitted to our oncology ward from January-July 2013. In a total of 280 patients, the total number of toxicity events was 473. Nine patients expired over this time period. Among the events, grade 2 anaemia the most common (n=189) while the most common grades of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were grade 4 (n=114) and grade 2 (n=48), respectively. Among the tracable microbial etiologies, gram negative bacteria were the most commonly found pathogens. Treatment interruptions took place in 240 patients (median duration=8.8 days). Prolonged hospital admission, intensive care and artificial ventilation support was needed to be given in 48, 7 and 13 patients respectively. Advanced NSCLC, KPS <70, pancytopenia and artificial ventilation requirement were found to have a significant impact on death. Such studies show the prevailing practice from institutes of our country and may guide us formulating a guideline for managing such toxicities for this part of the world.

Outcome of Single Agent Generic Gemcitabine in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer and Primary Peritoneal Adenocarcinoma

  • Suprasert, Prapaporn;Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong;Manopunya, Manatsawee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.517-520
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    • 2012
  • Single original gemcitabine is commonly used as salvage treatment in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma (PPA) with a satisfactory outcome. However, efficacy data fro this regimen are limited. We therefore conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of patients who received single-agent generic gemcitabine (GEMITA) after development of clinical platinum resistance. The study period was between May 2008 and December 2010. Gemcitabine was administered intravenously in two different schedules: 1,000 $mg/m^2$ on day 1,8, and 15 every 28 days; and on days 1 and 8 every 21 days with the same dosage. Administration was until disease progression was noted. The response rate was evaluated using the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) criteria while toxicity was evaluated according to WHO criteria. Sixty-six patients met the inclusion criteria in the study period. Two-thirds of them received gemcitabine as the second and third line regimen. The overall response rate was 12.1%. The median progression free survival and overall survival was 2 and 10 months, respectively. With the total 550 courses of chemotherapy,the patients developed grades 3 and 4 hematologic toxicity as follows: anemia, 1.5%; leukopenia, 13.7%; neutropenia, 27.3%; and thrombocytopenia, 3.0%. In conclusion, single agent generic gemcitabine revealed a modest efficacy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and PPA without serious toxicity.

Comparative Analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Oxaliplatin Plus 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin (Modified FOLFOX6) with Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients having a Good or Poor Performance Status

  • Hacibekiroglu, Ilhan;Kodaz, Hilmi;Erdogan, Bulent;Turkmen, Esma;Esenkaya, Asim;Uzunoglu, Sernaz;Cicin, Irfan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2355-2359
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    • 2015
  • Background: Combination chemotherapy of 5 fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) with oxaliplatin, mainly FOLFOX regimens, has shown considerable antitumor activity and a tolerable toxicity profile in gastric cancer. The goal of this study was to retrospectively compare the efficacy and toxicity of modified FOLFOX-6 (mFOLFOX6) regimen in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients with good and poor performance status (PS). Materials and Methods: AGC patients receiving the mFOLFOX6 regimen including oxaliplatin $85mg/m^2$, bolus of 5-FU $400mg/m^2$ and LV $400mg/m^2$ on the first day, followed by $2400mg/m^2$ of 5- FU as a continious infusion over 46 hour for first-line treatment were eligible for the study. Results: A total 58 patients with a median age of 59.5 (32-81) were included. The median follow up of the study was 9.2 months. Thirty patients (51.7%) with an ECOG PS 0-1 were assigned to the good PS arm, while 28 patients (48.3%) with ECOG PS 2 were in the poor PS arm. Overall response rates were 36.6 and 28.8%, respectively (p=0.91). Median PFS was 6.7 and 6.3 months in good PS and poor PS arms (p=0.50) and median OS was 9.6 and 10.4 months (p=0.55). As compared with good PS arm, poor PS arm was associated with more grade 3-4 neutropenia and anemia. Dose reduction and dose delays were also significantly higher. Conclusions: In this study, mFOLFOX6 was similarly effective in both arms. Although hematologic toxicity was significantly higher in patients with poor PS, it remained manageable. Our results suggest that this regimen may be an effective treatment option for AGC patients with poor PS.

Preoperative short course radiotherapy with concurrent and consolidation chemotherapies followed by delayed surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer: preliminary results

  • Aghili, Mahdi;Sotoudeh, Sarvazad;Ghalehtaki, Reza;Babaei, Mohammad;Farazmand, Borna;Fazeli, Mohammad-Sadegh;Keshvari, Amir;Haddad, Peiman;Farhan, Farshid
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to assess complications and outcomes of a new approach, that is, combining short course radiotherapy (SRT), concurrent and consolidative chemotherapies, and delayed surgery. Materials and Methods: In this single arm phase II prospective clinical trial, patients with T3-4 or N+ M0 rectal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Patients who received induction chemotherapy or previous pelvic radiotherapy were excluded. Study protocol consisted of three-dimensional conformal SRT (25 Gy in 5 fractions in 1 week) with concurrent and consolidation chemotherapies including capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Total mesorectal excision was done at least 8 weeks after the last fraction of radiotherapy. Primary outcome was complete pathologic response and secondary outcomes were treatment related complications. Results: Thirty-three patients completed the planned preoperative chemoradiation and 26 of them underwent surgery (24 low anterior resection and 2 abdominoperineal resection). Acute proctitis grades 2 and 3 were seen in 11 (33.3%) and 7 (21.2%) patients, respectively. There were no grades 3 and 4 subacute hematologic and non-hematologic (genitourinary and peripheral neuropathy) toxicities and perioperative morbidities such as anastomose leakage. Grade 2 or higher late toxicities were observed among 29.6% of the patients. Complete pathologic response was achieved in 8 (30.8%) patients who underwent surgery. The 3-year overall survival and local control rates were 65% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that SRT combined with concurrent and consolidation chemotherapies followed by delayed surgery is not only feasible and tolerable without significant toxicity but also, associated with promising complete pathologic response rates.

Clinical Observations on Associations Between the UGT1A1 Genotype and Severe Toxicity of Irinotecan

  • Lu, Yan-Yan;Huang, Xin-En;Wu, Xue-Yan;Cao, Jie;Liu, Jin;Wang, Lin;Xiang, Jin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3335-3341
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    • 2014
  • Background: Severe toxicity is commonly observed in cancer patients receiving irinotecan (CPT-11) UDPglucuronosyltransferase1A1 (UGT1A1) catalyzes the glucuronidation of the active metabolite SN-38 but the relationship between UGT1A1 and severe toxicity remains unclear. Our study aimed to assess this point to guide clinical use of CPT-11. Materials and Methods: 89 cancer patients with advanced disease received CPT-11-based chemotherapy for at least two cycles. Toxicity, including GI and hematologic toxicity was recorded in detail and UGT1A1 variants were genotyped. Regression analysis was used to analyse relationships between these variables and tumor response. Results: The prevalence of grade III-IV diarrhea was 10.1%, this being more common in patients with the TA 6/7 genotype (5 of 22 patients, 22.7%) (p<0.05). The prevalence of grade III-IV neutropenia was 13.4%and also highest in patients with the TA 6/7 genotype (4 of 22 patients; 18.2%) but without significance (p>0.05). The retreatment total bilirubin levels were significantly higher in TA6/7 patients (mean, $12.75{\mu}mol/L$) with compared to TA6/6 (mean, $9.92{\mu}mol/L$) with p<0.05. Conclusions: Our study support the conclusion that patients with a $UGT1A1^*28$ allele (s) will suffer an increased risk of severe irinotecan-induced diarrhea, whether with mid-or low-dosage. However, the $UGT1A1^*28$ allele (s) did not increase severe neutropenia. Higher serum total bilirubin is an indication that patients UGT1A1 genotype is not wild-type, with significance for clinic usage of CPT-11.

Phase II Study of Irinotecan and Cisplatin Combination Chemotherapy in Metastatic, Unresectable Esophageal Cancer

  • Kim, Miso;Keam, Bhumsuk;Kim, Tae-Min;Kim, Hoon-Gu;Kim, Jin-Soo;Lee, Sung Sook;Shin, Seong Hoon;Kim, Min Kyoung;Park, Keon Uk;Kim, Dong-Wan;Yun, Hwan Jung;Lee, Jong Seok;Heo, Dae Seog
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.416-422
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    • 2017
  • Purpose The objective of this multicenter phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of irinotecan and cisplatin combination chemotherapy in metastatic, unresectable esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods Patients were treated with irinotecan $65mg/m^2$ and cisplatin $30mg/m^2$ on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day treatment cycle. The primary endpoint was response rate, and secondary endpoints were survival, duration of response, initial metabolic response rate, and toxicity. Results A total of 27 patients with squamous cell histology were enrolled in the study. The median age of the patients was 61 years. The objective response rate of the 20 patients in the per-protocol group was 30.0% (90% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to 46.9). The median follow-up duration was 10.0 months, and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.5 months (95% CI, 1.6 to 6.2) and 8.8 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 10.5), respectively. Four of 13 patients (30.8%) evaluated showed initial metabolic response. The median duration of response for partial responders was 5.0 months (range, 3.4 to 8.0 months). The following grade 3/4 treatment-related hematologic toxicities were reported: neutropenia (40.7%), anaemia (22.2%), and thrombocytopenia (7.4%). Two patients experienced febrile neutropenia. The most common grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxicities were asthenia (14.8%) and diarrhoea (11.1%). Conclusion Irinotecan and cisplatin combination chemotherapy showed modest anti-tumour activity and manageable toxicity for patients with metastatic, unresectable esophageal cancer.