• Title, Summary, Keyword: hemagglutination

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Studies of the egg drop laying diseases from the mass zone layer (산란계 밀집지역의 산란저하성 질병에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Jeoung-Won;Eum Sung-Shim;Park In-Gyu;Bea Joung-Jun;Joung Dong-Suk;Song Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.121-146
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    • 2005
  • Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), low pathogenic avian Influenza (LPAI) and fowl typhoid (FT) have been known as egg drop laying diseases because of the serious layer damage from mass zone layer. In this study, such egg drop laying diseases were investigated. To access this study, we peformed to evaluate antibody titers in serum and isolated bacteria and virus from organs and feces on May, July and September in 2003. The distribution of ND from January to May, IB and LPAI from October to February of the next year, and FT from March to September were inspected by the question survey in 21 farms. ND revealed to be positive rates of 490 to 474 $(96.7\%)$ in May, 510 to 506 $(99.2\%)$ in July and 510 to 510 $(100\%)$ in September with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The mean antibody titers were 10.2, 9.9 and 10.2, respectively. With regard to IB, 484 out of 490 samples $(98.7\%)$ in May, 508 of 510 $(99.6\%)$ in July and 509 of 510 $(99.8\%)$ in September showed positive results and the mean antibody titers were gradually increased with 8.2, 9.0 and 9.4, respectively. According to HI test of LPAI, the positive results were shown in 442 of 480 $(92.1\%)$, 394 of 494 $(79.8\%)$ and 402 of 483 $(83.2\%)$ in May, July and September, respectively The mean antibody titers were decreased with 4.6, 4.3 and 4.0. The distribution of LPAI also elicited the positive rates of 480 to 475 $(99.0\%)$ in May, 494 to 485$(98.2\%)$ in July, 483 to 472 $(97.7\%)$ in September as determined by ELISA and the mean S/P ratio were 2.319, 2.557 and 2.380, respectively. Compared ELISA results with HI test of LPAI the positive results were 480 to 422 $(92.1\%),\;475(99.0\%),\;494\;to\;394 (79.8\%),\;485 (98.2\%)\;and\;483\;to\;402(83.2\%),\;472(97.7\%)$. Therefore, the positive rate determined by ELISA was higher than that of HI test with 6.9, 18.4 and $14.5\%$, respectively. When performed RT-PCR for ND using organ and feces samples, the pathotypes were detected $5(15.6\%)\;in\;May,\; 2(5.3\%) in\;July,\;2(7.1\%)$ in September but there is no samples showing positive band for LPAI. In attempt to isolate Salmonella gallinarum, bacteria were obtained from 4 cases (12.5%) in May, 9 (23.6%) in July, 5 (17.8%) in September. Thus the highest rate for isolation revealed to be shown in July When evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 isolated strains of 5. gallinarum, bacteria were sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethox$(61.1\%),\;kanamycin\;(55.5\%),\;ampicillin\;(55.5\%)$ and amoxacillin/clavulanic acid $(55.5\%)$, cephalothin $(50.0\%)$, but resistant to penicillin $(88.9\%)$, streptomycin $(88.9\%)$, erythromycin $(83_4\%)$ and tetracycline $(61.1\%)$. According to HI test of ND and LPAI using captured 164 wild Korean tree sparrows (Passer nontanus), the positive rates were $47.6\%\;and\;57.3\%$, and the mean HI titers were 5.32 and 4.02, respectively. 71 $(43.2\%)\;and\;58(35.3\%)$ in captured sparrows also showed more than 4 titers for HI test to ND and LPAI, respectively However, the attempt for isolation of viruses failed in all samples.

Seroprevalance of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild Birds in Korea (국내 야생 조류에서의 뉴캣슬병 바이러스 항체분포율 조사)

  • Choi, Kang-Seuk;Jeon, Woo-Jin;Kye, Soo-Jeong;Yoon, Soon-Seek;Jeong, Woo-Seog;Kim, Ji-Ye;Kwon, Jun-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2012
  • Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infects a variety of birds with a wide range of clinical signs from asymptomatic to severe. During a 10-month period in 2011, a total of 1,024 sera from wild birds including 42 species of birds in 8 orders were collected and the seroprevalence of NDV in wild birds was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Evidence of NDV infection was observed in 12.6% (129/1,024) of wild birds with a maximum prevalence reported in Mandarin duck (27.8%, 32/115) followed by Mallard duck (20.8%, 57/274), Spot-billed duck (11.9%, 36/303), Pintail (2.9%, 1/34), Black-tailed gull (2.9%, 1/34), White-fronted goose (1.8%, 1/56) and Common teal (1.4%, 1/69). None of the other 35 species of wild birds were antibody-positive for NDV. Mandarin duck, Mallard duck and Spot-billed duck showed high sero-prevalance of 12.2% to 42% during winter season (November to March). Our results indicate that Mandarin duck, Mallard duck and Spot-billed duck might be natural reservoirs for NDV in Korea and the prevalence of NDV infection in wild birds displayed a seasonal pattern with high prevalence of NDV in winter season (November to March).

A Clinical Study of Tsutsugamushi Fever in Children during 1997~2000 in the Western Kyungnam Province (최근 4년간 서부 경남지역의 소아에서 발생한 쯔쯔가무시열의 임상적 고찰)

  • Ju, Hye Young;Lee, Jun Su;Kim, Jeong Hee;Yoo, Hwang Jae;Kim, Chun Soo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.213-221
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    • 2001
  • Propose : Tsutsugamushi fever is a acute febrile disease, which is caused by O. tsutsugamushi. Recently, this disease is increasingly reported in children. This study was undertaken to investigate clinical features of tsutsugamushi fever in children. Methods : This study involved 17 children with tsutsugamushi fever who were admitted to Masan Samsung hospital between September 1997 and December 2000. We investigated the age, sex ratio, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, response of therapy and prognosis. Results : The age of patients was $6.9{\pm}3.6$ years, ranging from 6 months to 12 years and male predilection(58.8%) was noted and all cases of patients occured in October or November. The most common symptoms were fever in all cases and headache in 8(47.1%). The most common signs were skin rash in all cases, eschar in 14(82.4%) and lymphadenopathy 8(47.1%). Locations of the eschars were back and inguinal area in each 3 cases, neck and chest in each 2, popliteal area in 2, scalp and thigh in each 1. Laboratory findings included anemia in 1 case, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in each 5, hematuria and proteinuria in each 1, ESR elevation in 2 and positive CRP in 12, AST elevation in 9 and ALT elevation in 7. Serologic diagnosis was made by passive hemagglutination assay(PHA) in 8 cases(47%) on admission, 4 cases in initial negative group were performed follow-up test at 2nd or 3rd weeks of illness and then all cases of 4 were converted to positive reaction. Clinical improvement was noticed in all cases after treatment to chloramhenicol or doxycycline. Mean duration for defervescence after treatment was $1.4{\pm}0.8$ days. Complications were interstitial pneumonia in 1 case and aseptic meningitis in 3, but all cases of patients were recovered without sequelae or recurrence. Conclusions : Tsutsugamushi fever in children was similiar to adult in the clinical features except male predilection. Early diagnosis and empirical treatment based on clinical manifestations such as fever, skin rash, eschar, lymphadenopathy is important and serologic diagnosis need to perform follow-up test at 2nd or 3rd weeks of illness.

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