• Title/Summary/Keyword: heavy smoking

Search Result 25, Processing Time 0.092 seconds

Heaviness of Smoking Index, Number of Cigarettes Smoked and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence Among Adult Male Malaysians

  • Lim, K.H.;Idzwan, M. Feisul;Sumarni, M.G.;Kee, C.C.;Amal, N.M.;Lim, K.K.;Gurpreet, K.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.343-346
    • /
    • 2012
  • Two methods of identifying smokers with high nicotine dependence, the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) and number of cigarettes per day (CPD) were compared with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). The HSI, CPD and the FTND were administered to 316 adult Malaysian male, daily smokers aged between 25-64 years old in the Malaysian NCD Surveillance-1 Survey using a two-stage stratified random sampling of enumeration blocks and living quarters, via an interview based on a validated questionnaire. The cut-off point for classification of high nicotine dependence on the HSI was a score of four or higher, and for the heavy smoking category, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. Classification using each method was compared with classification by the FTND (score of six or more) as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics for concordance between both measures and the FTND were evaluated. The HSI gave a similar prevalence rate of high nicotine dependence as the FTND. There was substantial agreement between the HSI and the FTND (kappa=0.63.), with moderate sensitivity (69.8%) and high specificity (92.5%). However, prevalence of high nicotine dependence using the CPD was 7% lower than the FTND. The heavy smoking category also showed fair agreement with the FTND (kappa=0.45) and moderate sensitivity (67.0%), but specificity was high (86.9%). The findings indicate that the HSI can be used as an alternative to the FTND in screening for high nicotine dependence among daily smokers in large population-based studies, while CPD may not be a suitable alternative to the FTND.

Effects of the amount and duration of smoking on gingival symptoms: analysis of data from the 2016 Korea youth's risk behavior web-based study (흡연의 양과 기간에 따른 치은증상 : 2016년 청소년 건강행태온라인조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Lee, Mi-Ra;Park, Kyung-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.515-524
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the amount and duration of smoking on gingival symptoms in adolescents. Methods: We used the web-based survey data of youth health behaviors from 2016 conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The subjects of the study were 67,983 middle and high school students. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS Ver 20.0 program, and complex sample multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze gingival symptoms according to short- or long-term smoking habits. Results: In subjects with short-term smoking habits, there was no significant difference in gingival symptoms according to the smoking amount. However, after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and oral health behaviors in subjects with long-term smoking habits, a heavy smoking amount (${\geq}0.52PY$) had a 1.25 times higher effect than a light smoking amount (<0.52 PY) on gingival symptoms. Long-term heavy smoking (${\geq}0.52PY$) and low daily tooth-brushing frequency in high school students were factors affecting gingival symptoms. Conclusions: When conducting a project on the oral health of adolescents, it is argued that specific investigations and measures should be set up regarding health behavior factors, such as the amount and duration of smoking among adolescents.

Trends in Cigarette Use Behaviors Among Adolescents by Region in Korea

  • Hong, Nam Soo;Kim, Keon-Yeop;Park, Soon-Woo;Kim, Jong-Yeon;Bae, Ji-Suk;Lee, Won-Kee;Kim, Ki-Su
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.176-184
    • /
    • 2011
  • Objectives: Understanding recent trends in cigarette smoking among adolescents is important in order to develop strategies to prevent cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to compare recent trends in cigarette smoking for adolescents living in rural areas, small towns and metropolitan cities in Korea. Methods: The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2005 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate significant linear time trends in cigarette smoking. The indicators of cigarette use behaviors were 'current smoking rate', 'frequent smoking rate', 'heavy smoking rate' and 'smoking experience rate before 13 years of age'. All analyses were conducted according to gender. Results: Statistically significant increasing trends in current smoking rate and frequent smoking rate were observed and borderline significant increasing trends in heavy smoking rate were shown among rural boys. Among metropolitan city boys, statistically significant increasing trends were also seen for frequent smoking. Statistically significant decreasing trends in current smoking rate were observed among small town and metropolitan city girls. Smoking experience rate before 13 years of age for rural girls decreased significantly. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescents in the rural areas has increased in the last five years especially among boys. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco program for adolescents should be conducted primarily for those in rural areas.

Factors Associated with Smoking Behaviors and Amount of Tobacco Consumption among Korean Adolescents (청소년 흡연 행위 및 흡연량 관련 요인)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.62-75
    • /
    • 2021
  • Purpose: Smoking among adolescents is a critical healthcare concern that needs to be tackled with respect to not only intrapersonal and interpersonal factors but also socio-cultural factors. This study was to identify the smoking behaviors and amount of tobacco consumption among adolescents, and to investigate the factors associated with the behaviors and amount. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the theory of triadic influence using a nationally representative secondary data set, the 2018 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N=60,040). The analysis was performed by dividing smoking behaviors into lifetime, current, and daily smoking, and smoking amount into light, moderate, and heavy smoking. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: Overall, 8.2%, 3.2% and 3.4% of the adolescents were involved in lifetime, current, and daily smoking, respectively. In addition, 5.3%, 0.8%, and 0.6% of the adolescents were involved in light, moderate, and heavy smoking, respectively. The factor associated with smoking behaviors and the amount of tobacco consumed were gender, academic achievement, depression, living with family, close friend's smoking, violent victimization, household economic status, and school level (all ps<.05). Conclusion: A considerable number of adolescents are engaged in risky smoking behaviors and consume large amounts of tobacco. Adolescents who said yes to peer smoking, violent victimization, not living with their family, and depressive emotions were more likely to engage in risky smoking behaviors and consume large amounts of tobacco. Tailored interventions to decrease smoking should be planed and provided, while considering the school and home environment and individual needs of adolescents.

Serum Lipid and Lipoperoxide levels and Their Related Factors in Middle-Aged Men in Teagu (대구지역 중년 남성의 혈청 지질과 혈청 과산화지질의 관련 인자 연구)

  • 최영선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.28 no.8
    • /
    • pp.771-781
    • /
    • 1995
  • The present study was aimed to examine various factors related to serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, atherogenic index, lipoperoxides and vitamin E in 174 middle-aged men residing in Taegu. Body mass index was positively correlated with serum triglyceride, and waist-hip circumference ratio was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, atherogenic index and vitamin E concentration. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and atherogenic index of the subjects who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day were significantly higher than those with smoking less or non-smokers. drinking alcohol more than 5 times per week showed higher atherogenic index than drinking less frequently of non-drinking. Subjects doing exercise had higher HDL-cholesterol level than those with no exercise. The intakes of all nutrients were above 90% of RDA and the subjects with good food habit had lower of total cholesterol, triglyceride, atherogenic index and lipoperoxides. The study indicates that avoiding heavy smoking and drinking as well as obesity and keeping regular exercise, good food habit and diversity of foods will reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged men.

  • PDF

The Blood Cadmium and Lead Levels in Students

  • Lee, Mi-Hwa
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.371-374
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of the cadmium and lead levels in blood by age, gender and smoking status among 181 students in Gyeongnam province from June 2005 to July 2006. The cadmium and lead levels in blood was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Subjects were classified for the investigation according to smoking status as smokers and nonsmokers, age and gender. Mean blood cadmium level in male and female was $1.65{\mu}g/dl,\;1.10{\mu}g/dl$ respectively. Male was significantly higher than that of female. Blood cadmium levels in heavy smokers ($11{\sim}20\;ea/day$) and light smokers ($1{\sim}10\;ea/day$) were $2.34{\mu}g/dl,\;1.10{\mu}g/dl$ respectively. Heavy smokers were significantly higher than those of light smokers. In the comparison of age, gender and smoking status in blood Lead levels were no significant differences. In conclusion, heavy smoking was the most significant risk factor to increase blood cadmium levels. The further study will need analysis of the other factors related to the elevation of the cadmium and lead levels.

  • PDF

Plasma Antioxidant Status and Platelet Antionxidative Enzyme Activities in Patients of Ischemic Heart Disease (허혈성심질환에서의 항산화영양소 상태와 혈소판 항산화계효소 활성에 관한 연구)

  • 최영선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.223-231
    • /
    • 1996
  • To investigate antioxidant status and platelet antioxidative enzyme activity in patients with ischemic heart disease, 36 male patients admitted to Kyungpook National University Hospital from June to December 1994 were compared to 36 healthy male control subjects. The percentages of heavy smoking and nonexercise were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control, but the drinking status was not significantly different between groups. Food habit and food frequency scores were significantly lower in patients than in control subjects. Plasma retinol levels tended to be lower in the patient group, and plasma $\alpha$-tocopherol and $\beta$-carotene levels were not different between groups. There was no difference in the level of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) and in the activities of platelet glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Our results indicate that oxidative stress, which is reflected by the plasma levels of antioxidants and TBARS, did not increase in the patients with ischemic heart disease, and the long-term effects due to smoking, poor food habit and other life styles could possibly contribute to the onset of the disease.

  • PDF

Influence of Physical Activity on Smoking Experience and Smoking Intensity in Korean High School Students (신체활동이 고등학생의 흡연 경험 및 흡연 강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Ra, Jin Suk;Cho, Yoon Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.181-188
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on smoking experience and smoking intensity in Korean high school students. Methods: This cross sectional study used secondary data from the 2013 Adolescent Health Behavior Online Survey. A total of 35,905 high school students were included in the study. Logistic regression was used for analysis of the influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity on smoking experience in a month and smoking intensity. Results: Adolescents with low (Adjusted OR: 1.242, 95% CI: 1.075~1.436) and moderate level (Adjusted OR: 1.094, 95% CI: 1.005~1.189) of moderate physical activity had more smoking experience than reference group, high level of physical activity. Also, smoking experience was more prevalent adolescents with low (Adjusted OR: 1.191, 95% CI: 1.064~1.333) and moderate level (Adjusted OR: 1.134, 95% CI: 1.039~1.237) of vigorous physical activity. Heavy smoking was more prevalent among adolescents who had low level of vigorous physical activity (Adjusted OR: 1.912, 95% CI: 1.347~2.712). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, physical activity has significant influence on smoking experience and smoking intensity. Therefore, physical activity should be included smoking cessation and smoking prevention program for High School Students.

Evaluation of Dietary and Life-Style Habits of Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Turkey

  • Yassibas, Emine;Arslan, Perihan;Yalcin, Suayib
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2291-2297
    • /
    • 2012
  • Objective: Gastric cancer is an important public health problem in the world and Turkey. In addition to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), smoking, alcohol consumption and family history, certain dietary factors have been associated with its occurrence. The impact of dietary habits and life-style factors on the risk of gastric cancer in Turkey were evaluated in this study. Design: A questionnaire was applied to 106 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 106 controls without cancer matched for age (range 28-85 years) and gender selected from a hospital based population. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with logistic regression analysis. Results: The incidence of H. pylori was 81.3% in patients. Frequent consumption of salty dishes, very salty foods like pickles, soup mixes, sausages, foods at hot temperature (ORs = 3.686, 7.784, 5.264, 3.148 and 3.273 respectively) and adding salt without tasting (OR = 4.198) were associated with increased gastric risk. Also heavy smoking and high amount of alcohol consumption (p = 0.000) were risk factors. Frequent consumption of green vegetables, onion, garlic and dried fruits (ORs = 0.569, 0.092, 0.795 and 0.041) was nonsignificantly associated with decreased risk. Conclusion: Improved dietary habits, reducing salt consumption and eradication of H. pylori infection may provide protection against gastric cancer in Turkey.

Relation of the Depression and Attention Concentration by Smoking Status among Adolescents (청소년의 흡연과 우울 및 주의집중력과의 관계)

  • Byeon, Young-Soon;Lee, Hea-Shoon
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.231-238
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression and attention concentration by smoking status among adolescents. Methods: Depression was measured by Radloff's Center for Epidemiological studies Depression(1977) and modified by Korean(Chon & Lee, 1992), attention concentration measured by Nideffer's Test of Attention and Interpersonal Style(1976) and modified by Korean adolescents(Seo, 2004; Shin, 1988). The collected data was analyzed by the $Mean{\pm}SD$, ${\chi}^2$-test, ANOVA, Scheffe and Pearson correlation coefficient(SPSS 13.0). Results: 1. The smoking level appeared to heavy smoking group 31(22%), light smoking group 15(11%), non smoking group 92(67%). 2. The smoking level was different between the time to begin smoking, period of smoking and smoking amount/day. 3. Smoking group's depression was higher than those of the non smoking group and attention concentration was lower than those of the non smoking group. 4. The smoking amount had a significant positive correlation with depression and a significant negative correlation with attention concentration. Depression had a significant negative correlation with attention concentration. Conclusion: The result of this study offered the basis data for smoking prevention and treatment of adolescents.

  • PDF