• Title, Summary, Keyword: heavy metal contamination

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An Assessment of the Heavy Metal Contamination of Sediment in Main Stream and Tributaries of the Han River in the Vicinity of Seoul (서울시 인근의 한강 본류 및 지류에 대한 하상 저질의 중금속오염 평가)

  • 노수미;이홍근
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.17-35
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to investigate and assess the heavy metal contamination of sediment in main stream and tributaries of the Han-river in the vicinity of Seoul. Sediment were sampled at eight locations of main stream and eighteen locations of tributaries in the spring, summer, and fall in 1993. Six heavy metals of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Hg, were assessed. For an assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediment, the assessment method of Hakanson was modified to estimate for Han-river, then classification method of Muller in sediment quality was applied. For an assessment of contamination in each heavy metal, Contamination factor C$_f^i$ which was defined the ratio of concentration of i heavy metal in investigated location to background concentration of i heavy metal in uncontaminated upper area was used. The sediment quality in each heavymetal was classified as follows if C$_f^i$<1, Class I for Non contamination, if 1 < C$_f^i$ < 3, Class II for Low contamination, if 3< C$_f^i$ <6, Class III for Moderate contamination, if 6< C$_f^i$ <12, Class IV for Considerable contamination, and if C$_f^i$ > 12, Class V for High contamination.(abbreviation)

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Modality of Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil in Military Rifle Shooting Range (소화기 사격장의 중금속 오염 양상)

  • Lee, Kwang-Lyeol;Hyun, Jae-Hyuk
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2016
  • The study examined the level of heavy metal contamination by dividing military rifle shooting ranges into the three areas, i.e firing, trajectory, and target. The target area was found to be contaminated at a level higher (Cu 845 mg/kg, Pb 30,487 mg/kg) than the Worrisome Level of Soil Contamination (hereinafter referred to as the “Worrisome Level”) The trajectory area was predicted to be free from contamination, but it did indicate contamination although it was pretty much lower (Cu 23 mg/kg, Pb 99 mg/kg) than Worrisome Level. This is attributed to the contamination spread when rearranging the soil of the target area during the maintenance of the shooting range. The firing area was also predicted to be free from heavy metal contamination, but the results analyzed indicated a contamination higher (Cu 201 mg/kg, Pb 2,286 mg/kg) than Worrisome Level. This is attributed to the fragments of the broken bullet scattering due to the pressure generated as the bullet leaves the muzzle. An examination of heavy metal contamination in the discharge area as well as gutters to prevent the intrusion of rain water from perimeter revealed a high level of contamination (Cu 298 mg/kg, Pb 6,497 mg/kg), which makes it necessary to take measures.

Study on the soil contamination characteristics according to the functions of the returned U.S. military base (반환미군기지 기능별 토양오염특성에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Chang-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.481-489
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    • 2013
  • There are U.S. troops with a force about 290,000 strong stationed all around the world, approximately 150 countries. Among the troops, USFK has performed principal part with its stationing for 50 years against the military threat of North Korea. However, as a result of an investigation made into environmental contamination of several bases which were restituted from US to ROK by the Land Partnership Plan in the process of relocation of USFK, it was found that the area was contaminated by not only TPH and BTEX caused by diesel fuel and JP-8 but also various heavy metal over the standard level according to the operations of corps. Among these bases, 4 corps, each of which has different duties and function, were chosen to be analyzed for the characteristics and degrees of soil contamination. Fisrt of all, in armored camp the soil was contaminated by TPH and heavy metal (Zn, Ni, Pb) due to the repairing activities of tracked vehicles and shooting exercises. In army aviation camp, the soil was contaminated by TPH, BTEX and heavy metal (Zn, Cd) due to repairing activities of aircrafts. Also, in engineer camp there was contaminated area polluted by TPH and heavy metal (Zn, Pb) caused by open-air storage of various construction materials and TPH, BTEX and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cu) contamination of aircraft shooting area in shooting range camp were detected. Managing environment will be more effective when we identify the contaminative characteristics and take necessary measures in advance.

Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

  • Kyere, Vincent Nartey;Greve, Klaus;Atiemo, Sampson M.
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.31
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    • pp.6.1-6.10
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    • 2016
  • Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination ($C_{deg}$), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall $C_{deg}$. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall $C_{deg}$. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and $C_{deg}$, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied.

Source Identification of Heavy Metal Contamination at an Industrial Complex Established Using Construction Wastes (건설폐기물을 성토재로 사용한 산업단지에서의 중금속 오염 원인 규명)

  • JOO, Gwonho;KIM, Kibeum;NAM, Kyoungphile;JUNG, Jae-Woong;Moon, Seheum;CHOI, Yongju
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2018
  • This paper is aimed at source tracking of soil heavy metal contamination at a site established by reusing construction wastes. The soil heavy metal concentration at the study site peaked at a depth range of 5-10 m. Column studies were conducted to investigate the possibility of the contamination scenario of infiltration of stormwater carrying heavy metals of ground origin followed by selective heavy metal accumulation at the 5-10 m depth range. Almost all amount of lead, zinc, cadmium, and nickel introduced to the columns each packed with 0-5 m or 5-10 m field soil were accumulated in the column. The very poor heavy metal mobility in spite of the weak association of the heavy metals with the soil (characterized by a sequential extraction procedure) can be attributed to the high pH (10-11) of the construction wastes. From the results, the heavy metal contamination of the subsurface soil by an external heavy metal source was determined to be very unlikely at the study site. The column study applied in the current study is expected to be a useful methodology to present direct evidence of the contaminant source tracking at soil contamination sites.

Studies on the Evaluation Method of Heavy Metal Contamination Degree in the Han River (한강 저질중의 중금속 오염도 평가 방법에 관한 연구)

  • 어수미;박성배
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 1992
  • This study was performed to evaluate contamination degree of heavy metals in sediments of Han River, compared with other nation's evaluation method. The results were as follows 1. The contamination Ratio calculation method by heavy metal concentration in differnt fraction size has a limitation to apply to all of the areas of Han river because of its characteristics of sediment. As a result, this method applied to only 4 areas of Pal Dang, Wang Sook Chon, Uk Chon, and Bul Kwang Chon, and Contmination Ratio of heavy metals in those areas were relatively low of below 3. So it's considered that those areas have less contaminated from anthropogenic contaminants. 2. The Contamination Ratio calculation method by heavy metal concentration in different areasthat of upper area to be background level-has a limitation also to apply to Han river. But it is considered that this method was relatively suitable to apply, so it should be prepared evaluation standand method for them. Contamination ratio from background level as Pal Dang area were most high in An Yang Chon. So it must be prepared purification and control measure at An Yang Chon.

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Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure

  • Park, Byeong-Yong;Lee, Jae-Kook;Ro, Hee-Myong;Kim, Young Ho
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.329-339
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    • 2016
  • The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, $1/4^2$, $1/4^3$, and 0] ${\times}$ maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4-5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2-5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals.

Heavy Metal Contamination and Process for Its Removal in the Vicinity of the Dalsung Cu-W Mine (달성광산(達成鑛山) 주변지역(周邊地域)에서의 중금속오염(重金屬汚染)과 이의 제거방안(除去方案))

  • Kim, Kyoung-Woong;Hong, Young-Kook;Kim, Taik-Nam
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 1996
  • The Dalsung copper-tungsten mine in the Taegu area, Korea was closed in 1975 and may be the sources of the heavy metal contamination in the tributary system and soil-plant system due to the mine drainage derived from the mine wastes and tailings. To examine the degree and extent of heavy metal contamination in the vicinity of Dalsung mine area, stream water and soil samples were taken and analyzed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and AAS. Highly contaminated soils are found near the Lower Tunnel No.0 ranging up to $1760{\mu}g/g$ As, $2060{\mu}g/g$ Cu, $1120{\mu}g/g$ Pb and 346 ${\mu}g/g$ Zn. From the results of the sequential extraction methods for the metal speciation, the heavy metals in soils may be derived from soil parent materials and acid mine drainage. With the processes for the heavy metal removal, most of the heavy metal ions in the acid mine drainage are removed by being exchanged with Ca ions held by the bentonite, hydroxyapatite and calcium hydoxide.

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Determination of Bioconcentration Factor of Heavy Metal (loid)s in Rice Grown on Soils Vulnerable to Heavy Metal (loid)s Contamination

  • Lee, Seul;Kang, Dae-Won;Yoo, Ji-Hyock;Park, Sang-Won;Oh, Kyeong-Seok;Lee, Jin-Ho;Cho, Il Kyu;Moon, Byeong-Churl;Kim, Won-Il
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.106-114
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    • 2017
  • There is an increasing concern over heavy metal(loid) contamination of soil in agricultural areas including paddy soils. This study was conducted to determine the bioconcentration factor (BCF) for heavy metal(loid)s to brown rice grown in paddy soils vulnerable to heavy metal(loid)s contamination, for the quantitative health risk assessment to the residents living nearby the metal contaminated regions. The samples were collected from 98 sites nationwide in the year 2015. The mean and range BCF values of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in brown rice were 0.027 (0.001 ~ 0.224), 0.143 (0.001 ~ 2.434), 0.165 (0.039 ~ 0.819), 0.028 (0.005 ~ 0.187), 0.006 (0.001 ~ 0.048), and 0.355 (0.113 ~ 1.263), respectively, with Zn showing the highest. Even though the relationship between heavy metal(loid) contents in the vulnerable soils and metal contents in brown rice collected at the same fields was not significantly correlated, the relationship between log contents of heavy metal(loid)s in the vulnerable soils and BCF of brown rice wes significantly correlated with As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in rice. In conclusion, soil environmental risk assessment for crop uptake should consider the bioconcentration factor calculated using both the initial and vulnerable heavy metal(loid) contents in the required soil and the crop cultivated in the same fields.

A Study on Countermeasure and Contamination Analysis for Heavy Metal Pollution of Nearby Area using Stony Mountain Field Case (석산개발 사례를 이용한 주변 지역의 중금속 오염분석 및 대책방안에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Jung-Geun;Yoon, Won-Il;Lee, Yang-Kyu;Lee, Jong-Yuong;Hong, Ki-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2010
  • This study is described in heavy metal pollution by the stony mountain development using field case. The heavy metal pollution is investigated for nearby area (soil and stream) of the developed stony mountain, and then the countermeasure using contamination analysis is suggested. The investigation result indicated that contamination of Sammak stream caused by the stone dust and leachate at the stony mountain development. Therefore, the heavy metal pollution is evaluated by using Pollution Index(PI). The evaluation results confirmed that the contaminated groundwater was the leading cause of the contamination in Sammak stream and nearby soil. Therefore, the Permeable Reaction Barrier(PRB), which has a environmentally-friendly reactant, should be applied to control a heavy metal of groundwater, and it will be a reasonable countermeasure.

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