• Title, Summary, Keyword: health warning labels

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Role of Tobacco Warning Labels in Informing Smokers about Risks of Smoking among Bus Drivers in Mangalore, India

  • Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, Gururaghavendran;Shenoy, Ramya;Mithun, Pai B.H.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8265-8270
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    • 2014
  • Background: Smoking tobacco is considered as a leading cause of preventable death, mostly in developing countries like India. One of the primary goals of international tobacco control is to educate smokers about the risks associated with tobacco consumption. Tobacco warning labels (TWLs) on cigarette packages are one of the most common statutory means to communicate health risks of smoking to smokers, with the hope that once educated, they will be more likely to quit the habit. Materials and Methods: The present survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of TWLs in communicating health risks of tobacco usage among 263 adult smokers working as bus drivers in Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Mangalore, India. Information was collected on demographic details, exposure and response to health warnings on tobacco products, intention to quit and nicotine dependency. Results: The majority (79.5%) of the respondents revealed negative intentions towards quitting smoking. Nearly half of the participants had a 'low' nicotine dependency (47.5%) and 98.1% of the respondents had often noticed warning labels on tobacco packages. These health warnings made 71.5% of the respondents think about quitting smoking. Respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about dangers of smoking had better knowledge, with respect to lung cancer and impotence as a consequence of tobacco. A higher exposure to warning labels was significantly associated with lower nicotine dependency levels of smokers among the present study population. A significantly higher number of respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about the dangers of smoking thought about the risks of smoking and were more inclined to think about quitting smoking. As exposure increased, an increase in the knowledge and response of participants was also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to tobacco warning labels helps to educate smokers about health risks of tobacco smoking. It may be possible to promote oral health among bus drivers by developing strategies to educate them about these risk factors.

Advertising to Kids and Tweens: The Different Effect of Warning Label Attached on the Product Packaging

  • HALIM, Rizal Edy
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.193-203
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    • 2019
  • The issue of health risks from consuming unhealthy product is an important issue that is happening right now. Both developed and developing countries are already aware of the need for attention to the health-risk products. One tool that is believed to be able to change the consumption behavior of the health-risk products is the use of warning label on product packaging. As a persuasive act, both visual and textual warning label are believed to be able to change people's consumption behavior. In addition to the labels that contain health hazards, this research also uses social consequence contents. The main targets of such unhealthy product marketing are children and adolescents. Correspondingly, this study targets the age groups of kids and tweens. The method used in this research is experiment, involving 180 participants from two age groups namely kids and tweens. As a result, the study found that the influence of warning label on the age of tweens is greater in the age of the children. Meanwhile, the use of visual and textual warning label using social consequences contents, proved to be effective at the age of tweens. These results are useful for enrich social marketing subjects, especially within warning label research.

Systematic Review on International Practices in Controlling Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking

  • Tee, Guat Hiong;Hairi, Noran N;Nordin, Fauziah;Choo, Wan Yuen;Chan, Ying Ying;Kaur, Gurpreet;Veerasingam, Pathma Devi;Bulgiba, Awang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3659-3665
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    • 2015
  • Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has becoming popular especially among young people worldwide. Smokers are attracted by its sweeter, smoother smoke, social ambience and the misconception of reduced harm. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of waterpipe tobacco policies and practices in reducing its prevalence. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted electronically using the PubMed, OVID, Science Direct, Proquest and Embase databases. All possible studies from 1980 to 2013 were initially screened based on titles and abstracts. The selected articles were subjected to data extraction and quality rating. Results: Three studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for this review. Almost all of the waterpipe tobacco products and its accessories did not comply with the regulations on health warning labelling practices as stipulated under Article 11 of WHO FCTC. In addition, the grisly new warning labels for cigarettes introduced by Food and Drug Administration did not affect hookah tobacco smoking generally. Indoor air quality in smoking lounges was found to be poor and some hookah lounges were operated without smoke shop certification. Conclusions: Our findings revealed the availability of minimal information on the practices in controlling waterpipe smoking in reducing its prevalence. The lack of comprehensive legislations or practices in controlling waterpipe smoking warrants further research and policy initiatives to curb this burgeoning global epidemic, especially among the vulnerable younger population.

Assessing Health Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Korea Using DYNAMO-HIA

  • Kang, Eunjeong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.251-261
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study aimed to predict the 10-year impacts of the introduction of pictorial warning labels (PWLs) on cigarette packaging in 2016 in Korea for adults using DYNAMO-HIA. Methods: In total, four scenarios were constructed to better understand the potential health impacts of PWLs: two for PWLs and the other two for a hypothetical cigarette tax increase. In both policies, an optimistic and a conservative scenario were constructed. The reference scenario assumed the 2015 smoking rate would remain the same. Demographic data and epidemiological data were obtained from various sources. Differences in the predicted smoking prevalence and prevalence, incidence, and mortality from diseases were compared between the reference scenario and the four policy scenarios. Results: It was predicted that the optimistic PWLs scenario (PWO) would lower the smoking rate by 4.79% in males and 0.66% in females compared to the reference scenario in 2017. However, the impact on the reduction of the smoking rate was expected to diminish over time. PWO will prevent 85 238 cases of diabetes, 67 948 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31 526 of ischemic heart disease, 21 036 of lung cancer, and 3972 prevalent cases of oral cancer in total over the 10-year span due to the reductions in smoking prevalence. The impacts of PWO are expected to be between the impact of the optimistic and the conservative cigarette tax increase scenarios. The results were sensitive to the transition probability of smoking status. Conclusions: The introduction of PWLs in 2016 in Korea is expected reduce smoking prevalence and disease cases for the next 10 years, but regular replacements of PWLs are needed for persistent impacts.

Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam

  • Hoang, Van Minh;Le, Hong Chung;Kim, Bao Giang;Duong, Minh Duc;Nguyen, Duc Hinh;Vu, Quynh Mai;Nguyen, Manh Cuong;Pham, Duc Manh;Ha, Anh Duc;Yang, Jui-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2016
  • Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

A Survey on the Management of Chemical Substances and Airborne Concentration in Laundries Exposed to Organic Solvents (일부 세탁소의 유기용제 관리실태 및 공기중 노출농도에 관한 조사)

  • Roh, Young-Man;Kwon, Gi-Bum;Park, Seoung-Hyun;Jeong, Jee-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.70-77
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to identify the current status of occupational safety and health by checklist and to evaluate the airborne exposure to chemicals and to provide the appropriate recommendation for safety and health of laundries. A total of 20 laundries located in tile Gyungi district area were surveyed from July 20 to September 15, 2000. The prevalence of laundries having a stove and gas range were found to be 25 % and 55 %, respectively. Smoking is not allowed in 60 % of the laundries. Only 10 % of dry-cleaners were isolated. Ventilation systems in laundries had not been annually inspected. Most of the workers didn't put on respirators, MSDS were not available, and storage bottles did not contain warning labels. The bulk samples of dry cleaning agent include many chemicals that are not controlled by the MOL in Korea. The detected airborne organic solvents in the laundries were benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene, perchloroethylene, and 2-butoxy ethanol. The airborne concentrations of organic solvents were much less than the occupational exposure limits proposed by the Ministry of Labor(MOL) in Korea. But the concentrations of benzene exceeded the TLV of ACGIH. This study showed that the current status of occupational safety and health was not appropriate for workers in laundries. It is recommended that laundry workers should be educated for the treatment and storage of hazardous organic solvents to improve the occupational safety and health of the working environment as well as MSDS usage. Also, extended research and survey for the organic solvents that are not controlled by the MOL has to be conducted.

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Evaluation of the Knowledge and Perceptions with Regards to Pictorial Health Warnings on Tobacco Products among Tobacco Users Diagnosed with Head and Neck Carcinoma: a Study from the Kumaon Hills of India

  • Pant, Nirdosh Kumar;Pandey, Kailash Chandra;Madabhavi, Irappa;Pandey, Vinod;Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7891-7895
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    • 2014
  • Background: Tobacco products continue to be used in large quantities in India despite the mandatory inclusion of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on all tobacco packaging. The circumstances as to how people could continue the use of tobacco to the point of developing head and neck cancer despite enhanced awareness about the ill effects of tobacco is the main focus of this study. Materials and Methods: This study concerned patients with least 5-years history of tobacco use, having been diagnosed with histopathologically proven malignancies of the hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx and oral cavity presenting at the Government Medical College-Haldwani, Nainital, India. A total of 183 patients were eligible for inclusion during July 1 2013 - June 30 2014. Of these, 59 patients used smoked tobacco exclusively, 22 patients used smokeless tobacco exclusively, and 102 patients used both forms of tobacco. Among users of smoked forms, 75.2% (n=121) were beedi users, and 24.8% (n=40) were cigarette users. Patients were asked direct questions as to whether they had noticed the presence of PHWs upon tobacco products. The reasons as to why PHWs were not effective in stopping the patients from tobacco use were investigated. Results: Of the 183 patients, 146 reported being aware about the presence of PHWs, and when they were asked reasons as to why they continued tobacco despite being aware of ill-effects, the commonest reason chosen (by 53.4%) was that patients had not regarded themselves as using tobacco heavy enough to cause cancer. Among the 36 patients who reported as being oblivious to the presence of PHWs on tobacco products, 63.9% reported that the products they used never displayed any PHWs, and 36.1% reported never having paid attention to the packaging. The awareness about PHWs was higher among cigarette smokers in comparison to beedi smokers (100% vs 76.1%, p=0.0002). Conclusions: Locally produced and marketed tobacco products such as beedis and oral tobacco often fail to display PHWs. The presence of PHWs without doubt enhances awareness about the carcinogenic risks of tobacco. However, enhanced awareness alone may not be enough, and as elucidated by this study, some persons continue to use tobacco to the point of developing malignancies. The need of the hour is the implementation of legal and economic sanctions discouraging the use of tobacco products.

Development of the Hospital Foodservice Facility Evaluation tools based on the General HACCP-based Sanitation Standards and Guidelines (병원급식에 일반위생관리기준과 HACCP 제도 적용을 위한 시설ㆍ설비 위생관리 점검도구 개발)

  • 이정숙;곽동경;강영재
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.339-353
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    • 2003
  • The rapid increase in food borne illness outbreaks in Korea has been one of the major threats to the Nation's Health. Foodservice establishments have been identified as the major place for these outbreaks, mainly due to the lack of sanitary management and sanitary facility management practices. The purposes of the study were to develop hospital foodservice facility evaluation tools, based on the general HACCP-based standards and guidelines, for hospital food service establishments, to ensure the safety of these foodservices and to reduce the risk of food home illness. The scope of this study included: 1) an assessment of the current foodservice sanitation practices and managements for 6 general hospitals, with more than 400 beds, and 3 general hospitals, with less than 400 beds; 2) the development of foodservice establishments sanitation evaluation tools and sanitation standards, based on the HACCP system. The survey data showed varied results between the hospitals surveyed. Most of the hospital foodservice operations had many problems with ventilation and the plumbing. The total dimensional mean scores for the hospitals with more than 400 beds and less than 400 beds were 31.5 and 27.0, respectively. The highest dimension scores were for the water supply facility and lighting, with the lowest for insect and rodent control and toxic materials management. The levels of the mean scores were very low, especially for the general hospitals with less than 400 beds. These low mean scores may have arisen from critical problems within the hospital foodservice operations. The most needed facility management items for improvement were: storage shelf should be spaced 6 inches from the floor and walls, the use of three compartment sinks, utility sinks and cleaning facilities, with a floor drain for cleaning mops or liquid wastes, a ventilation hood designed to prevent dripping onto food, cooking facilities should be disassembled for washing and sanitizing, a separated hand washing sink and a sanitized food board for each area should be provided, all toxic material must have warning labels attached, and be stored in an area away from food preparation under padlock. The evaluation tool consisted of 14 dimensions, with 65 check-off items. The results of this study will provide basic facilities' guidelines to regulators, or foodservice industry personnel, wishing to build, or expend, and establish an efficient flow of food. As a result, food borne illnesses will be effectively prevented, and the Nation's health will be promoted for the development of their own sanitation standards, with a checklist for the safe production of foods.

Appropriateness of Labelling Practice for Pesticides in Korea (국내 농약 제품표지 내용 및 유독성 표시의 적절성)

  • Oh Bum Jin;Roh Hyung-Keun;Kim Won;Cho Gyu Chong;Shon Yoo Dong;Kang Hui Dong;Lim Kyoung Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The morbidity of pesticides are largely related with accidental ingestion in human. The four principal ideals of clarity, completeness, conformity and consistency of label are important to make a correct usage and prevent unnecessary health risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriateness of pesticides labelling practice in Korea. Methods: The photographic label images of pesticide products were gathered through visiting thirteen manufacturers that produce pesticide products in Korea. We scored labelling practice by guidelines of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1995. Results: From August 2005 to November 2005, we gathered 1,296 label images of pesticide and $58.3{\%}$ (755/1,296) of images were scored by check lists for reviewing label content. The average score of four check list categories was $71.9{\pm}2.2$. Each categorical score were $91.7{\pm}0.9$ for the information appearing on the label, $31.3{\pm}0.0$ for safety precaution, $77.7{\pm}2.0$ for instructions for use, $87.0{\pm}8.7$ for general configurations. In safety precaution, the sentence of keeping locked up the product and two mandatory safety pictograms were missed in all label images. In general configurations category, there was score difference in product package types between bottle and bag container ($85.1{\pm}9.0$ vs. $90.3{\pm}7.2$, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Although there was no comparable previous data, the score of safety precaution was lowest than other categories because the two mandatory safety pictograms and locked up warning sentence were missed. In general configurations, the colour contrast was more inappropriate in the labels on bottle than bag container.

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