• Title, Summary, Keyword: head and neck cancers

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Expression of EGFR and p53 in Head and Neck Tumors among Sudanese Patients

  • Abusail, Mustafa Saadalnour;Dirweesh, Ahmed Mohmed Ahmed;Salih, Rashid Awad Abdalla;Gadelkarim, Ahmed Hussain
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6415-6418
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    • 2013
  • Background: The aim of this study was to assess EGFR and p53 expression in head and neck tumors among Sudanese patients using immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was performed on 150 samples from patients diagnosed with HNCs as well as 50 from individuals with benign head and neck tumors. EGFR and p53 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: EGFR was expressed in 126/150 (84%) of HNCS and 6/50 (12%) benign head and neck tumors where as p53 was expressed in 29/150 (19.3%) of HNCs and 2/50 (4%) of benign head and neck tumors, with significance at p values of 0.001 and 0.009 respectively. Conclusions: There is a significant association between EGFR, P53 expression and head and neck cancers among Sudanese patients.

Descriptive Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancers in Togo

  • Darre, Tchin;Amana, Bathokedeou;Pegbessou, Essobozou;Bissa, Harefeteguena;Amegbor, Koffi;Boko, Essohanam;Kpemessi, Eyawelohn;Napo-Koura, Gado
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6715-6717
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    • 2015
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to provide epidemiological and histological data of thyroid cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of cases of thyroid cancers diagnosed from 2000 to 2014 (15 years) at the pathology laboratory of the Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital of $Lom{\acute{e}}$. All cases of review of a thyroid sample (biopsies, surgical specimens) were collected from the data records of that laboratory. Results: Thyroid cancers represented 1.1% (7930cases) of all cancers registered during the study period. Mean age was $45.4{\pm}0.3$ years and the proportion of females was 78.3%. We identified 92.4% carcinomas and 7.6% lymphomas. Carcinomas were well differentiated in 80 cases and were dominated by the papillary type (47 cases). Metastasis was observed in 13% of patients. The pTNM classification evaluated in 18 cases showed a predominance of grade I (13 cases). Lymphomas were dominated by lymphoma diffuse large B-cell (5 cases). Conclusions: This study is the first global standard for thyroid cancer pathology in Togo. The high frequency of follicular form suggests an unrecognized iodine deficiency. The improvement of the technical platform of the LAP (immunohistochemistry) will increase the diagnosis of rare forms of thyroid cancer.

Chromosome 3p Deletions in Korean Head and Neck Carcinomas (한국인 두경부암 환자에서 제3번 염색체 단완의 결손)

  • Son Mi-Na;Yoo Young-A;Cho Zeung-Keun;Choi Kun;Choi Jong-Wook;Kim Yeul-Hong;Kim Jun-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 1998
  • Objectives: Deletion in the short arm of chromosome 3 is common in many human cancers, including sporadic and hereditary renal carcinomas, small cell lung carcinomas, non-small cell lung carcinomas, and carcinomas of the ovary, breast, and cervix. A high frequency of chromosomal aberrations in head and neck cancers involving chromosome 3p has also been reported. These findings suggest that multiple tumor suppressor genes may be present on the short arm of chromosome 3. Materials and Methods: To investigate the possibility of chromosome 3p deletions in the Korean head and neck cancer patients, we applied a polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis to the DNA samples of matched normal mucosa and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas from 19 patients. Results: In the 19 normal samples heterozygosity at the polymorphic loci varied: 6 at the D3F15S2 locus(on telomeric 3p21), 2 at the D3S32 locus(on centromeric 3p21), and 4 at the THRB locus(on centromeric 3p24). In 12 matched carcinoma specimens, LOH(loss of heterozygosity) was observed at D3F15S2 in 1 of 6(17%), D3S32 in 1 of 2(50%), and at THRB in 2 of 4 cases(50%). Conclusion: The frequency of chromosome 3p deletion in the Korean head and neck carcinomas appear as other country did.

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Human Papillomavirus Burden in Different Cancers in Iran: a Systematic Assessment

  • Jalilvand, Somayeh;Shoja, Zabihollah;Hamkar, Rasool
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7029-7035
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    • 2014
  • Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are undoubtedly involved in genesis of human malignancies. HPV plays an etiological role in cervical cancer, but also in many vaginal, vulvar, anal and penile cancers, as well as head and neck cancers. In addition, a number of non-malignant diseases such as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis are attributable to HPV. Moreover, HPV forms have detected in several other cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung, prostate, ovarian, breast, skin, colorectal and urinary tract cancers, but associations with etiology in these cases is controversial. The aim of this systematic assessment was to estimate the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV types in HPV-associated cancers, HPV-related non-malignant diseases and in cancers that may be associated with HPV in Iran. The present investiagtion covered 61 studies on a variety of cancers in Iranian populations. HPV prevalence was 77.5 % and 32.4% in cervical cancer and head and neck cancers, respectively. HPV was detected in 23.1%, 22.2%, 10.4%, 30.9%, 14% and 25.2% of esophageal squamous cell, lung, prostate, urinary tract cancers, breast and skin cancers, respectively. HPV16 and 18 were the most frequent HPV types in all cancers. The findings of present study imply that current HPV vaccines for cervical cancer may decrease the burden of other cancers if they are really related to HPV.

P53 OVEREXPRESSION AND OUTCOME OF RADIOTHERAPY IN HEAD & NECK CANCERS

  • Kim, In-Ah;Choi, Ihl-Bhong;Kang, Ki-Mun;Choi, Byung-Ok;Kim, Kyung-Mi;Park, Kyung-Shin;Cho, Seong-Ho;Kim, Hyung-Tae;Kim, Young-Shin;Kang, Chang-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.70-70
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    • 1999
  • Experimental studies have implicated the wild type p53 in cellular response to radiation. Whether altered p53 function can lead to changes in clinical radiocurability remains an area of ongoing study. This study was performed to investigate whether any correlation between change of p53 and outcome of curative radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancers.(omitted)

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Clinicopathological Profile of Head and Neck Cancers in the Western Development Region, Nepal: A 4-Year Snapshot

  • Lasrado, Savita;Prabhu, Prashanth;Kakria, Anjali;Kanchan, Tanuj;Pant, Sadip;Sathian, Brijesh;Gangadharan, P.;Binu, V.S.;Arathisenthil, S.V.;Jeergal, Prabhakar A.;Luis, Neil A.;Menezes, Ritesh G.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6059-6062
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    • 2012
  • Regional cancer epidemiology is an important basis for determining the priorities for cancer control in different countries worldwide. There is no reliable information about the pattern of head and neck cancer in western Nepal and hence an attempt was here made to evaluate the situation based on hospital data, which provide the only source in the western region of Nepal. A clinicopathological analysis of head and neck cancers treated between 2003 and 2006 in Manipal Teaching Hospital affiliated to Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Western Development Region, Nepal was performed. A total of 105 head and neck cancer cases were identified with a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. The median ages of male and female patients were 62 and 64 years, respectively. Ninety-seven (92.4%) of the cancer patients were suffering from carcinoma, three (2.9%) had blastoma, three (2.9%) had sarcoma, and two (1.9%) had lymphoma. The majority (61.9%) of carcinoma cases were squamous cell carcinoma followed by anaplastic carcinoma (7.2%). Of the carcinoma cases, the most common site of primary lesion was larynx (19.6%), followed by the thyroid (14.4%), the tongue and hypopharynx with 10.3% cases each. Comparative analysis among males and females did not reveal any sex difference in type of head and neck cancers. The head and neck cancer pattern revealed by the present study provides valuable leads to cancer epidemiology in western Nepal and useful information for health planning and cancer control, and future research in western Nepal.

Combination Therapy for Advanced Maxillary Sinus Cancers (진행된 상악동암의 병용치료)

  • Cho Seung-Ho;Kim Hyung-Tae;Kim Min-Sik;Kim Hoon-Kyo;Yoon Sei-Chul;Kim In-Ah;Yoo Woo-Jeong;Kim Sung-Won
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 1997
  • Background: Cancers of the maxillary sinuses are not common and are the most difficult head and neck malignancies in which to make an early diagnosis. Objectives: This reports was conducted to evaluated the efficacy of combination therapy and the relationship between the treatment modalities and their outcome of maxillary sinus cancers. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a clinical datas of 46 patients who were treated at the department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. The Catholic University of Korea over 10 years between 1987 and 1996. Results: According to AJCC TNM system, 35 patients presented with $T_4$, 10 with $T_3$, one with T1. Two patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, 4 patients with chemotherapy alone, 17 patients with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, 23 patients with combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The overall 5 years survival rate for combination therapy group were 57%, but 23 patients treated with the other treatment modalities all died within 2 years except two cases with chemotherapy and radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. There was a statistical trend for better survival and local control in those patients treated with combination therapy than others(p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that it may be possible to acheive better results with aggressive combination treatment including surgery in advanced cases and to avoid orbital excentration in patients with orbital invasion.

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Diagnosis and Clinical Staging of Head and Neck Cancer (두경부암의 진단과 임상적 병기분류)

  • Park Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 1987
  • Cancer of the head and neck is an uncommon disease accounting for 5 % of all cancers. In an anatomic area so readily visible and palpable for examination without special and expensive diagnositic tools, it is unfortunate that many patients still present with advanced diseases. Since the prognosis is so intimately related to stage of disease, it is very important to detect the earliest stage of cancer with a complete head and neck examination. In the evaluation of cancer at any anatomic site, the description of the extent of the lesion is important. Not only does proper staging of the tumor lead to make decision of the most appropriate treatment, it also serves as a guide for the results of treatment. Proper staging demands a careful clinical assesment of the extent of the cancer. The current staging system for head and neck cancer uses the TNM system devised by American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging and End Result Reporting. T represent the primary tumor, N, regional nodal metastases, and M, distant metastases. The detection, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment of eary cancer will result in improved survival.

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Concurrent Chemoradiation with Weekly Cisplatin for the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers: an Institutional Study on Acute Toxicity and Response to Treatment

  • Ghosh, Saptarshi;Rao, Pamidimukkala Brahmananda;Kumar, P Ravindra;Manam, Surendra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7331-7335
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    • 2015
  • Background: Concurrent chemoradiation with three weekly high dose cisplatin is the non-surgical standard of care for the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancers. Although this treatment regime is efficacious, it has high acute toxicity, which leads not only to increased treatment cost, but also to increased overall treatment time. Hence, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute toxicity and tumor response in head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation using $40mg/m^2$ weekly cisplatin, which has been our institutional practice. Materials and Methods: This single institution retrospective study included data for 287 head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation from 2012 to 2014. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.8 years. The most common site of involvement was oral cavity. Most of the study patients presented with advanced stage disease. The mean overall treatment time was 56.9 days. Some 67.2% had overall complete response to treatment as documented till 90 days from the start of treatment. According to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria, mucositis was seen in 95.1% of the patients. Dermatitis and emesis were observed in 81.9% and 98.6%, respectively. Regarding haematological toxicity, 48.8% and 29.6% suffered from anaemia and leukopenia, respectively, during treatment. Acute kidney injury was assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), and was found in 18.8% of the patients. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly cisplatin is an effective treatment regime for head and neck cancers with reasonable toxicity which can be used in developing countries, where cost of treatment is so important.

miR-205 in Situ Expression and Localization in Head and Neck Tumors - a Tissue Array Study

  • Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima;Lee, Learn-Han;Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9071-9075
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    • 2014
  • Background: microRNAs are small non-coding RNA that control gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. These molecules are known to play essential roles in many biological and physiological processes. miR-205 may be differentially expressed in head and neck cancers; however, there are conflicting data and localization of expression has yet to be determined. Materials and Methods: miR-205 expression was investigated in 48 cases of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissue array of the neck, oronasopharynx, larynx and salivary glands by Locked Nucleic Acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) technology. Results: miR-205 expression was significantly differentially expressed across all of the inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissues of the neck. A significant increase in miR-205 staining intensity (p<0.05) was observed from inflammation to benign and malignant tumors in head and neck tissue array, suggesting that miR-205 could be a biomarker to differentiate between cancer and non-cancer tissues. Conclusions: LNA-ISH revealed that miR-205 exhibited significant differential cytoplasmic and nuclear staining among inflammation, benign and malignant tumors of head and neck. miR-205 was not only exclusively expressed in squamous epithelial malignancy. This study offers information and a basis for a comprehensive study of the role of miR-205 that may be useful as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in head and neck tumors.