• Title, Summary, Keyword: head and neck SCC

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EXPRESSION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND CELL CYCLE ANALYSIS IN THE HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS (두경부 편평세포암종에서 상피성장인자수용체의 발현과 세포주기에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Won;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2000
  • Growth factors and the receptors play an important role in the regulation of the growth and development of mammalian cells. In particular, epidermal growth factor is a polypeptide with potent mitogenic activity that stimulates proliferation of various normal and neoplastic cells through the interaction with its specific receptor(EGFR). EGFR has been described as a parameter of poor prognosis in many human neoplasms such as breast, bladder, and vulvar cancers. The objectives of this study are the evaluation of the expression of EGFR and cell cycle analysis in the head and neck squamous cell carcinomas(SCC), and the evaluation of the correlation between clinico-patholgic features and expression of EGFR and S-phase fraction. 37 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens were evaluated for expression of EGFR by Western blot analysis and S-phase fraction by cell cycle analysis using the flow cytometry. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The expressions of EGFR were observed in 20 specimens(54%) among 37 head and neck SCC specimens. In case of oral SCC, 15 specimens(56%) out of 27 specimens were observed, and in case of nasopharyngeal SCC 5 specimens(50%) out of 10 specimens. 2. There was no correlation between clinical features(location, stage) of head and neck SCC and expression of EGFR (p>0.05). 3. There was a significant correlation between histo-pathological differentiation of head and neck SCC and expression of EGFR (p<0.02). 4. There was a significant correlation between expression of EGFR and S-phase fraction of cell cycle in the head and neck SCC (p<0.05). The above results suggest that expression of EGFR and S-phase fraction of cell cycle are adjunctive prognostic marker in the head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

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Relationship between SCC Antigen, CA 19-9, CA 125 and DNA Microsatellite Alterations and Recurrence in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients (진행된 두경부암 환자에서 혈청 SCC 항원, CA 19-9, CA 125, DNA Microsatellite 변이와 재발 여부와의 관계)

  • Choi Jong-Ouck;Choi Jeong-Cheol;Chu Hyung-Ro
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2001
  • Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the significance of serum SCC antigen, CA 19-9, CA 125 level and DNA microsatellite alterations (MSA) as prognostic factors and indicators for recurrences in the pre-treatment and post-treatment state, respectively in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods: 120 patients who received curative treatment for head and neck cancer from 1995 to 2000 were followed up successfully, and were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty healthy subjects served as normal controls. Serum SCC Ag levels were measured by microparticle enzyme immunoassay technique via IMX SCC assay, CA 19-9 levels were measured by CA 19-9 RIA test kit, and CA 125 levels were measured by CA 125 IRMA kit. MSA were identified after PCR amplification. Heterozygosity was considered lost if the ratio of one allele was significantly decreased (>50%) in serum DNA compared with normal DNA from lymphocytes. Results: Preoperative tumor markers were higher in cancer patients than control, but not significant. Postoperative SCC Ag levels were lower than preoperative levels. The SCC Ag levels were remained low in no evidence of disease (NED) group, but increased in locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis group. CA 19-9 and CA 125 levels showed no correlation between levels and recurrences and were not decreased significantly after primary tumor removal. MSA were detected in five out of 21 cases, and highly detected in distant metastasis group. Conclusion: SCC Ag seems to be a helpful serum tumor marker for early detection of recurrence and distant metastasis of head and neck cancer after curative treatment. But, CA 19-9 and CA 125 were not reliable markers for head and neck tumors. MSA were not statistically significant because of the small number of study group. However they may be helpful for screening serum molecular markers for early detection of distant metastasis of head and neck cancers.

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Primary Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Contralateral Lymph Node Metastasis (반대측 림프절 전이를 동반한 비강의 편평 세포암 1예)

  • Kim, Tae-Hoo;Heo, Chul-Young;Kim, Beom-Gyu;Park, Il-Seok;Kim, Yong-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2009
  • Sinonasal malignant tumors comprise less than 1% of all cancers and 3% of all malignant tumors of the head and neck, which explains a lack of large series addressing the clinical characteristics and management of these tumors. Neck node metastasis occurs in only about 7% to 15% of malignant tumors compared with other head and neck cancers. A 90-yr-old woman presented with left palpable neck mass and right nasal mass occupying nasal cavity. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of left neck mass results in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma(SCC). PET/CT shows intense FDG uptake in right nasal cavity with bone invasion. Histopathologic examination of excised lesion in the right nasal cavity revealed SCC. We report here on a primary sinonasal SCC with contralateral lymph node metastasis.

A Case of Primary Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the True Vocal Fold Mimicking Atypical Squamous Cell Proliferation (비정형 편평세포 증식으로 오인된 진성대의 원발성 선편평세포암종)

  • Kim, Ju Yeon;Chun, Mi Sun;Jung, Soo Yeon;Kim, Han Su
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.19-22
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    • 2016
  • Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the larynx is very rare malignancy which has well defined two distinctive pathological features, an adenocarcinoma and a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Diagnosis of ASC by endoscopic biopsy is challenging due to small amount of harvested tissue. ASC has a worse prognosis than SCC with an early lymph node metastasis and a distant dissemination. We experienced a rare case of vocal fold ASC which was initially misdiagnosed as atypical squamous cell proliferation at frozen biopsy. We reported this case with a literature review.

Growth inhibition in head and neck cancer cell lines by gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (두경부암 세포주에서 상피성장인자수용체 타이로신 카이네이즈 억제제인 gefitinib의 성장억제에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Seung-Il;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2009
  • Cell survival is the result of a balance between programmed cell death and cellular proliferation. Cell membrane receptors and their associated signal transducing proteins control these processes. Of the numerous receptors and signaling proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most important receptors involved in signaling pathways implicated in the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. EGFR is often highly expressed in human tumors including oral squamous cell carcinomas, and there is increasing evidence that high expression of EGFR is correlated with poor clinical outcome of common human cancers. Therefore, we examined the antiproliferative activity of gefitinib, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI), in head and neck cancer cell lines. SCC-9, KB cells were cultured and growth inhibition activity of gefitinib was measured with MTT assay. To study influence of gefitinib in cell cycle, we performed cell cycle analysis with flow cytometry. Western blot was done to elucidate the expression of EGFR in cell lines and phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream kinase protein, Erk and Akt. Significant growth inhibition was observed in SCC-9 cells in contrast with KB cells. Also, flow cytometric analysis showed G1 phase arrest only in SCC-9 cells. In Western blot analysis for investigation of EGFR expression and downstream molecule phosphorylation, gefitinib suppressed phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream protein kinase Erk, Akt in SCC-9. However, in EGFR positive KB cells, weak expression of active form of Erk and Akt and no inhibitory activity of phosphorylation in Erk and Akt was observed. The antiproliferative activity of gefitinib was not correlated with EGFR expression and some possibility of phosphorylation of Erk and Akt as a predictive factor of gefitinib response was emerged. Further investigations on more reliable predictive factor indicating gefitinib response are awaited to be useful gefitinib treatment in head and neck cancer patients.

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Iranian Patients and Risk Factors in Young Adults: a Fifteen-Year Study

  • Mafi, Negar;Kadivar, Maryam;Hosseini, Niloufar;Ahmadi, Sara;Zare-Mirzaie, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3373-3378
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    • 2012
  • Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the 8th most common cancer worldwide. Although older age, male gender, smoking and alcohol consumption are known risk factors, an increasing number of HNSCC patients are without typical risk factors. Our aim was to define demographics of HNSCC in Iran and the potential risk factors related to Iranian ethnicity and lifestyle. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study on 262 patients with primary SCC of the larynx, hypopharynx or tongue referred to our pathology department during 1995-2010. Patients' demographics, tumor characteristics and risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and anemia were analyzed and compared in two groups of patients: over 40 years (older group) and 40 years or less (young group); Chi-square and Mann-Whitney analytical tests were employed. Results: 5.7% of patients were young adults. The male to female ratio was 1.5 in the younger group and 5.6 in the older group. In young adults, 40% of tumors were located in larynx and 40% in the tongue. Age >40 was significantly associated with laryngeal location (P<0.001). History of smoking and drinking was significantly associated with age >40 and SCC of larynx in both age groups. Cervical lymph node involvement was significantly correlated with SCC of tongue (P<0.001), however, considering young adults only, SCC of hypopharynx was most frequently accompanied by lymph node involvement (60%). The most prevalent tumor among men was SCC of larynx whereas SCC of hypopharynx was the most prevalent tumor among women (61%), of whom 18.2% were ${\leq}40$. Conclusions: The incidence of HNSCC among young adults seems to be higher in Iran compared to other countries. Reduction in exposure to known risk factors, especially tobacco smoking in forms of cigarettes and bubble pipes, and search for other causative agents of HNSCC in young population is recommended.

A Retrospective Clinical View of Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Head and Neck Region: A Single Institution's Experience of 247 Cases over 19 Years

  • Kang, Kyung Won;Lee, Dong Lark;Shin, Hea Kyeong;Jung, Gyu Yong;Lee, Joon Ho;Jeon, Myeong Su
    • Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2016
  • Background: The two most common skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The purpose of this study was to describe the detailed clinical behavior of BCC and SCC in the head and neck region over 19 years at a single institution. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for all patients with non-melanoma skin cancer who had undergone surgical resection over an 18-year period. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic information, tumor size, onset-to-diagnosis, anatomic location, clinical subtype, histologic differentiation, method of surgical treatment, and recurrence. Results: The review identified 265 cases of either BCC or SCC in 226 patients. Of the 226 patients, 80 (35.4%) were men and 146 (64.6%) were women. BCC (n=138, 55.9%) was more frequent than SCC (109, 44.1%). The most frequent age group was 70-to-79 year olds (45 patients, 35.2%) for BCC and 80-to-89 year olds (41 patients, 41.8%) for SCC. By aesthetic units of the face, the most common location was the nasal unit (44 cases, 31.9%) for BCC and the buccal unit (23 cases, 21.1%) for SCC. The most common clinical subtype of BCC was the nodular type (80 cases, 58.0%). Local flaps were most commonly used to cover surgical defects (136 cases, 55.1%). Recurrent rates were 2.2% for BCC and 5.5% for SCC. Conclusion: In our study, many characteristics of BCC and SCC were compared to previously published reports were generally similar, except the ratio of BCC to SCC. Further study can help to establish the characteristics of BCC and SCC.

Utility of FDG PET-CT Scans on Nodal Staging of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx (구강 및 구인두 편평상피암종의 림프절 전이에 대한 PET-CT 영상의 유용성)

  • Joo, Young-Hoon;Sun, Dong-Il;Park, Jun-Ook;Yoo, Ie-Ryung;Kim, Min-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.14-18
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : We evaluated the use of FDG PET/CT for the identification of cervical nodal metastases of SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx with histological correlation. Material and Methods : We reviewed 46 medical records, from January 2004 to July 2007, of patients who underwent FDG PET/CT and CT/MRI for SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx before surgery. We recorded the lymph node metastases according to the neck level affected and the system used for the imaging-based nodal classification. Results : The FDG PET/CT had a sensitivity of 75.6% and a specificity of 96.7% ; it had a higher sensitivity than the CT/MRI for identification of cervical metastases on the side of the neck(26/28 vs. 20/28, p=0.031) and at each of the cervical levels(34/45 vs. 26/45, p=0.008). There was a significant difference in the $SUV_{max}$ between the benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes($3.31{\pm}3.23$ vs. $4.22{\pm}2.57$, p=0.028). The receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for differentiating the benign from the malignant cervical lymph nodes, showed that the area under the curve(AUC) of the FDG PET/CT was 0.775. The cut-off value for the $SUV_{max}$ was 2.23 based on the ROC curve. There was a significant correlation between the $SUV_{max}$ and the size of the cervical lymph nodes(Spearman r=0.353, p=0.048). Conclusion : FDG PET/CT images were more accurate than the CT/MRI images. In addition, the $SUV_{max}$ cut-off values were important for evaluating cervical the cervical nodes in the patients with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

The Relationship between the Size and the Invasion Depth of Tumors in Head and Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Lee, Sam Yong;Hwang, Won Joo;Kim, Kyung Pil;Kim, Hong Min;Hwang, Jae Ha;Kim, Kwang Seog
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.538-543
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    • 2016
  • Background Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which occurs in keratinocytes of the epidermis and is the second most common skin cancer, has a more invasive growth pattern and higher potential to metastasize than basal cell carcinoma. Total excision of the primary tumor is the treatment of choice. For clear excision of the tumor, invasion depth is one of the most important factors. This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between the size and the invasion depth of cutaneous SCC. Methods Twenty-six cases were collected for this prospective study. Frozen biopsies were examined after complete resection of the tumor, followed by histological confirmation by pathological examination. The major and minor axis lengths of the tumor, the invasion depth, and the level of invasion were measured. Recurrence or metastasis was recorded through regular follow-up. Results The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Significant results were observed for the relationship between the major and minor axis lengths and the invasion depth of the tumor (0.747, 0.773). No cases of recurrence or metastasis were observed. Conclusions In head and neck cutaneous SCC, the invasion depth of the tumor is closely related to the major and minor axis lengths of the tumor. Therefore, the invasion depth of the tumor can be estimated by measuring the size of the tumor, and a standard vertical safety margin for head and neck cutaneous SCC can be established, which could be helpful in the development of a preoperative reconstruction plan.

Concordant Surgical Treatment: Non-melanocytic Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck

  • Ryu, Wan Cheol;Koh, In Chang;Lee, Yong Hae;Cha, Jong Hyun;Kim, Sang Il;Kim, Chang Gyun
    • Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2017
  • Background: Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. Of the 4 million skin lesions excised annually worldwide, approximately 2 million are considered cancerous. In this study, we aimed to describe a regional experience with skin cancers treated by a single senior surgeon and to provide a treatment algorithm. Methods: The medical records of 176 patients with head and neck non-melanocytic skin cancer (NMSC) who were treated by a single surgeon at our institution between January 2010 and May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, and their data (age, sex, pathological type, tumor location/size, treatment modality) were analyzed. Patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) who were classified as a high-risk group for nodal metastasis underwent sentinel node mapping according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Results: Among the patients with NMSC who were treated during this period, basal cell carcinoma (BCC; n=102, 57.9%) was the most common pathological type, followed by cSCC (n=66, 37.5%). Most lesions were treated by complete excision, with tumor-free surgical margins determined via frozen section pathology. Thirty-one patients with high-metastasis-risk cSCC underwent sentinel node mapping, and 17 (54.8%) exhibited radiologically positive sentinel nodes. Although these nodes were pathologically negative for metastasis, 2 patients (6.5%) later developed lymph node metastases. Conclusion: In our experience, BCC treatment should comprise wide excision with tumor-free surgical margins and proper reconstruction. In contrast, patients with cSCC should undergo lymphoscintigraphy, as nodal metastases are a possibility. Proper diagnosis and treatment could reduce the undesirably high morbidity and mortality rates.