• Title, Summary, Keyword: hand tracking

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Comparative Study of the Effects of the Intermodal Freight Transport Policies (인터모달 추진 정책과 효과에 관한 비교연구)

  • Woo, Jung-Wouk
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 2015
  • Purpose - The Korean government has devised intermodal transportation policies and granted subsidies to shippers and logistics companies that made a conversion of transportation means through the policies. This provides support by expanding the complex uniform railroad transportation and overhauling the deteriorated railroad facilities. As for 2013, however, the freight transportation percentage of railroad was 4.5% in tons and 8.5% in ton kilometers. Meanwhile, since the 1990s, developed countries such as the U.S. and Europe have been trying to expand intermodal freight transport with a legal and institutional support to build a logistics system corresponding with social and economic environmental changes. In this study, I set out to examine the effects of the intermodal freight transport policies in the EU and the U.S., and to explore the direction of setting up a rail intermodal transport system in South Korea. Research design, data, and methodology - The paper used a qualitative research methodology through the literature review. First, was an overview of Intermodal transportation in the EU, U.S. and UN. Second, it describes the development of transport in Europe and the U.S. with particular emphasis on intermodal freight transport. Third, it explores the direction of setting up a intermodal freight transport in South Korea. The last section contains concluding remarks. Results - As for the EU, it has been promoting integration between transport and intermodal logistics network designs while utilizing ITS or ICT and supports for rail freight intermodal by giving reduction to a facilities fee or subsidizing for rail freight in order to minimize the cost of external due to freight transport. On the other hand, as for the U.S., it has been made up of an industrial-led operating project and has been promoting it to improve accessibility between intermodal hubs and cargo terminals through intermodal corridor program, and an intermodal cargo hub access corridor projects, etc. Moreover, it has tried to construct intermodal transport system using ITS or ICT and to remove Barrier. As a result, in these countries, the proportion of intermodal freight transport is going to be the second significant transport compared with rail and maritime transport. An Effective rail intermodal transport system is needed in South Korea, as seen in the case of these countries. In order to achieve this object, the following points are required to establish radical infrastructure policy; diversify investment financing measures taken under public-private partnerships, legal responsibilities, improvement of utilization of existing facilities to connect the railway terminal and truck terminal, and enhancement service competitiveness through providing cargo tracking and security information that combines the ITS and ICT. Conclusions - This study will be used as a basis for policy and support for intermodal freight transport in South Korea. In the future, it is also necessary to examine from the perspective of the shipper companies using the rail intermodal transport, ie, recognition of shipper, needed institutional supports, and transportation demand forecasting and cost-effective analysis of the railway infrastructure systems improvement.

Quantitative Evaluation of the Corticospinal Tract Segmented by Using Co-registered Functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Tractography (정상인에서 기능적 뇌 자기공명영상과 확산텐서영상 합성기법을 이용한 피질척수로의 위치에 따른 정량적 분석)

  • Jang, Sung-Ho;Hong, Ji-Heon;Byun, Woo-Mok;Hwang, Chang-Ho;Yang, Dong-Seok
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantitative evaluation of the corticospinal tract (CST) at the multiple levels by using functional MRI (fMRI) co-registered to diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Materials and Methods : Ten normal subjects without any history of neurological disorder participated in this study. fMRI was performed at 1.5 T MR scanner using hand grasp-release movement paradigm. DTT was performed by using DtiStudio on the basis of fiber assignment continuous tracking algorithm (FACT). The seed region of interest (ROI) was drawn in the area of maximum fMRI activation during the motor task of hand grasp-release movement on a 2-D fractional anisotropy (FA) color map, and the target ROI was drawn in the cortiocospinal portion of anterior lower pons. We have drawn five ROIs for the measurement of FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) along the corona radiata (CR) down to the medulla. Results : The contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) was mainly found to be activated in all subjects. DTT showed that tracts originated from SM1 and ran to the medulla along the known pathway of the CST. In all subjects, FA values of the CST were higher at the level of the midbrain and posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) than the level of others. Conclusion : Our study showed that co-registered fMRI and DTT has elucidated the state of CST on 3-D and analyzed the quantitative values of FA and ADC at the multiple levels. We conclude that co-registered fMRI and DTT may be applied as a useful tool for clarifying and investigating the state of CST in the patients with brain injury.

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The influence of some intrauterine growth variables on neonatal blood pressure (태아기 자궁내 성장지표와 신생아 혈압과의 관련성)

  • Min, Jungwon;Park, Eun Ae;Kong, Kyoungae;Park, Bohyun;Hong, Juhee;Kim, Young Ju;Lee, Hwayoung;Ha, EunHee;Park, Hyesook
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.9
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    • pp.966-971
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : 'Programming' describes the process that stimulus at a critical period of development has lifelong effects. The fact that low birth weight links to the risk of elevated blood pressures in adult life is well known. This study aims to examine whether this link is evident in the newborn by investigating the relationship of the intrauterine growth indices and neonatal blood pressure(BP). Methods : We studied 127 neonates who were born at Ewha Womans' Hospital and their mothers enrolled our cohort study during pregnancy. Data on the mothers and details of the birth records were tracked and collected from medical charts. Neonatal BP was measured within 24 hours after birth. Results : Neonatal SBP was positively correlated to intrauterine growth indices; birth weight(BW)(r=0.4), head circumference(HC)(r=0.4), and birth height(r=0.3). However, an inverse relationship existed, between HC/BW ratio and neonatal SBP(r=-0.4). After adjusting for the baby's sex, maternal BP, and gestational age, neonatal SBP still associated with intrauterine growth indices. SBP was 7 mmHg higher in the highest BW group(${\geq}90percentiles$) compared to the lowest group(<10 percentiles). On the other hand, SBP was 17 mmHg lower in the highest HC/BW group(${\geq}90percentiles$) compared in the lowest group(<10 percentiles). Conclusion : This study could not find the evidence that intrauterine growth retardation affect on elevated neonatal BP. It suggests that the initiating events of BP programming may occur during postnatal growth period. To identify the critical starting period that intrauterine growth retardation leads to elevated BP, a study tracking BP changes from birth to childhood is required.

An Analysis of Eye Movement in Observation According to University Students' Cognitive Style (대학생들의 인지양식에 따른 관찰에서의 안구 운동 분석)

  • Lim, Sung-Man;Choi, Hyun-Dong;Yang, Il-Ho;Jeong, Mi-Yeon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.778-793
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze observation characteristics through eye movement according to cognitive styles. To do this, we developed observation tasks that show the differences between wholistic cognitive style group and analytic cognitive style group, measured eye movement of university students with different cognitive styles after being given an observation task. The difference between two cognitive style groups is confirmed by analysing gathered statistics and visualization data. The findings of this study are as follows: First, to compare fixation time and frequency, we compared the average value of total time used in the observation task by the wholistic cognitive style group and analytic cognitive style group. The numbers of Fixation (total) and number of Fixations (30s), is based on the fact that the wholistic cognitive style group has more numbers of fixation (Total) and number of fixations (30s) means the wholistic cognitive style group can observe more points or overall features than the analytic cognitive style group, in contrast, the analytic cognitive style group tend to focus on a particular detail, and observe less numbers of points. Second, to compare observation object and area by cognitive style, the outcome of analysing visualization data shows that wholistic cognitive style group observes the surrounding environment of spider and web on a wider area, on the other hand, the analytic cognitive style group observes by focusing on the spider itself. Through the result of this study, there are differences in observation time, frequency, object, area, and ratio from the two cognitive styles. It also shows the reason why each student has varied outcome, from the difference of information following their cognitive styles, and the result of this study helps to figure out and give direction as to what observation fulfillment is more suitable for each student.

Predictive Clustering-based Collaborative Filtering Technique for Performance-Stability of Recommendation System (추천 시스템의 성능 안정성을 위한 예측적 군집화 기반 협업 필터링 기법)

  • Lee, O-Joun;You, Eun-Soon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.119-142
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    • 2015
  • With the explosive growth in the volume of information, Internet users are experiencing considerable difficulties in obtaining necessary information online. Against this backdrop, ever-greater importance is being placed on a recommender system that provides information catered to user preferences and tastes in an attempt to address issues associated with information overload. To this end, a number of techniques have been proposed, including content-based filtering (CBF), demographic filtering (DF) and collaborative filtering (CF). Among them, CBF and DF require external information and thus cannot be applied to a variety of domains. CF, on the other hand, is widely used since it is relatively free from the domain constraint. The CF technique is broadly classified into memory-based CF, model-based CF and hybrid CF. Model-based CF addresses the drawbacks of CF by considering the Bayesian model, clustering model or dependency network model. This filtering technique not only improves the sparsity and scalability issues but also boosts predictive performance. However, it involves expensive model-building and results in a tradeoff between performance and scalability. Such tradeoff is attributed to reduced coverage, which is a type of sparsity issues. In addition, expensive model-building may lead to performance instability since changes in the domain environment cannot be immediately incorporated into the model due to high costs involved. Cumulative changes in the domain environment that have failed to be reflected eventually undermine system performance. This study incorporates the Markov model of transition probabilities and the concept of fuzzy clustering with CBCF to propose predictive clustering-based CF (PCCF) that solves the issues of reduced coverage and of unstable performance. The method improves performance instability by tracking the changes in user preferences and bridging the gap between the static model and dynamic users. Furthermore, the issue of reduced coverage also improves by expanding the coverage based on transition probabilities and clustering probabilities. The proposed method consists of four processes. First, user preferences are normalized in preference clustering. Second, changes in user preferences are detected from review score entries during preference transition detection. Third, user propensities are normalized using patterns of changes (propensities) in user preferences in propensity clustering. Lastly, the preference prediction model is developed to predict user preferences for items during preference prediction. The proposed method has been validated by testing the robustness of performance instability and scalability-performance tradeoff. The initial test compared and analyzed the performance of individual recommender systems each enabled by IBCF, CBCF, ICFEC and PCCF under an environment where data sparsity had been minimized. The following test adjusted the optimal number of clusters in CBCF, ICFEC and PCCF for a comparative analysis of subsequent changes in the system performance. The test results revealed that the suggested method produced insignificant improvement in performance in comparison with the existing techniques. In addition, it failed to achieve significant improvement in the standard deviation that indicates the degree of data fluctuation. Notwithstanding, it resulted in marked improvement over the existing techniques in terms of range that indicates the level of performance fluctuation. The level of performance fluctuation before and after the model generation improved by 51.31% in the initial test. Then in the following test, there has been 36.05% improvement in the level of performance fluctuation driven by the changes in the number of clusters. This signifies that the proposed method, despite the slight performance improvement, clearly offers better performance stability compared to the existing techniques. Further research on this study will be directed toward enhancing the recommendation performance that failed to demonstrate significant improvement over the existing techniques. The future research will consider the introduction of a high-dimensional parameter-free clustering algorithm or deep learning-based model in order to improve performance in recommendations.