• Title, Summary, Keyword: hCG

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Effect of Hormone on In vitro Maturation of Porcine Follicular Oocytes (호르몬의 첨가가 돼지난포란의 체외성숙에 미치는 영향)

  • 임정훈;박병권;이성호;박창식
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of hormones on in vitro maturation of porcine follicular oocytes. The results obtained were as follows : 1. The maturation rates of oocytes cultured in medium containing FSH 1, 10, 50 and 100$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml were 44.6, 58.5, 42.6 and 37.9%, respectively. And those were no difference to maturation rates among the medium containing FSH. However, the maturation rate(13.7%) of oocytes cultured without FSH was significantly(P<0.05) lower than those of oocytes cultured with FSH. 2. The maturation rates of oocytes cultured in medium containing hCG 0, 1, 10, 50 and 100IU/ml were 12.2, 11.9, 17.9, 21.9 and 45.6%, respectively. The maturation rate of oocytes cultured with 100IU/ml hCG was significantly(P<0.05) higher than those of oocytes cultured with 0~50IU/ml hCG concentrations. 3. The maturation rates of oocytes cultured in medium containing E2 0, 1, 10, 50 and 100$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml were 13.7, 10.5, 14.9, 11.4 and 5.9%, respectively. There were no differences to maturation rates among the E2 concentrations. 4. The FSH+hCG treatment was the highest maturation rate in medium containing different combination of FSH, hCG and E2.

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Effect of Estrus Induction in Shih-tzu Bitches by Administration of PMSG and HCG (PMSG와 hCG 병용 투여에 의한 Shih-tzu 견에서의 인공 발정 유기)

  • Kim, B.S.;Son, C.H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to induce the estrus in 9 anestrus Shih-tzu bitches by intramuscular injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) 50IU/kg for 10 consecutive days and by intravenous injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) 1,000IU/Head on Day 10. The day when the first injection of PMSG was counted as Day 0 of experiment. All of the bitches were monitored by vaginal discharges, displays the perineal region, vaginal swelling and male acceptances. The 9 bitches (100%) showed vaginal discharges and vaginal swelling, and were mated. The 5 bitches out of 9 bitches were pregnant (55.6%) and 4 bitches were non-pregnant (44.4%). The 3 bitches out of 5 pregnant bitches were spontaneously delivered (33.3%) and litter size were $1.66{\pm}1.15\;(1{\sim}3\;pups)$ pups. The 2 bitches were diagnosed as early embryonic death on days 38 and 41 after first injection of PMSG. These results indicated that rates of estrus induction, pregnancy and delivery were 100%, 55.6% and 33.3%, respectively, using PMSG and hCG.

Effects of Hormones and Glucose Levels during the In Vitro Culture in Medium on In Vitro Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Porcine Oocytes (돼지 수정란의 체외수정 및 발생에 미치는 호르몬 및 Glucose 첨가의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 김상근;이명헌
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.235-241
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    • 1994
  • The study was conducted to determine the optimal hormone and glucose levels during the in vitro culture of bovine oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro for blastocyst development. Oocytes matured in TCM 199 + 10% FCS + hormones and glucose were fertilized in vitro in a TALP medium with swim up separated and heparin-treated epididymal cauda spermatozoa. Oocytes were cultured for 2~5 days in synthetic oviduct fluid medium (SOFM) supplemented with 10% FGS and with different hormone and glucose levels, and further cultured 5 days same medium in SOFM. The results are summarized as follows : The in vitro maturation and penetration rates of porcine oocytes cultured in TCM 199 media containing PMSG, hCG, PMSG + hCG, hCG + $\beta$ estradiol, PMSG + $\beta$ estradiol 0 to20 hours after insemination were 88.0% and 81.8%, 82.6% and 68.4%, 80.0% and 75.0%, 80.0% and 65.0%, 77.3% and 64.7%, respectively. The in vitro maturation and penetration rates of porcine oocytes cultured in TCM 199 media containing PMSG, hCG, PMSG + hCG, hCG + $\beta$ estradiol, PMSG + $\beta$ estradiol 20 to 40 hours after insemination were 92.0% and 87.0%, 92.0% and 82.6%, 91.3% and 81.0%, 85.2% and 73.9%, 87.5% and 81.0%, respectively. The cleavage and in vitro developmental rates to blastocyst of porcine oocytes cultured in TCM 199 media containing 0.05 mM, 0.10 mM, 0.30 mM, 0.50 mM, 1.00 mM, and 3.00 mM glucose lelvels 0~3 days after insemination were 31.5~48.1% and 10.0~16.7%, respectively. The cleavage and in vitro developmental rates to blastocyst of porcine oocytes cultured in TCM 199 media containing 0.05 mM, 0.10 mM, 0.30 mM, 0.50 mM, 1.00 mM, and 3.00 mM glucose levels 4~8 days after insemination were 30.0~53.8% and 8.7~19.2%, respectively. The cleavage and in vitro developmental rates to blastocyst were higher in TCM 199 media containing various glucose levels 0~3 days after insemination than 4~8 days.

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Investigation of Feline Ovulation Time after LH Surge Induced by hCG Injection in Superovulation

  • Jeon, Kyo-Hee;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Goo;Kim, Ghang-Yong;Oh, Seung-Kyu;Malaweera, Don Buddika Oshadi;Ramachandra, Sisitha;Yoon, Ki-Young;Shin, Sang-Tae;Cho, Jong-Ki
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 2014
  • Feline ovulation time after LH surge have not been defined because its LH surge is occurred by several times of coital vaginal induction and cat has relatively longer time between LH surge and ovulation compared with other mammalian species. This study was performed to investigate the feline ovulation time after LH surge that was induced by hCG injection for superovulation with PMSG. For superovulation, all cats were received an initial injection of PMSG (200 IU, i.m.) followed 80 hrs later with an injection of hCG (200 IU, i.m.). And then, sampling of both ovaries was surgically performed at each 6 different times (10, 18, 22, 26, 29, and 32 hrs) after hCG injection. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were collected from 2 sides of oviducts and ovaries were fixed for ovarian histology. Total 38 COCs were collected only at hCG 32 hrs and no COCs were shown at earlier 5 times. However, in the ovarian histology, corpus haemorrhagicum or corpus luteum was not shown in all groups including ovary at hCG 32 hrs that COCs were collected. In conclusion, it was suggested that feline ovulation was occurred at 29~32 hrs after LH surge and taken relatively long time for CL formation after ovulation.

Effect of Gonadotropin on $Ca^{++}$ Uptake in Follicle-Enclosed Mouse Oocytes Cultured in Vitro (배양된 생쥐여포에서 $Ca^{++}$ Uptake에 대한 Gonadotropin의 영향)

  • Bae, In-Ha;Kang, Shin-Hae
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 1991
  • The present study was undertaken to clarify the role of calcium ion as a factor for the maturation of follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes. Follicles were isolated with two sharp needles under a stereomicroscope from mouse(ICR) ovaries which were treated PMSG 5 IU 45 hours previously. Isolated follicles were cultured for 14-16 hours in an organ culture system at $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ in air and in a 100% humidified incubator by treatment of hCG, EDTA and $^{45}Ca^{++}$. Culture medium was Modified Hank's Balanced Salt Sol. (MHBS) and addition of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) was made into two doses level 0.4 IU and 0.8IU from the stock sol. and also $^{45}Ca^{++}$ was treated in the culture medium. To explain the role of calcium, calcium chelating agent EDTA was treated to the culture of the mouse follicle-enclosed oocytes. Two observations were made in the present study; nucleus phase and $^{45}Ca^{++}$ uptake into the oocyte. HCG induced oocyte maturation in the follicle about two folds as much as the control group, whereas there is no difference in oocyte maturation between 0.4 IU and 0.8 IU of hCG. Optimum level of hCG seems to be 0.4 IU/ml in the mouse follicle culture. HCG stimulated $^{45}Ca^{++}$ uptake into the oocyte of the follicles by two folds. $^{45}Ca^{++}$ uptake in the control group is about 2.5 folds in comparison of the EDTA(1.71mM) treated group. However, calcium uptake in the EDTA treated groups tends to increase depending on the decrease of EDTA concentration. These observations suggest that firstly, hCG stimulates maturation of the oocyte of the follicle, secondly, $Ca^{++}$ influx is induced by hCG and thirdly, $Ca^{++}$ influx by the treatment of EDTA decreases as a dosage-dependent process. This $Ca^{++}$ uptake may take place by the changes of permeability which was induced by hCG treatment. That is, $Ca^{++}$ influx may trigger the resumption of oocyte maturation. It is further necessary in the future study how this $Ca^{++}$ uptake is induced by hCG and increases permeability of the follicle and oocyte.

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Prediction of Endogenous LH Surge and its Effects on Outcome of IVF in Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation (체외수정시술시 내인성 LH Surge의 예측과 체외수정의 결과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Hae-Sung;Lee, Kee-Soon;Kim, Soo-Won;Baik, Cheong-Soon;Cho, Kyung-Sook;Kim, Jae-Myeoung;Suh, Byung-Hee;Lee, Jae-Hyun
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.173-184
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    • 1990
  • At infertility clinic, department of Obstetrics and Gynegology, Kyung Hee Medical Hospital, 80 patients who underwent IVF-ET from January to July, 1989 were evaluated for the prediction of endogenous LH Surge and its effects on outcome of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) were compared among LH Surge group without hCG given (N=18), with hCG given (N=5), and no-LH Surge group with hCG given (N=57). LH Surge were occurred in 23(28.7%) out of 80 patients studied. Serum E2 levels on Day-1, Day 0, Day+1, were no significant different among three groups. When basal serum LH/FSH ratio is above 1.0, the possibility of endogenous LH Surge is much higher (56.3% in LH Surge group without hCG given). Serum P4 levels on Day 0 were significantly increased in LH Surge group without hCG given. Cycles which serum P4 level is higher than l.0ng/ml were 70.6% of LH Surge group without hCG given. But there was no significant interrelationship between endogenous LH Surge and serum P4 rising rate as an efficient predictor of the occurrence of endogenous LH Surge in COH for IVF. There was no significant differences in number of follicles, follicular size on Day-1, Day 0, Day+1, and number of oocyte collected per cycle. The oocyte fertilization rate of No-LH surge group with hCG given was significantly higher than LH Surge group without hCG given. There was no significant difference in oocyte cleavage rate among three groups.

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Photo-Realistic Digital Image Content Production Technology (실사 수준의 디지털 영상콘텐츠 제작기술)

  • Jeong, I.K.;Kim, H.D.;Park, K.J.;Park, C.J.;Baek, S.M.;Chu, C.W.;Lee, I.H.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.3-15
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    • 2005
  • 최근 흥행에 성공을 거둔 대부분의 영화는 첨단 CG 기술을 제작 공정의 50% 이상 활용하고 있으며 점차 영상 콘텐츠 제작에 CG 기술 사용 비율이 증가하는 추세이다. 본 논문에서는 ETRI 디지털 콘텐츠 연구단에서 연구 개발중인 실사 수준의 디지털 영상콘텐츠 제작기술에 관해 소개한다. 개발 기술은 현장 요구가 많은 대표적인 CG 기술인 영상기반 모델링, 영상기반 렌더링, 디지털액터 표현, 디지털액터 상호작용, CG/실사합성 기술을 포함한다. 엑스트라급 디지털액터 및 디지털 환경 제작 도구를 개발하였으며, 최종적으로는 주연급 디지털액터 및 디지털 환경 제작 도구를 개발할 예정이다.

Recent Trends in Non-Photorealistic Rendering (비사실적 렌더링 기술 동향)

  • Kim, S.Y.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, B.Y.;Kim, H.J.;Koo, B.K
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.43-57
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    • 2005
  • 비사실적 렌더링은 인간 친화적인 영상을 생성하기 위해 사람이 손으로 그린 듯한 느낌의 영상 생성을 목적으로 한다. 좀더 넓은 범위에서의 의미는 사실감을 추구하지 않는 영상을 생성하는 모든 수단으로서 정의될 수 있으며, 따라서 사람이 손으로 그리기에 비현실적일 수 있는 영상의 형태까지도 포함된다. 1980년대 말부터 1990년대 초 연구결과가 주목받기 시작하면서 이후 10여 년간 주목할 만한 많은 연구내용들이 발표되어 왔다. 특히, 최근에는 상업적 측면에서의 관심이 증가하면서 애니메이션, 광고, 게임, 의료, 건축, 기계 등 다양한 분야에서의 요구가 증가하고 있다. 하지만 응용 분야의 특성상 앞으로 해결해야 할 문제들이 많이 남아 있다. 본 고에서는 비사실적 렌더링의 발전과 주요한 기술들에 대해서 설명한다. 또한 최근의 연구 동향을 바탕으로 앞으로의 발전 방향을 제시한다.

Estrus Behavior and Superovulatory Response in Black Bengal Goats (Capra hircus) Following Administration of Prostaglandin and Gonadotropins

  • Mishra, O.P.;Gawande, P.G.;Nema, R.K.;Tiwari, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1374-1377
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    • 2004
  • The present study was conducted to explore the possibilities of estrus induction and superovulation in a native Indian breed of goats called 'Black Bengal'. Forty-two adult non-pregnant females were divided in two groups, of which 18 goats were subjected to a superovulatory treatment comprising of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), Prostaglandin (PGF2$\alpha$) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce superovulation. The remaining 24 goats received no treatment and served as controls for the parameter under study as well as recipients for embryo transfer studies. The average duration of estrus was found to be significantly increased in treated goats (34.2${\pm}$3.4 h) compared to controls 3.0${\pm}$2.4 h). The average duration between PGF administration and occurrence of estrus was 2.0${\pm}$5.2 h. After mid ventral laparotomy, superovulatory responses indicated a significant increase in the number of follicles, which was 8.27${\pm}$0.37 in the treatment group compared to 4.16${\pm}$0.17 in the control group. The number of corpora lutea was also significantly increased in treated animals compared to control (2.90${\pm}$0.86 vs. 0.74${\pm}$0.04) respectively per ovary per goat.

배란 전, 후 생쥐 난자-난구 복합체의 미세구조의 변화

  • 김문규;김종흡
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 1988
  • 생쥐에 PMSG와 hOG를 주사한 후 난자-난구복합체의 미세구조의 변화를 환찰함으로세 난구세포의 분산현상을 규명하고자 본 실험을 행하였다. 난자는 PMSG 주사후 48시간까지 별 다른 변화가 없었고 다만 표면막에 miGrOVilli와 Coaled pit의 수가 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 그러나 PMSG-hCG주사 12시간 후에 배란된 난자의 표면은 microvilli와 coated pit가 사라져서 평평하게 되었다. 방사관세포는 PMSG주사 48시간 후메 밀착해 있던 투명대와 간격이 생기기 시작하였고, 투명대를 통관하여 난자의 표면막과 desmosome으로 연결되어 있던 세포질돌기도 퇴화의 징후를 보였다. PMSG-hCG주사 후에는 급속히 격리, 분산되고 세포질돌기는 퇴화하였으며 dermo-some도 사라겼다. 난구세포들은 대조군에서 밀집되어 있었고 거의 gap junction으로 연결되어 있었는데, PMSG주사 24시간 후에는 모양이 등글게 되고 더욱 밀집되었으며, 48시간 후에는 거의 loose junction으로 연결되었고 분산되기 시작하였다. 결국 PMSG-hCG주사 If시간 후에는 완전히 분산되었고 거의 모두 핵응축과 괴사현상을 보였다. 난자- 난구 복합체의 분산은 배란전에 PMSG에 의하여 시작되고 hCG에 의하여 촉진 완결된다는 것이 확실하다. The ultrastructural changes of the oocyte-cumulus complexes of mouse alter injection of PMSG and hOG have been investigated in order to elucidate expansion phenomenon of the cumulus cells. The oocytes until 48 hours after PMSC injection showed no change except a tendency of decrease in numbers of microvilli and the coated pelts on surface membrane. However, surface membrane of the ovulated oocytes 12 hours after PMSC-hCC injection changed to be smooth due to disapperance of microvilli and coated pits. Corona radiate cells tightly attaching to zona pe]lucida 48 hours after PMSC injection began to be detached and their cytoplasmic processes connected by desmosome to oocyte surface membrane showed a degeneration symptom. Thereafter the detachment and degeneration were accelerated by hCG injection and followed by disappearence of desmosome. The cumulus cells in control group were compacted and connected by almost 9aP junction each another. Ite cumulus cells 24 hours after PMSG injection were changed to be round form and more tightly compacted. However, the cumulus cells 48 hours after PMSG injection were connected by almost loose junction and showed the beginning of expansion. Eventuallv, the cumulus cells 12 hours a%or PMSG-hCG injection were completely expanded, and became pvknotic and necrotic in most It is clear that the expansion of oocyte-cumulus complex were initiated by PMSC, then accelerated and completed by hCG before ovulation.

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