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Recent Advancement in the Differentiation of Tissues and Organs and Regulation of Gene Expression (조직.기관의 분화와 유전자 발현의 조절, 최근의 진보)

  • Harn, Chang-Yawl
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-35
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    • 1997
  • Fertilized egg, by successive cell divisions, differentiates into different tissues and organs with various structures and functions. Different cells and tissues contain different proteins, products of selective gene expression. Not all the genes in any genomes are equally active, temporal and spatial gene expression being the general rule. Present paper attempts to review the tanscriptional mechanisms or the initiations of transcription from several angles. In some of the organisms the genes in the process of transcription or the genes in the inactive state can be seen under the light microscope. Some bands of Drosophila polytene chromosomes may exhibit a swollen or puff appearance under certain conditions. A puff, unfolded or decondensed form of chromomere, represents sets of intense transcriptional activity or RNA synthesis. The heterochromatic X chromosome whose genes remain inactive in the female mammals can be visualized as a dark staining structure called Barr body, Configuration of chromatin differs between transcribed and nontranscribed chromatin. Modification to the chromatin facilitates RNA synthesis. The movement of large polymerase molecule along the DNA would probably be facilitated if some modifications of the chromatin configuration is effected. Methylation of cytosines in CG sequences is associated with inactive genes. Methylation can play a role in determination of mammalian cells during embryogenesis. Demethylation is necessary for the gene to be expressed during development A histone modification that is also known to be correlated with transcriptional capacity of chromatin is acetylation of the lysine residues of the core histones. Chromatin containing a high level of histone acetylation is very sensitive to DNase 1. For the transcription to occur TBP must first bind to the TATA box. Another TF, TF IIB, then binds to the promoter-TBP complex, facilitating the access of RNA polymerase to the transcription initiation site. As recently as eight years ago researchers assumed that histones were irrelevant to the regulation of gene expression. Histones combine with the DNA to form nucleosome of the chromatin. Histones are vital participant in gene regulation. Histone and basal factors compete for access to TATA box. When DNA is exposed to basal factors before histones are introduced, the basal factors assemble on TATA boxes preventing the access of histones, allowing transcription to occur, for transcription to begin, activator protein at the upstream activation sequence or enhancer must interact with the tail of histone H4 at TATA box and cause the histone role particle to dissociate from the TATA box leading to partial breakup of the histone core particle and allowing the basal factors to bind to the TATA box. New concept of genomic flux in contrast to the old concept of static genome has been developed based on the powerful new molecular techniques. Genomic changes such as repetitive DNAs and transposable elements, it is assumed but not yet proved, may affect some of the developmental patterns that characterize particular cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. In the last decade or so remarkable achievement have been made in the researches of the structures and functions of TFs and the specific target sequences located in promoters or enhancers where these TFs bind. TFs have independent domains that bind DNA and that activate transcription. DNA binding domain of TFs serves to bring the protein into the right location. There are many types of DNA binding domains. Common types of motifs can be found that are responsible for binding to DNA. The motifs are usually quite short and comprise only a small part of the protein structure. Steroid receptors have domains for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activating transcription. The zinc finger motif comprises a DNA binding domain. Leucine zipper consist of a stretch of amino acids with a leucine residue in every seventh position Two proteins form a dimer because they interact by means of leucine zippers on similar α-helical domain. This positions their DNA binding basic domains for interaction with the two halves of a DNA sequence with dyad symmetry of TGACTCA, ACTGAGT.

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Effects of Prostaglandins on Embryonic Expansion and Hatching by Developmental Stage in Mouse (발생단계에 따라 Prostaglandins가 생쥐배아의 팽창과 부화에 미치는 영향)

  • 전용필;김정훈;윤용달;김문규
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 1998
  • The effects of prostaglandins in hatching and implantation have been studied but the results were various, and those are not well known by the embryonic stage. The present study examined the effects of prostaglandin $E_2$(PG $E_2$) and prostaglandin $F_2$$_{\alpha}$ (PG $F_2$$_{\alpha}$) on the expansion and hatching of mouse embryos by embryonic stage. Also we tried to measure the concentration of prostaglandins of morula, expanded, and hatching embryos. In early morula stage embryos, high concentration of PG $E_2$(>100$\mu$M) showed cytotoxicity but PG $F_2$$_{\alpha}$ did not. The hatching was inhibited all groups but not gave negative effects on expansion. In 84 hr and 96 hr stage embryos, the hatching rate was decreased at all treatment groups but not inhibited the expansion. When combine prostaglandin with indomethacin, the hatching rate was increased significantly compared to the prostaglandin-treated groups, and as lower and lower the PG $E_2$ concentration, the hatching rate increased to the control level. The embryonic synthesis of PG $E_2$ increased dramatically but that of PG $F_2$$_{\alpha}$ increased gradually. PG $E_2$ showed cytotoxicity at early stage embryos much than late stage embryos, but PG $F_2$$_{\alpha}$ did not. Hatching was inhibited by the high PG $F_2$$_{\alpha}$ concentration. It is suggested that the inhibition of hatching might be at resulted from cytotoxicity of PG $E_2$ on embryo. However, it is thought that the mechanisms of inhibition of hatching are different between PG $E_2$ and PG $F_2$$_{\alpha}$. In conclusion, it can be suggested that PG $E_2$ and PG $F_2$$_{\alpha}$ concerned with the expansion and hatching, and their effects on hatching were different by the embryonic stage.$/ concerned with the expansion and hatching, and their effects on hatching were different by the embryonic stage.

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Establishment of Choline Analysis in Infant Formulas and Follow-up Formulas by Ion Chromatograph (이온크로마토그래프를 이용한 조제유류 및 영아용·성장기용 조제식 중 콜린 함량 분석법 연구)

  • Hwang, Kyung Mi;Ham, Hyeon Suk;Lee, Hwa Jung;Kang, Yoon Jung;Yoon, Hae Seong;Hong, Jin Hwan;Lee, Hyoun Young;Kim, Cheon Hoe;Oh, Keum Soon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.411-417
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to establish the analysis method for the contents of choline in infant formulas and follow-up formulas by ion chromatograph (IC). To optimize the method, we compared several conditions for extraction, purification and instrumental measurement using spiked samples and certified reference material (CRM; NIST SRM 1849a) as test materials. IC method for choline was established using Ion Pac CG column and 18 mM $H_2SO_4$ mobile phase. The parameters of validation were specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, recovery, accuracy, precision and repeatability. The specificity was confirmed by the retention time and the linearity, $R_2$ was over 0.999 in range of 0.5~10 mg/L. The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.14, 0.43 mg/L. The accuracy and precision of this method using CRM were 95%, 2.1% respectively. Optimized methods were applied in sample analysis to verify the reliability. All the tested products were acceptable contents of choline compared with component specification for nutrition labeling. The standard operating procedures were prepared for choline to provide experimental information and to strengthen the management of nutrient in infant formula and follow-up formula.

Clinical Outcome of Elective Single Embryo Transfer Compared to Elective Double Embryo Transfer Performed at the Cleavage Stage (2개 대비 1개의 난할기 선발배아 이식에 따른 임상 결과)

  • Kang, Sang-Min;Lee, Sang-Won;Jeong, Hak-Jun;Chae, Soo-Jin;Yoon, San-Hyun;Lim, Jin-Ho;Lee, Seong-Goo
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.349-359
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    • 2010
  • Objective: This study was performed to compare the clinical outcome of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) performed at the cleavage stage to that of elective double embryo transfer (eDET). Methods: Of the women less than 36 years old who visited Daegu Maria from January 2008 to April 2009, the only women (n=330) with more than 8 mm of endometrial thickness and at least one good quality embryo, who were treated with GnRH agonist long protocol, were included in this study. After information about complications that can arise by multiple embryo transfer, either eSET or eDET was conducted by their request (167 and 163, respectively).Results: The implantation rate of eSET group was significantly higher than that of eDET group (53.9% vs. 40.2%, p<0.01). The twin pregnancy rate of eSET group was significantly lower than that of eDET group (1.1% vs. 32.3%, p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between two groups in the clinical pregnancy (53.3% vs. 60.7%, p=0.172), ongoing pregnancy (47.3% vs. 54.6%, p=0.185) and live birth rates (44.9% vs. 50.9%, p=0.275). The number of the surplus embryos which developed to the blastocyst stage and cryopreserved at that stage was significantly higher in eSET group than that of eDET group ($3.2{\pm}2.6$ vs. $2.1{\pm}2.4$, p<0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that eSET should reduce significantly the multiple baby pregnancy without decreasing the whole pregnancy rate in women with less than 36 years old.

Effectiveness of Soft Stimulation Protocol, Compared with Conventional GnRH Antagonist Multiple dose Protocol in Patients Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Stimulation with Intrauterine Insemination (과배란유도하 자궁강내 인공수정시술을 받는 환자에서 연성자극요법과 성선자극호르몬 길항제 다회투여법의 효과 비교)

  • Kim, Chung-Hoon;Kang, Hyuk-Jae;Kim, So-Ra;Jeon, Gyun-Ho;Lee, Hyang-Ah;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Chae, Hee-Dong;Kang, Byung-Moon
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2010
  • Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of soft stimulation protocol using GnRH antagonist/clomiphene citrate (CC)/recombinant FSH (rFSH) in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with intrauterine insemination (IUI), compared with GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol (MDP) using GnRH antagonist/rFSH. Methods: Eighty infertile women were randomized to soft stimulation protocol group (n=40) or GnRH antagonist MDP group (n=40). In both groups, IUI was performed 36~40 hours after hCG injection. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, $\chi^2$ test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Results: Total dose and days of rFSH required for COS were significantly fewer in soft stimulation protocol group (p<0.001, p<0.001). A premature LH surge did not occur in any patients of both groups. Clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was similar between the two groups. Conclusion: Soft stimulation protocol provides comparable pregnancy rates to GnRH antagonist MDP despite fewer total dose and days of rFSH, and so can become one of the patient-friendly, cost-effective alternatives for infertile patients undergoing COS with IUI.

The Effect of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Polymorphism on Outcomes of Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation (COH) and In-vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) (체외수정시술시 난포자극호르몬 수용체 유전자 다형성이 과배란유도 및 임신 결과에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Ji-Sung;Choi, Young-Min;Lim, Kyung-Sil;Hur, Chang-Young;Kang, Young-Je;Jung, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Won-Don;Lim, Jin-Ho;Hwang, Kyu-Ri;Jee, Byung-Chul;Ku, Seung-Yup;Suh, Chang-Suk;Kim, Seok-Hyun;Kim, Jung-Gu;Moon, Shin-Yong
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2004
  • Objective: To investigate the association of FSH receptor (FSHR) polymorphism at position 680 with outcomes of controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation for IVF-ET in Korean women. Design: Genetic polymorphism analysis. Materials and Methods: The FSHR polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-RFLP in 172 ovulatory women below the age of 40 year. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, or previous history of ovarian surgery were excluded. Results: Genotype distribution was 41.9% for the Asn/Asn, 47.7% for the Asn/Ser, and 10.5% for the Ser/Ser FSHR genotype group. There was no difference in age of subjects and infertility diagnosis between genotype groups. When the patients were grouped according to their FSHR genotype, the basal levels of FSH (day 3) were significantly different among the three groups ($6.0{\pm}0.3\;IU/L$ (mean $\pm$ SEM), $5.8{\pm}0.3\;IU/L$, and $8.6{\pm}1.2\;IU/L$ for the Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser groups, respectively, p=0.002). The Ser/Ser group showed a higher total doses of gonadotropins required to achieve ovulation induction, and a lower serum estradiol levels at the time of hCG administration compared with other two groups, but the differences were of no statistical significance. The numbers of oocytes retrieved were significantly different among the three groups ($8.6{\pm}0.8$, $9.9{\pm}0.6$, and $6.3{\pm}0.9$, for the Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser groups, respectively, p=0.049). Clinical pregnancy rates were 42.4%, 25.9%, and 29.4% for the Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser groups, respectively. Conclusion: Homozygous Ser/Ser genotype of FSHR polymorphism at position 680 was associated with decreased ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation for IVF-ET.

Comparison of IVF-ET Outcomes between GnRH Antagonist Multiple Dose Protocol and GnRH Agonist Long Protocol in Patients with High Basal FSH Level or Advanced Age (높은 기저 난포 자극 호르몬 수치를 가지는 환자와 고령 환자의 체외수정시술을 위한 과배란 유도에서 GnRH antagonist 다회 투여법과 GnRH agonist 장기요법의 효용성에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, JY;Kim, NK;Yoon, TK;Cha, SH;Kim, YS;Won, HJ;Cho, JH;Cha, SK;Chung, MK;Choi, DH
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.315-324
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: To compare the efficacy of GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol (MDP) with that of GnRH agonist long protocol (LP) in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization in patients with high basal FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) level or old age, a retrospective analysis was done. Methods: Two hundred ninety four infertile women (328 cycles) who were older than 41 years of age or had elevated basal FSH level (> 8.5 mIU/mL) were enrolled in this study. The patients had undergone IVF-ET after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol (n=108, 118 cycles) or GnRH agonist long protocol (n=186, 210 cycles). The main outcome measurements were cycle cancellation rate, consumption of gonadotropins, the number of follicles recruited and total oocytes retrieved. The number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos, the clinical pregnancy rates, and the implantation rates were also reviewed. And enrolled patients were divided into three groups according to their age and basal FSH levels; Group A - those who were older than 41 years of age, Group B - those with elevated basal FSH level (> 8.5 mIU/mL) and Group C - those who were older than 41 years of age and with elevated basal FSH level (> 8.5 mIU/mL). Poor responders were classified as patients who had less than 4 retrieved oocytes, or those with $E_2$ level <500 pg/mL on the day of hCG injection or those who required more than 45 ampules of exogenous gonadotropin for stimulation. Results: The cancellation rate was lower in the GnRH antagonist group than in GnRH agonist group, but not statistically significant (6.8% vs. 9.5%, p=NS). The amount of used gonadotropins was significantly lower in GnRH antagonist group than in agonist group ($34.8{\pm}11.3$ ampules vs. $44.1{\pm}13.4$ ampules, p<0.001). The number of follicles > 14 mm in diameter was significantly higher in agonist group than in antagonist group ($6.7{\pm}4.6$ vs. $5.0{\pm}3.4$, p<0.01). But, there were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate (24.5% in antagonist group vs. 27.4% in agonist group, p=NS) and implantation rate (11.4% in antagonist group vs. 12.0% in agonist group, p=NS) between two groups. Mean number of retrieved oocytes was significantly higher in GnRH agonist LP group than in GnRH antagonist MDP group ($5.4{\pm}3.5$ vs. $6.6{\pm}5.0$, p<0.0001). But, the number of mature and fertilized oocytes, and the number of good quality (grade I and II) and transferred embryos were not different between two groups. In each group A, B, and C, the rate of poor response did not differ according to stimulation protocols. Conclusions: In conclusion, for infertile women expected poor ovarian response such as who are old age or has elevated basal FSH level, a protocol including a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using GnRH antagonist appears at least as effective as that using a GnRH agonist, and may offer the advantage of reducing gonadotropin consumption and treatment period. However, much work remains to be done in optimizing the GnRH antagonist protocols and individualizing these to different cycle characteristics.

Hypoglycemic Effect of Culture Broth of Bacillus subtilis S10 Producing 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-Deoxynojirimycin을 생산하는 Bacillus subtilis S10 배양액의 혈당강하 효과)

  • Cho, Yong-Seok;Park, Young-Shik;Lee, Jae-Yeon;Kang, Kyung-Don;Hwang, Kyo-Yeol;Seong, Su-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.1401-1407
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    • 2008
  • 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is a strong $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitor which inhibits hyperglycemia in animals. To select the Bacillus strains highly producing DNJ, 4,000 strains were isolated from soil and grain samples. By the inhibitory activity against $\alpha$-glucosidase, nine Bacillus strains were selected and then identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. B. subtilis S10 was finally selected as the best strain for the production of DNJ. Various carbon sources and nitrogen sources in culture medium were evaluated for the highest production of DNJ. As the results, the optimized concentration of carbon source and nitrogen source was 1.0% galactose and 1.6% polypeptone and the concentration of DNJ produced was 0.75 g/L. The effect of culture supernatant of B. subtilis S10 on lowering blood glucose level was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice model. Mice were randomly assigned to control group (saline) and three test groups such as acarbose group, silkworm powder group and B. subtilis S10 group. After eight-week oral feeding, blood glucose levels of the B. subtilis S10 and silkworm powder groups were respectively $209.1{\pm}19.6\;mg/dL$ (59.1%) and $208.6{\pm}39.8\;mg/dL$ (59.0%) lower than $510{\pm}10\;mg/dL$ of the control group. These results indicated that the culture supernatant of B. subtilis S10 was able to reduce the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

Effects of Permeable Cryoprotectants on Viability of Mammalian Embryo Model (침투성 동결보호제가 포유류 초기배자의 생존성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun;Cho, Sang-Rae;Kim, Dong Kyo;Choe, Changyong;Seong, Hwan-Hoo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicities of permeable cryoprotectants and finally to establish the cryopreservation method of surplus embryos obtained during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Toxicities of permeable cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH were investigated using a murine embryo model. Female $F-{_1}$ mice were stimulated with gonadotropin, induced ovulation with hCG and mated. Two cell embryos were collected and cultured after exposure to among DMSO, EG, Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH. Embryo development was evaluated up to the blastocyst stage. The total cell count of blastocysts that were treated with DMSO and Glycerol at the 2-cell stage was significantly lower than that were treated with EG ($81.1{\pm}15.1$), 1,2-PROH ($88.0{\pm}21.1$) or the control ($99.9{\pm}21.3$) (p<0.001). On comparison of four cryoprotectant treated groups, the DMSO and Glycerol treated group showed a decreased cell count compared with the EG and 1,2-PROH treated group (p<0.05). Both DMSO ($14.7{\pm}1.3$), EG ($12.1{\pm}1.1$), Glycerol ($15.2{\pm}1.8$), and 1,2-PROH ($11.5{\pm}1.3$) treated groups showed higher apoptosis rates of cells in the blastocyst compared with the control ($6.5{\pm}0.7$, p<0.0001). In addition, the DMSO or Glycerol treated group showed more apoptotic cells than the EG or 1,2-PROH treated group (p<0.001). The potential toxicity of cryoprotectants was uncovered by prolonged exposure of murine embryos to among DMSO, EG, Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH at room temperature. When comparing four permeable cryoprotective agents, EG and 1,2-PROH appeared to be less toxic than DMSO and Glycerol at least in a murine embryo model.

Development of Effective Cryopreservation Method for Mammalian Embryo (포유류 초기 배아의 효율적인 동결 보존 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun;Cho, Young Moo;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Kim, Sung Woo;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Yamanouchi, Keitaro
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of embryonic stage, cryoprotectant, and freezing-thawing method on the rates of survival and development of the cryopreserved mouse early embryo and finally to establish the cryopreservation method of surplus embryos obtained during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Two to eight cell embryos were obtained from oviducts of mated $F_1$ hybrid female mice superovulated by PMSG and hCG. Two-step EG, DMSO and 4-step EG, DMSO were used as cryoprotectant and dehydration and rehydration method of embryos, and slow-cooling or rapid-cooling method was used as frozen program. The survival rates of embryos were measured after thawing and rehydration, and the developmental rates of embryos were compared and observed during culturing embryos for 24, 48, 72, 96 hrs. As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to embryonic stage, the survival rate of 2 cell stage in EG and DMSO was significantly higher than 4~8 cell (65.4% versus 61.2%, 81.1% versus 72.5%) (p<0.01, p<0.01), but the development rates of 4~8 cell embryos in EG and DMSO were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos for whole culture period (p<0.01) and the development rates of 4~8 cell embryos in EG were significantly higher than 2 cell embryos in DMSO (p<0.01). As for the survival and development rates of embryos according to cryoprotectant, the survival rate of 2 cell embryo in DMSO was significantly higher than that in EG(77.0% versus 64.4%) (p<0.01), whereas the development rate of embryos was not differ till 24 hrs. The development rate from morular to hatching blastocyst, however, was sinificantly higher in EG than in DMSO during 48 hr (p<0.01). The survival rate of 4~8 cell embryo was 62.5% in EG and 73.3% in DMSO. The development rates of embryo in EG were significantly higher for whole culture periods (p<0.01, 0.05). In respect to the effect of freezing and thawing program on the survival and development rates of embryos, method of slow cooling and rapid thawing was more effective than that of rapid cooling and rapid thawing. The survival rate of embryo in 2 cell stage was higher than in 4~8 cell stage, and EG appears more effective cryoprotectant than DMSO because EG showed better development rates of embryos in 2 and 4~8 cell stage. Moreover, slow cooling and rapid thawing method was considered as the best cryopreservation program.