• Title/Summary/Keyword: hCG

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Nitric Oxide Generation from Peritoneal Macrophages by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (사람 융모 성선 자극 호르몬에 의한 복강 대식세로로부터 산화질소의 발생)

  • Lee, Eun-Hee;Shin, Tae-Yong;Kim, Hyung-Min
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.365-369
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    • 1997
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a placental hormone and is involved in maintenance of the corpus luteum during pregnancy. In the present study, effect of hCG on nitiric ox ide (NO) generation from peritoneal macrophage was examined. hCG ahd no effect on NO generation by itself, whereas recombinant interferon- ${\gamma}$ (rIFN-${\gamma}$) alone had modest activity. When hCG was used in combination with rIFN-${\gamma}$, there was a marked cooperative induction of NO generation in a dose-dependent manner. The optimal effect of hCG on NO generation was shown at 6 hr after treatment with rIFN-${\gamma}$. Furthermore, northern blot analysis of showed that hCG increased the expression of inducible NO synthase(iNOS) gene. These results suggest that hCG induces NO generation from macrophages by increasing the expression of iNOS gene.

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Dilution Reference Ranges by Predictive Value of Serum Level β-hCG in Early Pregnancy Viability (임신 초기 임신양상에 따른 혈청 β-hCG의 결과 예측에 의한 희석배수 참고치 설정)

  • Kim, Yoon Sik;Shin, Jang Yong;Seo, Yeong Mi;Yoo, Shin Soo
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.210-214
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to predict the value of serum ${\beta}$ subunit of humans chorionic gonadotropin(${\beta}$- hCG) in early pregnancy viability. This was performed among 85 women in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer(IVF-ET). The serum ${\beta}$-hCG levels were established for 30 normal singleton pregnancies, 10 twin and triplet pregnancies, 10 preclinical abortions, 10 clinical abortions, 20 biochemical abortions and 5 ectopic pregnancies. In comparison to normal singleton pregnancies, multiple pregnancies showed higher ${\beta}$-hCG. But clinical abortions, preclinical abortions and ectopic pregnancies showed lower ${\beta}$-hCG levels than singleton pregnancies. In conclusion, if we predict the value of serum ${\beta}$-hCG of variable early pregnancies and analyze it, we could predict the dilution protocol. Also, it can be useful in other ways.

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Immunocytochemical Study on the Mouse Uterine Wall using Monoclonal anti $\beta$-hCG (생쥐 자궁벽에 있어서 $\beta$-hCG에 대한 단일클론항체를 이용한 면역세포화학적 연구)

  • 오선희;최임순
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.448-455
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    • 1992
  • 생쥐에 hCG를 투여한 후 자궁벽에서 hCG와 결합하는 세포의 종류를 판별하고, 그 세포가 hCG에 의해 어떠한 영향을 받는지를 알아보기 위하of 면역세포화학적 염색을 수행하였다. p-hCG에 대한 단일크론항체에 양성반응을 나타내는 세포는 주로 자궁벽의 자궁근막 삼각과 자궁내막 기저층에 분포하였으며, 세포질에서 양성반응을 일으킨 것으미 관찰되었다. hOG를 투여하고 3, 6, 24시간 후에 각각 자궁벽라 자궁근막에서 양성반응세포를 관찰한 결과, 양성반응세포의 이동현상을 관찰할 수 있었다. 즉, 자궁근막에서 보면, 3시간 후에는 자궁근막의 혈관내부와 주변에서 다수가 관찰되었으며, 6시간 후에는 소수가 관찰되었고, 24시간 후에는 관찰되지 않았다. 또한 동일 시간에 적출된 자궁벽에서는 6시간에서 가장 많은 수의 양성세포가 관찰되었다. 따라서 자궁벽과 자궁근막에서 관찰되는 양성반응세포의 수 사이에는 반비례적 상관관계를 나타냈다. 한편, 난소를 적출한 생쥐의 자궁에서는 양성반응세포의 수가 현저히 감소된 것으로 나타났으며, hematoxvlin-eosln 염색 결과 양성반응세포로 추정되는 세포의 세포질에서 호산성과림이 관찰되었다. 이와 같은 결과로 볼 때, 양성세포는 GMG(granulated metrial gland) 세포로 판단되었으며, 이 세포의 이동은 스테로이드호르몬에 의해 영향을 받는 것으로 사료되었다.

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Production of Monoclonal Antibody to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin(hCG) : Purification and Properties of a Monoclonal Antibody, and Immunochemiluminometric assay(ICMA) for the Assay of hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin(hCG)에 대한 단일콜론항체 생산 : 단일클론항체의 분리정제 및 그 특성조사와 hCG정량을 위한 Immunochemiluminometric assay(ICMA)개발)

  • 최상훈;이병철;오재욱;이용환;서광영;정길생;김종배
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.51-62
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    • 1988
  • Spleen cells of mouse immunized with hCG were fused with myeloma cell (SP 2/0 Ag 14) to produce monoclonal antibody against hCG. Several clones of hybridoma secreting monoclonal antibody were established and antibodies were characterized in terms of titer, subisotyping and sensitivity in immunoassay. Several methods, for the purification of anti¬bodies, based on gel-filtration, DEAE-ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. were applied and compared each other by the result of SDS-PAGE. Two-site immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA) involving the use of an excess concentration of a specific monoclonal antibody passively adsorbed onto the walls of plastic tubes and a chemiluminescence labelled antibody conjugate were de¬veloped for the determination of hCG as a preliminary study.

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Comparison of Pregnancy Rates by Intrauterine Insemination after Ovulation Trigger with Endogenous LH Surge, GnRH Agonist or hCG in Stimulated Cycles (인공수정시술주기에서 내인성 LH, GnRH Agonist 및 hCG를 이용한 배란유발후 임신율의 비교연구)

  • Lee, Jong-In;Hur, Young-Mun;Jeon, Eun-Suk;Yoon, Jeong-Im;Jung, Goo-Sung;Hong, Ki-Eon;You, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Hyeon-Sook;Hong, Jeong-Eui;Lee, Ji-Sam
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.389-398
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    • 1999
  • Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of endogenous LH surge, GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as ovulation trigger on pregnancy rate by intrauterine insemination (IUI). Method: Patients received daily 100 mg of clomiphene citrate (CC) for 5 days starting on the third day of the menstrual cycle followed by human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) for ovulation induction. Follicles larger than >16 mm in diameter were present in the ovary, frequent LH tests in urine were introduced to detect an endogenous LH surge. Final follicular maturation and ovulation were induced by GnRH-a 0.1 mg (s.c.) or hCG $5,000{\sim}10,000$ IU (i.m.) administration except natural ovulation. Pregnancy was classified as clinical if a gestational sac or fetal cardiac activity was seen on ultrasound. Results: There were no differences in age, duration of infertility and follicle size, but more ampules of hMG were used in GnRH-a group compared to hCG 10,000 IU treated group (p<0.05). Lower level of estradiol ($E_2$) on the day of hCG or GnRH-a injection was observed in hCG 10,000 IU group than other treatment groups (p<0.01). The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 19.8% per cycle (32/162) and 22.2% per patient (32/144). Pregnancy rate was higher in natural-endogenous LH surge group (37.5%, 9/24) than GnRH-a (18.8%) or hCG treated group (20.9% & 13.9%), but this difference was not statistically significant. No patient developed ovarian hyperstimulation. Abortion rate was 22.2% (2/9) in hCG 5,000 IU group. Delivery or ongoing pregnancy rate was 37.5% (9/24), 18.8% (3/16), 16.3% (7/43) and 13.9% (11/79) in endogenous LH surge, GnRH-a, hCG 5,000 IU and hCG 10,000 IU treatment groups, respectively. Conclusion: These results support the concept that use of natural-endogenous LH surge in stimulated cycles may be more effective to obtain pregnancies by IUI than GnRH-a or hCG administration.

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Effect of hCG on Connexin 43 mRNA Expression in Goldfish Ovary

  • Choi, Cheol-Young
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.215-217
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    • 2003
  • This study examined whether the connexin (Cx) is an essential protein during oocyte maturation in the ovary of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). In mature female goldfish ovaries, at late vitellogenic stage, human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I; 20 M) and human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG; 20 IU/㎖) were injected. Twelve hr after the injection, mature female goldfish ovaries were removed and stored at -80C until analysis by RT-PCR. From the goldfish Cx43 cDNA sequence (GenBank accession number AB078505), two degenerate primers were designated. In vivo, 12 hr after the treatment with hCG, goldfish Cx43 mRNA expression level was increased, while the levels of IGF-I was not changed. Goldfish Cx43 mRNA expressed after, but not before the hCG treatment. These results suggest that Cx43 mRNA was judged to be a gene, which was transcribed during oocyte maturation induced by hCG.

hCG-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Leads to Activation of the IRE1/XBP1 Pathway in Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells (mLTC-1) (mLTC-1 세포에 hCG 처리에 의해 유도된 소포체 스트레스가 IRE1/XBP1 경로의 활성화 유발)

  • Park, Sun-Ji;Kim, Tae-Shin;Lee, Dong-Seok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1039-1045
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzed whether human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces ER stress via the IRE/XBP1 pathway in mouse Leydig tumor (mLTC-1) cells. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the unfolding protein response (UPR) plays an important role in the expression of steroidogenic enzymes by modulating the ATF6 pathway, as well as ER stress-mediated apoptosis in hCG-stimulated Leydig cells. Although UPR signaling has been reported to regulate the IRE1/XBP1 pathway, it is not known whether hCG-induced ER stress in Leydig cells can activate the pathway. To investigate the activation of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway in mLTC-1 cells after hCG treatment, we performed a Western blot analysis to detect the phospho-IRE1 protein and an RT-PCR analysis to validate splicing of XBP1 mRNA. We used ER stress-activated indicator (ERAI) constructs for monitoring the activity of IRE1 and then analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The expression levels of the phospho-IRE1 protein markedly increased in response to the hCG treatment. In the mLTC-1 cells transfected with an F-XBP1-venus/F-$XBP1{\Delta}DBD$-venus construct, the hCG treatment led to the appearance of green fluorescent cells and detectable fluorescence in the nucleus and cytosol, respectively. In addition, splicing of XBP1 mRNA significantly increased after the hCG treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that hCG-induced ER stress leads to activation of the IRE1/XBP pathway in Leydig cells.

Repeated Superovulation via PMSG/hCG Administration Induces 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins Expression and Overoxidation in the Reproductive Tracts of Female Mice

  • Park, Sun-Ji;Kim, Tae-Shin;Kim, Jin-Man;Chang, Kyu-Tae;Lee, Hyun-Shik;Lee, Dong-Seok
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.12
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    • pp.1071-1078
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    • 2015
  • Superovulation induced by exogenous gonadotropin treatment (PMSG/hCG) increases the number of available oocytes in humans and animals. However, Superovulatory PMSG/hCG treatment is known to affect maternal environment, and these effects may result from PMSG/hCG treatment-induced oxidative stress. 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) act as antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress induced by various exogenous stimuli. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated PMSG/hCG treatment induces 2-Cys Prx expression and overoxidation in the reproductive tracts of female mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses further demonstrated that, after PMSG/hCG treatment, the protein expression levels of 2-Cys Prxs increased most significantly in the ovaries, while that of Prx1 was most affected by PMSG/hCG stimulation in all tissues of the female reproductive tract. Repeated PMSG/hCG treatment eventually leads to 2-Cys Prxs overoxidation in all reproductive organs of female mice, and the abundance of the 2-Cys Prxs-$SO_{2/3}$ proteins reported here supports the hypothesis that repeated superovulation induces strong oxidative stress and damage to the female reproductive tract. Our data suggest that excessive oxidative stress caused by repeated PMSG/hCG stimulation increases 2-Cys Prxs expression and overoxidation in the female reproductive organs. Intracellular 2-Cys Prx therefore plays an important role in maintaining the reproductive organ environment of female mice upon exogenous gonadotropin treatment.

Assay of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Urine of Athletes and Evaluation of Assay Kit Performance (운동선수들의 뇨 중 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 분석 및 분석킷트 평가)

  • 최명자;이정란;김명수
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2002
  • Special attention has been paid to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for athlete doping control because it stimulates the endogenous production of testosterone and epitestosterone without increasing the T/E ratio which is a doping indicator for the exogenous administration of testosterone. Even though the IOC banned the use of hCG, a detection method has not been decided upon since there are a variety of immunoassay kits available on the market. We evaluated three kits in terms of their performance characteristics. The assay value of the control sample varied depending on the kit, resulting in 198 mIU/ml for the MAIA kit, 172mIU/ml for the IRMA kit, and 143 mIU/ml for the MEIA kit. Considering the IOC inter-lab distribution of results(55-312 mIU/ml) using 27 different kits and the mean value (178$\pm$56 mIU/ml), all three kits are within the range of -15.8% - +5.6% of the mean value, which proves them useful for the hCG assay. The MEIA kit resulted in lower hCG values because it detects only intact hCG molecules, in contrast to the other two kits which detect intact hCG and -hCG together. However, it is suitable for screening purposes because of its advantage of being an automated system. When 123 urine samples of athletes were analyzed in 22 batches using this system, the variation of control values fell within $\pm$ 10% of the mean values, and an specimens tested negative with hCG values less than the detection limit of 2 mIU/ml.

Development and Immunochemical Properties of Two Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

  • Kim, You-Hee;Koh, Kwan-Sam
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.474-479
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    • 1999
  • Using a hybridoma technique, spleen cells of Balb/c mice immunized with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were fused with NS-1 mouse myeloma cells. Two hybrid cell lines, clones KS-8 and KS-19, secreting monoclonal antibodies to hCG, were isolated. KS-8 and KS-19 belong to the immunoglobulin $G_1$ subclass. With the aid of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay, it was established that the KS-8 monoclonal antibody recognizes an immunodeterminant of the $\beta$-subunit of hCG, whereas the KS-19 monoclonal antibody recognizes an epitope present on the $\alpha$-subunit of hCG. The KS-8 monoclonal antibody specifically reacts with human chorionic gonadotropin and shows cross-reactivity of less than 0.3% to other related human glycoprotein hormones. On the other hand, using a hemagglutination test based on antibody-induced agglutination of sheep red blood cells coated with hCG, It was shown that only the KS-19 monoclonal antibody was capable of inducing a positive reaction, although both monoclonal antibodies had similar binding capacity to the coated cells. The results from the dual screening procedures demonstrate that KS-8 and KS-19 monoclonal antibodies show high sensitivity in two different assays, and are hence useful for the qualitative and quantitative determination of hCG by both radioimmunoassay and hemagglutination inhibition tests.

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