• Title, Summary, Keyword: gynecological examination

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Determining the Knowledge of Women and Their Attitudes Regarding Gynecological Cancer Prevention

  • Bekar, Mine;Guler, Handan;Evcili, Funda;Demirel, Gulbahtiyar;Duran, Ozlem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.6055-6059
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    • 2013
  • The current study determines the knowledge of female course attendees of the "Municipality Cultural Center for Women", located in the city center of Sivas, Turkey, and their attitudes regarding gynecological cancer prevention. The participants of the study include 497 women attending one of the two Municipality Cultural Centers situated in the city center of Sivas. In this study, the sample was not selected; all participants were encompassed within the scope of our research. A total of 418 female course attendees who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the months March-June 2011, by a questionnaire developed by the researchers. To compare the distribution of the collected data "Anova", "two independent t test examples" and "chi square test" were used. The research indicates that 45.1% of the women had had gynecological examination as a consequence of a physical disorder. The reason for 54.9% of the women to have gynecological examination is to have been scanned to check for gynecological cancer, 51.2% had a pap smear test. Some 34.9% of them had obtained information about cervical cancer, 39.7% via radio, television or internet and 36.3% from a doctor. Age, education level and marital status of the women participating in this study demonstrated statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) with gynecological examination and undergoing a pap smear test.

Clinico-pathological Features of Gynecological Malignancies in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India: Importance of Strengthening Primary Health Care in Prevention and Early Detection

  • Sarkar, Madhutandra;Konar, Hiralal;Raut, Deepak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3541-3547
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    • 2013
  • Background: This cross-sectional observational study was undertaken to establish clinico-pathological characteristics of patients with gynecological malignancies, focusing mainly on symptoms, histological type and stage of the disease at presentation, in a tertiary care setting in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In the gynecology out-patient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, India, the patients with suggestive symptoms of gynecological malignancies were screened. Their diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology. One hundred thirteen patients with histopathologically confirmed gynecological malignancies were interviewed. Results: The most frequently reported symptoms by the patients with histopathologically confirmed gynecological malignancies were excessive, offensive with or without blood stained vaginal discharge (69.0%), irregular, heavy or prolonged vaginal bleeding (36.3%) and postmenopausal bleeding (31.9%). The majority of the patients (61.0%) had squamous cell carcinoma on histopathological examination, followed by adenocarcinoma (30.1%). Nearly half of the patients (48.7%) were suffering from the Federation Internationale des Gynaecologistes et Obstetristes (FIGO) stage III, followed by stage II (40.7%) malignancy. Conclusions: This study highlights that most of the patients with gynecological malignancies present late at an appropriate health care facility. Ovarian cancer may often have non-specific or misleading symptomatic presentation, whereas cervical cancer often presents with some specific symptoms. These observations point to the need for increasing awareness about gynecological malignancies in the community and providing easily accessible adequate facilities for early detection and treatment of the disease by optimal use of available resources, i.e. strengthening the primary health care system.

Predictive Role of the Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio for Invasion with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

  • Guzel, Ali Irfan;Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay;Erkilinc, Selcuk;Topcu, Hasan Onur;Oz, Murat;Ozgu, Emre;Erkaya, Salim;Gungor, Tayfun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.4203-4206
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the predictive role of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for invasion of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 127 women who were managed at our clinic for GTD. Of all patients, 8 showed invasion according to histological examination. The clinical parameters of patients with invasive GTD (Group 1; n=8) were compared with patients who showed no invasion (Group 2; n=119). All underwent a prior uterine evacuation and followed up by regular assessment of ${\beta}$-hCG titers. Results: Demographic and obstetric history and pre-evacuation hCG levels of the patients showed no statistically significantly difference between the groups (p>0.05). The mean gestational weeks (GW), size of the GTD and NLR levels were statistically significantly higher in the invasive GTD group (p<0.05). Correlations between invasion and gestational weeks, size of GTD, post-evacuation chemotherapy and NLR were evident. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that GW, size of GTD and NLR may be discriminative parameters in predicting invasion of GTD. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the predictive role of NLR in invasion of GTD. In conclusion, we think that pretreatment NLR can be used as a biomarker of invasion in GTD.

Nurses, Healthy Women and Preventive Gynecological Examinations - Vlora City Scenario, Albania

  • Kamberi, Fatjona;Theodhosi, Gjergji;Ndreu, Vjollca;Sinaj, Enkeleda;Stramarko, Yllka;Kamberi, Leonard
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.311-314
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    • 2016
  • Background: Nurses play an important role in preventive medicine because they represent the largest sector of health professionals. This role is very crucial in developing countries, which are going through rapid societal and economic changes, associated with a rising burden of cancers due to different risk factors. The current study aimed to compare health awareness between nurses and healthy women regarding preventive gynecological examinations and to answer the question - can nurses make a difference in women's health? Materials and Methods: This cross sectional research included a total of 150 women, 70 nurses and 80 healthy women, randomly selected. Data were collected in 2014 in Vlora city through a self-administered questionnaire that assessed different variables about preventive gynecological examinations. Results: Cervical screening rates were 20.3% and 41.8%, respectively, for nurses and healthy women, despite the former having a statistical significant greater knowledge of risk factors and symptoms. Conclusions: Even if the health awareness of nurse participants can be considered good, they need themselves to increase participation rates in cervical screening if they are to provide role models for health education/promotion addressing misconceptions and barriers.

Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection with Different Cervical Cytological Features among Women Undergoing Health Examination at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand

  • Laowahutanont, Piyawat;Karalak, Anant;Wongsena, Metee;Loonprom, Komson;Pukcharoen, Phuttalak;Jamsri, Paphawin;Sangrajrang, Suleeporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5879-5882
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    • 2014
  • High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is important in cervical cancer screening for triage colposcopy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR HPV infection with different cervical cytological features among women undergoing health examination. A total of 2,897 women were retrospectively evaluated between May 2011 to December 2011. DNA was extracted from residual specimens collected during routine liquid-based cytology tests at the National Cancer Institute. Overall, HR HPV prevalence was 9.3% including 1.6% of HPV-16 and 0.4% of HPV-18. Of all 270 HPV positive samples, 211 (78.1% were HR-HPV non 16/18; 47 (17.4%) were HPV-16 and 12 (4.4%) were HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV infection was similar in all age groups, although a higher rate was observed in women age 31-40 years. Among women with normal cytology, HR HPV positive were found in 6.7%. In abnormal cytology, HR HPV were found 46.7% in atypical squamous cells (ASC), 54.8% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 80.0% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV-16 was detected in 8.6%, 6.4% and 12.0% of ASC, LSIL and HSIL, respectively. The results of this study provide baseline information on the HPV type distribution, which may be useful for clinicians to decide who should be monitored or treated more aggressively.

Literature Review of Clinical Studies for the Relationship between Ultrasonographic Examination and Syndrome Differentiation Classification in Chinese Medicine (초음파영상검사와 한의변증분류와의 관계와 관련된 중의학 임상연구에 대한 문헌고찰)

  • Hwang, Ji Hye;Ko, Dongkun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2018
  • This study was to investigate the relationship between ultrasonographic examination and pattern identification classification on cinical studies in chinese medicine. We searched clinical studies related correlation between ultrasonographic examination and pattern identification classification in chinese medicine, that published from 2013 to 2016 in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases by keywords, 'ultrasound(超?)', 'chinese medicine(中?)', 'syndrome differentiation (辨?)'. Seventeen studies were found. There were 7 studies of gynecological diseases including polycystic ovary syndrome and uterine myoma, 5 studies of fatty liver, 3 studies of arthritis, and 1 studie of thyroid nodule and lymphadenopathy respectively. As a result, ii is thought that there was a certain degree of correlation between the change of the ultrasonographic image and the pathological types according to traditional chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiation and ultrasonographic examination could be used as secondary means for the TCM syndrome differentiation classification. In conclusion, by using ultrasonograph device in a medicinal way of TCM and traditional korean medicine (TKM), it is thought that more detailed and accurate diagnosis and treatment are possible and the evidence for reasonableness of syndrome differentiation in TCM and TKM its validity can be secured.

A Comparative Study of $^{131}I$-hippuran Renogram, $^{131}I$-Hippuran Urinary Excretion Test and Intravenous Pyelogram in Obstructive Uropathy due to Cancerous Invasion (부인암(婦人癌)에 있어서 $^{131}I$-Hippuran Renogram, $^{131}I$-Hippuran 뇨배설율(尿排泄率) 및 정맥성신우상(靜脈性腎盂像)의 비교관찰(比較觀察))

  • Park, Kee-Bok;Rhee, Chong-Heon;Hong, Chang-Gi D.;Park, Soo-Seong;Koh, Chang-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 1968
  • A comparative study of $^{131}I$-hippuran renogram, $^{131}I$-hippuran excretion test and intravenous pyelogram were performed in 61 cases of gynecological cancer. The following were the results: 1. Among 40 cases of cervix cancer showing normal excretory urography 7 cases (17.5%) were found to have unilateral or bilateral delayed excretory pattern on $^{131}I$-hippuran renogram and on the contrary only 2 cases (5.7%) showed a mild caliectatic change on excretory urography among 35 cases of gynecological cancer showing normal pattern of $^{131}I$-hippuran renogram. 2. In the group showing unilateral or bilateral delayed excretory pattern on $^{131}I$-hippuran renogram there was a reduction of $^{131}I$-hippuran excretion in the first 20 minutes, but there was no significant difference of $^{131}I$-hippuran excretion in 60 minutes compared with that of normal renogram group. 3. In the group showing unilateral non-functioning pattern of $^{131}I$-hippuran renogram in one side and normal pattern in the other side there was found to be no difference in $^{131}I$-hippuran excretion amount compared with that of normal renogram group. 4. It was evident from these experimental study that $^{131}I$-hippuran renogram was considered as a good examination method for the evaluation of obstructive uropathy, and if one side kidney was intact it might compensate for the other diseased kidney so far as to renal excretory function. It was also shown that the more severe the cancerous spread in the pelvic wall the more changes on $^{131}I$-hippuran renogram.

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Factors Associated with Late Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer in Nepal

  • Gyenwali, Deepak;Pariyar, Jitendra;Onta, Sharad Raj
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4373-4377
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    • 2013
  • Background: The majority of cervical cancers, the most prevalent cancer among Nepali women, are diagnosed in advanced stage leading to high mortality in Nepal. The present study explored factors associated with late diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two specialized cancer hospitals of Nepal from August 12 to October 12, 2012. Randomly selected 110 cervical cancer patients were interviewed and their medical records were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to predict associations. Results: Mean age of patients was 52.7years (SD=10.6), 66% were illiterate and 77% were rural inhabitants. Medical shops (33.6%) and private hospitals (31%) were major first contact points of patients with health care providers (HCP). There was no cervical/per-speculum examination (78.2%) and symptoms misinterpretation (90%) of patients occurred in initial consultation with HCP. Four in every five cases (80.9%) of cervical cancer had late diagnosis. Literate women (adjusted OR=0.121, CI: 0.030-0.482) and women having abnormal vaginal bleeding as early symptom (adjusted OR=0.160, CI: 0.035-0.741) were less likely to suffer late diagnosis. Women who shared their symptoms late (adjusted OR=4.272, CI: 1.110-16.440) and did so with people other than their husband (adjusted OR=12.701, CI: 1.132-142.55) were more likely for late diagnosis. Conclusions: High level of illiteracy among women and their problematic health seeking behavior for gynecological symptoms are responsible for late diagnosis of cervical cancer in Nepal. In the absence of a routine screening program, prevention interventions should be focused on raising awareness of gynecological symptoms and improving health seeking behavior of women for such symptoms.

Cancer Detection Rates in a Population-Based, Opportunistic Screening Model, New Delhi, India

  • Shridhar, Krithiga;Dey, Subhojit;Bhan, Chandra Mohan;Bumb, Dipika;Govil, Jyostna;Dhillon, Preet K
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1953-1958
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    • 2015
  • Background: In India, cancer accounts for 7.3% of DALY's, 14.3% of mortality with an age-standardized incident rate of 92.4/100,000 in men and 97.4/100,000 in women and yet there are no nationwide screening programs. Materials and Methods: We calculated age-standardized and age-truncated (30-69 years) detection rates for men and women who attended the Indian Cancer Society detection centre, New Delhi from 2011-12. All participants were registered with socio-demographic, medical, family and risk factors history questionnaires, administered clinical examinations to screen for breast, oral, gynecological and other cancers through a comprehensive physical examination and complete blood count. Patients with an abnormal clinical exam or blood result were referred to collaborating institutes for further investigations and follow-up. Results: A total of n=3503 were screened during 2011-12 (47.8% men, 51.6% women and 0.6% children <15 years) with a mean age of 47.8 yrs (${\pm}15.1yrs$); 80.5% were aged 30-69 years and 77.1% had at least a secondary education. Tobacco use was reported by 15.8%, alcohol consumption by 11.9% and family history of cancer by 9.9% of participants. Follow-up of suspicious cases yielded 45 incident cancers (51.1% in men, 48.9% in women), consisting of 55.5% head and neck (72.0% oral), 28.9% breast, 6.7% gynecological and 8.9% other cancer sites. The age-standardized detection rate for all cancer sites was 340.8/100,000 men and 329.8/100,000 women. Conclusions: Cancer screening centres are an effective means of attracting high-risk persons in low-resource settings. Opportunistic screening is one feasible pathway to address the rising cancer burden in urban India through early detection.

A case of ovarian enterobiasis

  • Hong, Sung-Tae;Choi, Min-Ho;Chai, Jong-Yil;Kim, Young-Tak;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Kyu-Rae
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.149-151
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    • 2002
  • A 36-year old Korean woman consulted a clinic for a regular gynecological examination, and a mass was noticed in her pelvis. She was referred to the Asan Medical Center, Seoul where transvaginal ultrasonography confirmed a pelvic mass exceeding 10cm in diameter. She received total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy, and a borderline serous neoplasm with micropapillary features involving the left ovary and right ovarian serosa was histopathologically confirmed. In addition, a section of a nematode with numerous eggs was found in the parenchyma of the left ovary. The worm had degenerated but the eggs were well-preserved and were identified as those of Enterobius vermicularis. She is an incidentally recognized case of ovarian enterobiasis.