• Title, Summary, Keyword: gynecological cancers

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Gynecological Cancer Services in Arab Countries: Present Scenario, Problems and Suggested Solutions

  • Ortashi, Osman;Al Kalbani, Moza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.2147-2150
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    • 2013
  • Gynecological malignancies account for 9% of all female cancers worldwide. In the Arab countries Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women followed by cervical cancer. Ovarian cancer ranks as fourth leading cancer in women. There are huge differences in the available resources among Arab countries. However the challenges facing the provision of gynecological cancers services shared similarities like the cultural and religious background. Most of the gynecological cancers are diagnosed at a later stage in Arab countries due to the lack of reproductive health awareness especially among older women combined with the cultural stigma of seeking medical advice for gynecological symptoms. This article discusses the current situation of gynecological cancer services in Arab countries and suggests some practical solutions.

Utility of PET in Gynecological Cancer (부인암에서 양전자방출단층촬영의 이용)

  • Choi, Chang-Woon
    • 대한핵의학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 2002
  • Clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly increasing for the detection and staging of cancer at whole-body studios performed with 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Although many cancers can be detected by FDG-PET, there has been limited clinical experience with FDG-PET for the defection of gynecological cancers including malignancies in uterus and ovary. FDG-PET can show foci of metastatic disease that may not be apparent at conventional anatomic imaging and can and in the characterization of indeterminate soft-tissue masses. Most gynecological cancers need to surgical management. FDG-PET can improve the selection of patients for surgical treatment and thereby reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with inappropriate surgery. FDG-PET is also useful for the early detection of recurrence and the monitoring of therapeutic effect. In this review, I discuss the clinical feasibility and limitations of this imaging modality in patients with gynecological cancers.

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Endometriosis, Leiomyoma and Adenomyosis: the Risk of Gynecologic Malignancy

  • Verit, Fatma Ferda;Yucel, Oguz
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5589-5597
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this review article was to evaluate the relationship and the possible etiological mechanisms between endometriosis, leiomyoma (LM) and adenomyosis and gynecological cancers, such as ovarian and endometrial cancer and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). MEDLINE was searched for all articles written in the English literature from July 1966 to May 2013. Reports were collected systematically and all the references were also reviewed. Malignant transformation of gynecologic benign diseases such as endometriosis, adenomyosis and LM to ovarian and endometrial cancer remains unclear. Hormonal factors, inflammation, familial predisposition, genetic alterations, growth factors, diet, altered immune system, environmental factors and oxidative stress may be causative factors in carcinogenesis. Early menarche, low parity, late menopause and infertility have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of these cancers. Ovarian cancers and endometriosis have been shown to have common genetic alterations such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH), PTEN, p53, ARID1A mutations. MicroRNAs have also been implicated in malignant transformation. Inflammation releases proinflammatory cytokines, and activates tumor associated macrophages (TAMS) and nuclear factor kappa b (NF-KB) signaling pathways that promote genetic mutations and carcinogenesis. MED12 mutations in LM and smooth muscle tumors of undetermined malignant potential (STUMP) may contribute to malignant transformation to LMS. A hyperestrogenic state may be shared in common with pathogenesis of adenomyosis, LM and endometrial cancer. However, the effect of these benign gynecologic diseases on endometrial cancer should be studied in detail. This review study indicates that endometriosis, LM, adenomyosis may be associated with increased risk of gynecological cancers such as endometrial and ovarian cancers. The patients who have these gynecological benign diseases should be counseled about the future risks of developing cancer. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between STUMPs, LMS and LM and characteristics and outcome endometrial carcinoma in adenomyotic patients.

Cancers of the Young Population in Brunei Darussalam

  • Mohammad, Ibnu Ayyub;Bujang, Mas Rina Wati;Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali;Abdullah, Muhd Syafiq;Chong, Chee Fui;Chong, Vui Heng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6357-6362
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    • 2014
  • Background: Globally, the overall incidence of cancer is increasing as a result of ageing populations and changing lifestyles. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, especially in the developed nations. Cancers affecting the young population are generally considered uncommon. This study assessed the demography and trends of cancers of the young in Brunei Darussalam, a small and developing Southeast Asia nation. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed with cancers between 2000 and 2012 were identified from the cancer registry maintained by the State Histopathology Laboratory. Cancers of the young was defined as any cancers diagnosed under the age of 40 years. Demographic data and the type of cancers were collected and analysed using SPSS Statistics 17.0. Results: Among the 6,460 patients diagnosed with cancer over the study period, 18.7% (n=1,205) were categorized as young with an overall decline in the proportion from 26.6% in 2000 to 18.8% in 2012 (p<0.001 for trend). Among all cancers of the young, the most common systems affected were gynecological (24.1%), hematological/lymphatic (15.8%), subcutaneous/dermatological/ musculoskeletal (10.5%), breast (10.5%) and gastrointestinal (9.9%). Overall, among the different systems, neurological (54.9%) had the highest proportion of cancers of the young followed by gynecological/reproductive (30.6%), hematological/lymphatic (39.9%), endocrine (38.7%), subcutaneous/dermatological/ musculoskeletal (22.3%) and the head and neck region (20.1%). There was a female predominance (66.9%) and the incidence was significantly higher among the Malays (20.1%) and expatriates (25.1%) groups compared to the Chinese (10.7%) and indigenous (16.8%) groups (p<0.001 for trend). Conclusions: Cancers of the young (<40 years) accounted for almost a fifth of all cancers in Brunei Darussalam with certain organ systems more strongly affected. There was a female preponderance in all racial groups. Over the years, there has been a decline in the overall proportion of cancers of the young. Selective screening programs should nevertheless be considered.

Fertility-Preserving Treatments in Patients with Gynecological Cancers: Chinese Experience and Literature Review

  • Liu, Chun-Yan;Li, Hua-Jun;Lin, Hua;Ling, Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4839-4841
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    • 2015
  • We conducted a retrospectively reviewed of the literature published of patients underwent fertility-preserving treatments for cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers using the WANFANG database in Chinese. A majority were retrospective studies and case reports. With cervical cancer, radical trachelectomy(RT) in combination with pelvic lymphadenectomy could preserve the fertility of patients with early stage IA1-IB1 cancers, Tumor size ${\leq}2cm$ should be emphasized as the indication of RT in considering of the higher recurrent rate in patients with tumor size >2cm. For endometrial cancers, there is much experience on it. Given accurate pretreatment assessment, hormonal therapy is feasible management option to preserve fertility in young patients with early stage lesions that limited to the endometrium and well differentiated. High dose progestin have been applied, oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), 250-500mg/day, megestrol acetate 160-480mg/day. Other therapies that have been used in a limited number of cases include GnRH analog, intrauterine devices (IUDS) containing progestogen, usually combination of these therapies. All patients should be followed up by ultrasound and/or MRI evaluation, and endometrial curettage at intervals of 3 months. With ovarian cancer, in China, fertilitypreserving surgery in patients with stage IA (grade G1) of epithelial ovarian tumor and patients with germ cell tumor and borderline ovarian tumor have been successfully performed.

Risk of Malignancy Associated with a Maternal Family History of Cancer

  • Liu, Ju;Shu, Tong;Chang, Sheng;Sun, Ping;Zhu, Hui;Li, Huai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2039-2044
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted in order to obtain a screening and early detection reference for children whose mothers had been diagnosed with cancer. Data for 276 mother-child pairs with malignant tumors were analyzed. The distribution of cancers in affected families was generally similar to that of the general Chinese population, and correspondingly breast cancer was the most common malignancy amongst daughters whose mother had cancer (32.7%). The most prevalent cancer amongst sons with affected mothers was gastric cancer, rather than lung cancer. Daughters were more likely to have the same kind of malignant tumor as their mother (P<0.05), and were more likely to develop breast cancer than any other malignant disease if their mother had a breast tumor (P<0.0001). Likewise, if the mother was diagnosed with breast or gynecological cancer, the daughter was more likely to be diagnosed with breast or gynecological cancer than any other cancer (P<0.01). Daughters and sons developed malignant diseases 11 and 6.5 years earlier than their mothers, respectively (P<0.0001).Women with a mother who suffered cancer should be screened for malignancy from 40 years of age especially for breast, lung, and gynecological cancers. For men with affected mothers, screening should start when they are 45 years old focusing particularly on lung and digestive system cancers.

Quantitative Analysis of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Human Plasma by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Kim, Ho-Hyun;Yoon, Hye-Ran;Pyo, Dong-Jin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1139-1143
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    • 2002
  • Analysis of lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) is of clinical importance as they can serve a potential marker for ovarian and other gynecological cancers and obesity. It is critically important to develop a highly sensitive and specific method for the early detection of gynecological cancers to improve the overall outcome of this disease. We have established a novel quantification method of LPAs in human plasma by negative ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode without the conventional TLC step. Protein-bound lipids, LPAs in plasma were extracted with methanol : chloroform (2:1) containing LPA C14:0 as an internal standard under acidic condition. Following back extraction with chloroform and water, the centrifuged lower phase was evaporated and reconstituted in methanol. The reconstituted solution was directly injected into electrospray source of MS/MS. For MRM mode, Q1 ions selected were m/z 409, 433, 435, 437 and 457 which corresponds to molecular mass [M-H]- of C16:0, C18:2, C18:1, C18:0 and C20:4 LPA, respectively. Q2 ions selected for MRM were m/z 79, phosphoryl product. Using MS/MS with MRM mode, all the species of LPAs were completely separated from plasma matrix without severe interferences. This method allowed simultaneous detection and quantification of different species of LPAs in a plasma over a linear dynamic range of 0.01-25 ㎛olL-1 . The detection limit of the method was 0.3 pmol/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 in most LPAs analyzed. When applied to the plasmas of normal and gynecological cancer patients, this new method differentiated two different groups by way of total LPA level.

Nurses, Healthy Women and Preventive Gynecological Examinations - Vlora City Scenario, Albania

  • Kamberi, Fatjona;Theodhosi, Gjergji;Ndreu, Vjollca;Sinaj, Enkeleda;Stramarko, Yllka;Kamberi, Leonard
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.311-314
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    • 2016
  • Background: Nurses play an important role in preventive medicine because they represent the largest sector of health professionals. This role is very crucial in developing countries, which are going through rapid societal and economic changes, associated with a rising burden of cancers due to different risk factors. The current study aimed to compare health awareness between nurses and healthy women regarding preventive gynecological examinations and to answer the question - can nurses make a difference in women's health? Materials and Methods: This cross sectional research included a total of 150 women, 70 nurses and 80 healthy women, randomly selected. Data were collected in 2014 in Vlora city through a self-administered questionnaire that assessed different variables about preventive gynecological examinations. Results: Cervical screening rates were 20.3% and 41.8%, respectively, for nurses and healthy women, despite the former having a statistical significant greater knowledge of risk factors and symptoms. Conclusions: Even if the health awareness of nurse participants can be considered good, they need themselves to increase participation rates in cervical screening if they are to provide role models for health education/promotion addressing misconceptions and barriers.

Management of Lymphedema

  • Choi, Jaehoon;Lee, Seongwon;Son, Daegu
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2017
  • Lymphedema is a frequent complication after the treatment of various cancers, particularly breast cancer, gynecological cancers, melanomas, and other skin and urological cancers. Lymphedema patients have chronic swelling of the affected extremity, recurrent infections, limited mobility and decreased quality of life. Once lymphedema develops, it is usually progressive. Over time, lymphedema leads to fat deposition and subsequent fibrosis of the surrounding tissues. However, there is no cure for lymphedema. Recently, the development of microsurgery has led to introduction of new surgical techniques for lymphedema, such as vascularized lymph node transfer. We report here the latest trends in the surgical treatment of lymphedema, as well as diagnosis and conventional treatments of lymphedema.

Personalized Cancer Treatment for Ovarian Cancer

  • Chumworathayi, Bandit
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1661-1664
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    • 2013
  • Recently there have been numerous advances in understanding the genetic basis of cancer which have resulted in more appropriate treatments. In this paper we describe the experience of the Burzynski Clinic, involved in treatment of numerous patients based on personalized approach using novel combinations for difficult-to-treat malignancies, with gynecological cancers. This retrospective study was conducted by extracting data from Burzynski Clinic's medical records and comprehensive review. Among the advanced refractory ovarian cancers cases (N=33), an objective response (OR) was found in 42.4%. We anticipate that with improved technology and novel therapeutics this rate will increase and adverse events will be reduced.