• Title, Summary, Keyword: growth response

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Optimization and Elucidation of Interactions between Ammonium, Nitrate and Phosphate in Centella asiatica Cell Culture Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Omar Rozita;Abdullah M. A.;Hasan M. A.;Marziah M.;Mazlina M.K.Siti
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.192-197
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    • 2005
  • The effects of macronutrients $(NO_3^-,\; NH_4^+\;and\;PO_4^{3-})$ on cell growth and triterpenoids production in Centella asiatica cell suspension cultures were analyzed using the Box­Behnken response surface model experimental design. In screening and optimization experiments, $PO_4^{3-}$ as a single factor significantly influenced cell growth where increasing the phosphate level from 0.1 to 2.4 or 2.6 mM, elevated cell growth from 3.9 to $14\~16g/L$. The optimum values predicted from the response surface model are 5.05mM $NH_4^+$, 15.0mM $NO_3^-$ and 2.6mM $PO_4^{3-}$, yielding 16.0g/L cell dry weight with $99\%$ fitness to the experimental data. While the $NH_4^+-NO_3^-$ interaction influenced cell growth positively in the optimization experiment, $NH_4^+$ and $NO_3^-$ as single factors; and interactions of $NO_3^--PO_4^{3-},\;NH_4^+-PO_4^{3-}$ and $NH_4^+-NO_3^-$ were all negative in the screening experiment. Cell growth and the final pH level were positively affected by $PO_4^{3-}$, but negatively affected by $NH_4^+\;and\;NH_4^+-PO_4^{3-}$ interactions. The different effects of factors and their interactions on cell growth and final pH are influenced by a broad or narrow range of macronutrient concentrations. The productions of triterpenoids however were lower than 4mg/g cell dry weight.

Probabilistic Models to Predict Listeria monocytogenes Growth at Low Concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl in Frankfurters

  • Gwak, Eunji;Oh, Mi-Hwa;Park, Beom-Young;Lee, Heeyoung;Lee, Soomin;Ha, Jimyeong;Lee, Jeeyeon;Kim, Sejeong;Choi, Kyoung-Hee;Yoon, Yohan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.815-823
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    • 2015
  • This study developed probabilistic models to describe Listeria monocytogenes growth responses in meat products with low concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated in NBYE (nutrient broth plus 0.6% yeast extract) supplemented with NaNO2 (0-141 ppm) and NaCl (0-1.75%). The inoculated samples were then stored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 4, 7, 10, 12, and 15℃ for up to 60 d. Growth response data [growth (1) or no growth (0)] for each combination were determined by turbidity. The growth response data were analyzed using logistic regression to predict the growth probability of L. monocytogenes as a function of NaNO2 and NaCl. The model performance was validated with the observed growth responses. The effect of an obvious NaNO2 and NaCl combination was not observed under aerobic storage condition, but the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 on the inhibition of L. monocytogenes growth generally increased as NaCl concentration increased under anaerobic condition, especially at 7-10℃. A single application of NaNO2 or NaCl significantly (p<0.05) inhibited L. monocytogenes growth at 4-15℃, but the combination of NaNO2 or NaCl more effectively (p<0.05) inhibited L. monocytogenes growth than single application of either compound under anaerobic condition. Validation results showed 92% agreement between predicted and observed growth response data. These results indicate that the developed model is useful in predicting L. monocytogenes growth response at low concentrations of NaNO2 and NaCl, and the antilisterial effect of NaNO2 increased by NaCl under anaerobic condition.

Molecular Targeted Therapy in Modern Oncology: Imaging Assessment of Treatment Response and Toxicities

  • Krajewski, Katherine M.;Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta;DiPiro, Pamela J.;Jagannathan, Jyothi P.;Shinagare, Atul B.
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.28-41
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    • 2017
  • Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with a shift toward personalized cancer treatment. The use of therapies targeted to the molecular features of individual tumors and the tumor microenvironment has become much more common. In this review, anti-angiogenic and other molecular targeted therapies are discussed, with a focus on typical and atypical response patterns and imaging manifestations of drug toxicities.

On-line Monitoring of IPTG Induction for Recombinant Protein Production Using an Automatic pH Control Signal

  • Hur Won;Chung Yoon-Keun
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.304-308
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    • 2005
  • The response of IPTG induction was investigated through the monitoring of the alkali consumption rate and buffer capacity during the cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) harboring the plasmid pRSET-LacZ under the control of lac promoter. The rate of alkali consumption increased along with cell growth, but declined suddenly after approximately 0.2 h of IPTG induction. The buffer capacity also declined after 0.9 h of IPTG induction. The profile of buffer capacity seems to correlate with the level of acetate production. The IPTG response was monitored only when introduced into the mid-exponential phase of bacterial cell growth. The minimum concentration of IPTG for induction, which was found out to be 0.1 mM, can also be monitored on-line and in-situ. Therefore, the on-line monitoring of alkali consumption rate and buffer capacity can be an indicator of the metabolic shift initiated by IPTG supplement, as well as for the physiological state of cell growth.

Effect of Kamikwiryongtang on Immune Response and Growth in a Young Mouse (가미귀용탕(加味歸茸湯)이 새끼 생쥐의 면역반응(免疫反應) 및 성장(成長)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Yun-Hee;Yoo, Dong-Youl;Lee, Kyeong-Im
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.221-246
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    • 2004
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Kamikwiryongtang (KKT) on the immune response and growth in a young mouse (3 weeks mice). Methods The viability of thymocytes and splenocytes in vivo and in vitro system, the population of helper T (Th) cells and cytotoxic T (Tc) cells in thymocytes and increased the population of T-lymphocytes and the population of Th cells in splenocytes, the production of ${\gamma}$ -interferon, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 in splenocytes was investigated. KKT (500mg/kg) was administerd p.o. once a day for 7 days. Results: KKT increased the viability of thymocytes and splenocytes in vivo, but did not affect the viability of thymocytes and enhanced the viability of splenocytes in vitro system. In addition, KKT did not affect the population of helper T (Th) cells and cytotoxic T (Tc) cells in thymocytes and increased the population of T -lymphocytes and the population of Th cells in splenocytes. Also, KKT increased the production of ${\gamma}$-interferon, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 in splenocytes. Furthermore, KKT increased the production of nitric oxide in vivo, but did not affect the production of nitric oxide in vitro system. KKT enhanced the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages in vivo, but decreased the phagocytic activity in vitro system: KKT increased the body weight of a young mouse. Conclusions: KKT stimulates the specific immune response via increase of, the viability of thymocytes and splenocytes and the non-specific immune response via increase of phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages and stimulates the growth of a young mouse.

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Effect of Starvation on Survival and Physiological Response in Red Sea Bream Pagrus major in Summer (여름철 참돔(Pagrus major)의 절식에 따른 생존과 생리적 반응)

  • Lee, Jeong Yong;Lee, Jung Hwan;Hur, Jun Wook
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.620-627
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    • 2016
  • A 60-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding and starvation on the survival, growth, and blood parameters of red sea bream Pagrus major. The starved group was not fed during the first 32 days of the experiment and was then fed for 28 days. The growth rate of the starved fish group was significantly lower than that of the fed fish group. Starvation resulted in growth retardation and reductions in final body weight, growth rate, specific growth rate, and condition factor, whereas the fed fish group grew well and maintained a good condition. The growth rate of the starved group that was refed was higher than that of the fed group. Red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin showed no significant differences between the fed and starved groups. The cortisol and glucose levels of the fed group of juveniles were higher than those of the starved group. The cortisol levels of the starved group of adults were higher than those of the fed group, whereas the glucose levels of the starved group were lower than those of the fed group. These results suggest that the survival, growth, and hematological parameters used to reflect starvation and feeding in this study provide a useful index of physiological response and survival rate in red sea bream.

Leaf Growth of Seven Fruit Trees in Response to Different Lights for Garden Tree

  • Nam, Yu Kyeong;Lee, Jin Hee;Kwon, O Man
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.875-881
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    • 2018
  • To select fruit trees suitable for shaded urban garden with Elaeagnus umbellata var. coreana, Malus domestica 'Alps Otome', Malus domestica 'Fujii', Prunus mume, Prunus persica for. persica, Rubus fructicosus, and Vaccinium corymbosum 'Reka', leaf growth in response to different light was investigated two years after 35% shade treatment. Leaf area of E. umbellata var. coreana, M. domestica 'Alps Otome', P. mume, P. persica for. persica, and V. corymbosum 'Reka' increased in shading. Fresh weight of leaves make inconsistent response to shading in every species but dry weight of E. umbellata var. coreana and P. persica for. persica showed the highest 150% and 148%, increment, respectively. Althought leaf water content of E. umbellata var. coreana decreased in shading, there is no difference in P. persica for. persica. Chlorophyll value of E. umbellata var. coreana and P. persica for. persica that showed higher than any other species is correlated with dark leaf green. Compared to specific leaf weight of E. umbellata var. coreana, P. persica for. persica, and V. corymbosum 'Reka' showed lower than any other species in shading, that of M. domestica 'Fujii', and R. fructicosus increased in reverse. These results indicate that E. umbellata var. coreana and P. persica for. persica that showed high value in several invesetigaton items are suitable for shady urban condition considering leaf growth in response to shading.

Relationships between Climate and Tree-Ring Growths of Mongolian Oaks with Various Topographical Characteristics in Mt. Worak, Korea (지형적 특성에 따른 월악산 신갈나무의 연륜생장과 기후와의 관계)

  • Seo, Jeong-Wook;Park, Won-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.36-45
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    • 2010
  • To analyze the relationship between climatic factors (monthly mean temperature and total precipitation) and tree-ring growths of Quercus mongolica Fischer (Mongolian oak) with different topographic sites in Mt. Worak, more than 10 trees were selected from each of seven stands. Two cores from each tree were measured for ring width. After crossdating, each ring-width series was double standardized by fitting first a negative exponential or straight regression line and secondly a 60-year cubic spline. Seven stands were categorized in two groups using cluster analysis for tree-ring index patterns. Cluster I (four stands) was located in higher elevation (550-812 m) with aspects of east, west and northwest, and cluster II (three stands) was located in rather lower election (330-628 m) with aspects of north and northwest. The aspects of two clusters were not significantly different. Response-function analysis showed a significant positive response to March precipitation for both clusters. It indicates that moisture supply during early spring season is important to radial growth because the cambial growths of ring-porous species, such as Mongolian oak, start before leaf growth. Cluster II showed a positive response to the precipitation of middle and late growing season, too.

Effects of flaC Mutation on Stringent Response-Mediated Bacterial Growth, Toxin Production, and Motility in Vibrio cholerae

  • Kim, Hwa Young;Yu, Sang-Mi;Jeong, Sang Chul;Yoon, Sang Sun;Oh, Young Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.816-820
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    • 2018
  • The stringent response (SR), which is activated by accumulation of (p)ppGpp under conditions of growth-inhibiting stresses, plays an important role on growth and virulence in Vibrio cholerae. Herein, we carried out a genome-wide screen using transposon random mutagenesis to identify genes controlled by SR in a (p)ppGpp-overproducing mutant strain. One of the identified SR target genes was flaC encoding flagellin. Genetic studies using flaC and SR mutants demonstrated that FlaC was involved in bacterial growth, toxin production, and normal flagellum function under conditions of high (p)ppGpp levels, suggesting FlaC plays an important role in SR-induced pathogenicity in V. cholerae.

Geographical variations in the seed germination response and the seedling growth of hemistepta lyrata bunge by distrbution areas (分布地域에 따른 지침개 ( Hemistepta lyrata Bunge ) 個體群의 發芽 習性 및 幼植物 生長의 地理的 變異)

  • Lee, Ho-Joon;So-Hyun Park;Eun-Boo Cho
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 1993
  • The geographical variation of the germination response and the seedling growth of the seed populations of hemistepta lyrata bunge distributed in the southern area of korean peninsula (seoul, yongwol, andong, $Ch^{\prime}angwon, \;Sunch^{\prime}on$)was investigated. Five populations were divided into two principal groups according to the phases of their seed germination. The first group consisting of the seoul and yongwol population was 62% and 64%, respectively, in the final germination percentage of 32%, 24% and 28%, respectively, were Andong, $Ch^{\prime}angwon\;and\;Sunch^{\prime}on$ populations. The seed populations of hemistepta lyrata bunge which hardly germination. the germination of seoul and yongwol populations located at the higher latitudes took plase synchronously in early autumn. On the other hand, andong, $Ch^{\prime}angwon\;and\;Sunch^{\prime}on$ populations located at the lower latitudes showed a tendency to germinata asynchronously in late autumn. the speed of the seedling growth of the populations located at the higher latitudes was greater than that of the populations at the lower latitudes. Therefore the geographical variation in the germination response and the seedling growth of the seed populations of hemistepta lyrate bunge appeared to be an important ecological strategy to maintain their existence in the extreme environmental variations.

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