• Title, Summary, Keyword: growth response

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Partition of Amino Acids Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Broilers III. Tryptophan

  • Kim, J.H.;Cho, W.T.;Shin, I.S.;Yang, C.J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.284-288
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    • 1997
  • Purified diets containing five graded levels of tryptophan were fed to growing chicks to evaluate tryptophan requirements for growth and maintenance. A model was developed to separate tryptophan requirement for maintenance from requirement for growth. From this model, the daily tryptophan requirement for growth was 2.16 mg/g gain, and the daily requirement for maintenance 0.029 times metabolic body size ($Wg^{0.75}$). Based on nitrogen gain response, the tryptophan requirement for growth was 0.078 mg/mg N gain, and the daily maintenance requirement was 0.029 times metabolic body size. The total tryptophan requirements were 71.56 mg/day or 0.173% of the diet, 69.48 mg/day or 0.168% of the diet based on the weight gain response and nitrogen gain response, respectively. Previous tryptophan requirements for growing chicks aging 1-28 days are in close agreement with these estimates. Based on the relationship of weight gain and N gain, about 1.25% of the retained CP was consisted of tryptophan; the previously reported value of tryptophan content of chick muscle CP was 1.03%.

Partition of Amino Acids Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Broilers II. Methionine

  • Kim, J.H.;Cho, W.T.;Yang, C.J.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.277-283
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    • 1997
  • Purified diets containing five levels of methionine with 0.4% cystine were fed to growing chicks (8 days old male Arbor Acre strain) to evaluate methionine requirements for growth and maintenance. A model was developed to separate methionine requirement for maintenance from requirement for growth. From this model the daily methionine requirement for growth was 4.22 mg/g gain, and the daily methionine requirement for maintenance was 0.034 times metabolic body size ($W^{0.75}$). Based on nitrogen gain response, the methionine requirement for growth was 0.162 mg/mg N gain, and the daily maintenance requirement was 0.037 times metabolic body size. The plateau of plasma methionine concentration reached at 117.16 mg intake pre day. The total methionine requirement determined based on weight gain response was 138.29 mg/day or 0.33% of the diet and the one determined based on nitrogen gain response was 141.7 mg/day of 0.34% of the diet, respectively. As a percentage of protein, methionine was calculated to be 2.6%; the reported methionine content of carcass CP was 1.76%.

Crack growth life model for fatigue susceptible structural components in aging aircraft

  • Chou, Karen C.;Cox, Glenn C.;Lockwood, Allison M.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.29-50
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    • 2004
  • A total life model was developed to assess the service life of aging aircraft. The primary focus of this paper is the development of crack growth life projection using the response surface method. Crack growth life projection is a necessary component of the total life model. The study showed that the number of load cycles N needed for a crack to propagate to a specified size can be linearly related to the geometric parameter, material, and stress level of the component considered when all the variables are transformed to logarithmic values. By the Central Limit theorem, the ln N was approximated by Gaussian distribution. This Gaussian model compared well with the histograms of the number of load cycles generated from simulated crack growth curves. The outcome of this study will aid engineers in designing their crack growth experiments to develop the stochastic crack growth models for service life assessments.

Yakson vs. GHT Therapy Effects on Growth and Physical Response of Preterm Infants and on Maternal Attachment (약손요법이 미숙아의 성장 및 생리적 반응과 미숙아 어머니의 애착에 미치는 효과 - GHT[Gentle Human Touch]요법과 비교하여 -)

  • Im, Hye-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study is aimed to confirm the effects of Yakson therapy on the growth and physical response of preform infants, and maternal attachment to them compared with GHT therapy. Method: The design of this study is nonequivalent control group with repeated measuring by quasi experimental study. The subjects are preterm infants in 26 - 34 gestational age hospitalized in the NICU of 4 university hospitals with an experimental group of 15 and a control group of 14. Yakson therapy consists of three phases: laying a hand, caressing by hand, and laying a hand again taking 5 minutes for each phase. Result: As a result of administering Yakson therapy to preform infants; the average weight gain of the Yakson group was higher than that of the GHT group, but there is no significant difference between groups. The oxygen saturation and maternal attachment difference between the Yakson and the GHT group were not significant. Significant differences in the average daily increase of oral intake and apical pulse rate were observed between the Yakson group and GHT group. Conclusion: These data suggested that Yakson therapy may be an effective nursing intervention which can facilitate growth and physical response of preform infants.

Optimization of the Viability of Probiotics in a Fermented Milk Drink by the Response Surface Method

  • Chen, Ming-Ju;Chen, Kun-Nan;Lin, Chin-Wen
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.705-711
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    • 2004
  • Growth promoters were added to skim milk to retain the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum to help the product meet the "therapeutic minimum" at the time of consumption. The experiments were divided into two parts. The first part of the study used chicory inulin, isomalto-oligosaccharides and sucrose to investigate the effects of sugars on the activity of L. acidophilus and B. longum. The results indicated that the addition of isomalto-oligosaccharides stimulated growth of L. acidophilus and B. longum, resulting in a higher level of the probiotics after one month storage and yielded better $\beta$-galactosidase activity during fermentation. The second part studied the effects of three growth promoters on the viability of the probiotic cultures and the response surface method was employed to find the optimal ratio for addition of the growth promoters. The optimal ratio for added calcium gluconate, sodium gluconate and N-acetylglucosamine in fermented milk drinks were established. The response surface method proved to be a very effective way of optimizing the activity of probiotic cultures when developing a new fermented milk drink.

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor(bFGF) Inhibits Radiation-induced Apoptosis on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells(HUVECs) (18) 방사선에 의한 제대 혈관내피세포의 apoptosis와 Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor의 억제 효과)

  • Lee Song Jae;Chang Jae Chul
    • Journal of The Korean Radiological Technologist Association
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.317-323
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    • 1999
  • The response of endothelial cells to ionizing radiation is thought to be an important factor in the overall response of normal tissue. It has been reported that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, protects endoth

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Factors associated with effectiveness of and rash occurrence by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (비소세포폐암 환자에 있어서 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors의 약효 및 rash 발생과 관련한 인자에 대한 연구)

  • Bae, Na-Rae;Choi, Hye-Jin;Lee, Byung-Koo;Gwak, Hye-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Currently lung cancer ranks second in cancer for incidence rate and is a disease that ranks first for a death rate by cancerous growth because it is already advanced at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the factors that affect the effectiveness of and rash occurrence by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (EGFR TKI) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 100 patients, who took EGFR TKI (erlotinib, gefitinib) among patients who were diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer in a Hospital in Korea between May 2005 and February 2008, was conducted. The drug effectiveness was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumor. Results: EGFR mutation was the only factor associated with drug response (complete response and partial response). When stable disease was added to drug response as the evaluation parameter, ECOG and rash as well as EGFR mutation were found to be important factors. Survival, however, was not affected by EGFR mutation. The factors influenced on survival were older age (${\geq}65$), low ECOG ($1{\sim}2$), adenocarcinoma and rash. In the case of rash, group with EGFR mutation or low ECOG showed significantly higher chance of occurrence. There was no significant difference in rash occurrence between gefitinib and erlotinib groups. Conclusions: Based on the results, EGFR mutation positive and low ECOG ($1{\sim}2$) were significantly important factors for both effectiveness of EGFR TKI and rash occurrence. Also, rash itself was found to be an independently significant factor for the disease control and survival. Therefore, while administering EGFR TKI, patients who have the factors associated with rash occurrence should be closely monitored for effective and safe drug therapy.

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Effect of Dietary Vitamin E on Growth Performance and Immune Response of Breeder Chickens

  • Lin, Y.F.;Chang, S.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.884-891
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    • 2006
  • The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on immune responses was studied in breeder chickens during the maturing period. In experiment 1, 17-week old female birds were fed corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with either 0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 mg vitamin E (all-rac-${\alpha}$-tocopherol acetate)/kg diet for 19 weeks. In experiment 2, 23-week old male birds were fed the corn-soybean meal based diet supplemented with either 0, 20, 40, 80 or 160 mg vitamin E/kg diet for 8 weeks. The chickens were evaluated for growth performance, antibody titer to sheep red blood cell (SRBC), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and skin response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). The results showed that supplemental vitamin E improved body weigh gain of laying pullets during peak-laying period but had no significant effect on growth performance of cockerels. For cockerels, addition of 20 mg vitamin E/kg diet significantly enhanced (p<0.05) immune response to SRBC compared to those added with 0, 80 and 160 mg vitamin E/kg diet; addition of 20 mg vitamin E/kg diet had higher (p<0.01) antibody titer to IBDV than those added with 40-160 mg vitamin E/kg diet. No significant effects on immune response were observed in laying pullets fed supplemental vitamin E. The findings suggest that moderate supplementation of vitamin E may enhance immune responses to selective antigens in cockerels but excessive vitamin E may depress specific immune response.

Optimization of the Growth Rate of Probiotics in Fermented Milk Using Genetic Algorithms and Sequential Quadratic Programming Techniques

  • Chen, Ming-Ju;Chen, Kun-Nan;Lin, Chin-Wen
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.894-902
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    • 2003
  • Prebiotics (peptides, N-acetyglucoamine, fructo-oligosaccharides, isomalto-oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides) were added to skim milk in order to improve the growth rate of contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum. The purpose of this research was to study the potential synergy between probiotics and prebiotics when present in milk, and to apply modern optimization techniques to obtain optimal design and performance for the growth rate of the probiotics using a response surface-modeling technique. To carry out response surface modeling, the regression method was performed on experimental results to build mathematical models. The models were then formulated as an objective function in an optimization problem that was consequently optimized using a genetic algorithm and sequential quadratic programming approach to obtain the maximum growth rate of the probiotics. The results showed that the quadratic models appeared to have the most accurate response surface fit. Both SQP and GA were able to identify the optimal combination of prebiotics to stimulate the growth of probiotics in milk. Comparing both methods, SQP appeared to be more efficient than GA at such a task.

Optimizing Medium Components for the Maximum Growth of Lactobacillus plantarum JNU 2116 Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Yoo, Heeseop;Rheem, Insoo;Rheem, Sungsue;Oh, Sejong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.240-250
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    • 2018
  • This study was undertaken to find the optimum soy-peptone, glucose, yeast extract, and magnesium sulfate amounts for the maximum growth of Lactobacillus plantarum JNU 2116 and to assess the effects of these medium factors through the use of response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as the experimental design for the allocation of treatment combinations. In the analysis of the experiment, due to a significant lack of fit of the second-order polynomial regression model that was used at first, cubic terms were added to the model, and then two-way interaction terms were deleted from the model since they were found to be all statistically insignificant. A relative comparison among the four factors showed that the growth of L. plantarum JNU 2116 was affected strongly by yeast extract, moderately by glucose and peptone, and slightly by magnesium sulfate. The estimated optimum amounts of the medium factors for the growth of L. plantarum JNU 2116 are as follows: soy-peptone 0.213%, glucose 1.232%, yeast extract 1.97%, and magnesium sulfate 0.08%. These results may contribute to the production of L. plantarum L67 as a starter culture that may have potential application in yogurt and fermented meat products.