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THE NEW GENERATION OF THE BMW CHILD SEAT AND OCCUPANT DETECTION SYSTEM SBE 2

  • Lu, Yan;Marschner, Christian;Eisenmann, Lutz;Sauer, Sivart
    • International Journal of Automotive Technology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2002
  • A new generation of the BMW child seat and occupant detection system SBE2 far a smart airbag system is described. The SBE2 system consists of two subsystems: OC (Occupant Classification) and FDS (Field Detection System). The OC system is a force sensitive sensor array that measures a pressure profile. The FDS system detects child seat and occupant according to the change of electrical field generated by four capacitive plates. Combining the signals from both subsystems, the BMW SBE2 system can distinguish fully automatically between a child seat and a person.

Repair bond strength of resin composite to three aged CAD/CAM blocks using different repair systems

  • Gul, Pinar;Altinok-Uygun, Latife
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2020
  • PURPOSE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to three CAD/CAM blocks using different intraoral ceramic repair systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three CAD/CAM blocks (Lava Ultimate, Cerasmart, and Vitablocks Mark II) were selected for the study. Thirty-two specimens were fabricated from each block. Specimens were randomly divided into eight groups for the following different intraoral repair systems: Group 1: control group (no treatment); Group 2: 34.5% phosphoric acid etching; Group 3: CoJet System; Group 4: Z-Prime Plus System; Group 5: GC Repair System; Group 6: Cimara System; Group 7: Porcelain Repair System; and Group 8: Clearfil Repair System. Then, nanohybrid resin composite (Tetric Evo Ceram) was packed onto treated blocks surfaces. The specimens were thermocycled before application of repair systems and after application of composite resin. After second thermal cycling, blocks were cut into bars (1 × 1 × 12 ㎣) for microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α=.05). RESULTS. Cimara System, Porcelain Repair, and Clearfil Repair systems significantly increased the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to all CAD/CAM blocks when compared with the other tested repair systems (P<.05). In terms of CAD/CAM blocks, the lowest values were observed in Vitablocks Mark II groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION. All repair systems used in the study exhibited clinically acceptable bond strength and can be recommended for clinical use.

Effects of Green Tea Catechin on Mixed Function Oxidase System and Antioxidative Defense System in Rat Lung Exposed to Microwave

  • Kim, Mi-Ji;Rhee, Soon-Jae
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on mixed function oxidase system (MFO), lipofuscin contents, carbonyl value, oxidative damage and the antioxidative defense system in lung of microwave exposed rats. Experimental groups were divided to normal group and microwave exposed group. The microwave exposed groups were subdivided into three groups: catechin free diet (MW-0C) group, 0.25% catechin (MW-0.25C) group and 0.5 % catechin (MW-0.5C) group according to the levels of dietary catechin supplementation. The rats were irradiated with microwave at frequency of 2.45 GHz for 15 min. Experimental animals were sacrificed at 6th day after microwave irradiation. The contents of cytochrome P$_{450}$ contents in MW-0C group was increased to 95% , compared with normal group. MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups were reduced to 16% and 31%, respectively, compared with MW-0C group. The activity of NADPH-cytochrome P$_{450}$ reductase in MW-0C group was increased to 44%, compared with normal group. MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups were reduced to 12% and 17%, respectively, compared with MW-0C group. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in MW-0C group was decreased to 21 %, compared with normal group. MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C group were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, compared with MW-0C group. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) in MW-0C group was significantly decreased, compared with normal group. MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups were recovered to the level of normal group. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in MW-0C group was increased to 34 %, compared with normal group. Catechin supplementation groups were maintained the level of normal group. The levels of caybonyl value in MW-0C group was increased to 21 %, compared with normal group. MW-0.25C and MW-0.5C groups were reduced to 14% and 12%, respectively, compared with MW-0C group. The lipofuscin contents in MW-0C group were increased to 23.4 %, compared with normal group. That of MW-0.5C group was significantly reduced, compared with MW-0C group. In conclusion, MFO system was activated and the formation of oxidized protein, lipofuscin was increased and antioxidative defense system was weakened of lung tissue in microwave exposed rats, thus oxidative damage was increased. But it was rapidly recovered to normal level by green tea catechin supplementation.n.

ANALYSIS OF PORCELAIN SURFACE ROUGHNESS POLISHED BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUE (활택방법에 따른 도재표면의 거칠기 비교)

  • Lee, Kyu-Young;Lee, Chung-Hee;Jo, Kwang-Hun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.506-513
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    • 1998
  • This study was designed to compare the smoothness by glazing method with that by polishing method after 48 specimens of Ceramco II block, one of porcelain materials used for PFM, were baked according to the manufacturer's directions. The specimens were roughened with new green stone at 15,000rpm for 30 seconds and sandblasted with $25{\mu}$aluminum oxide for 15 seconds. They were divided into 4 groups at random, and 4 groups were prepared as follows : Group I : specimens were autoglazed and overpolished with polishing system. Group II : specimens were polished with only polishing system. Group III : specimens were glazed after adding glazing liquid, vitachrom 'L'-fluid (vita zahnfabrik co. Germany) to the rough surface Group V : specimens were just autoglazed Using the surface roughness tester, Ra, Rmax. and Rz were estimated 5 times per specimen, and recording process of mean value was repeated 3 times. The results were as follows : 1. The Ra of group I and group II was lower than group III and group IV (p<001). 2. There was lower value of Rz in group I and group II than group III and group IV (p<001). 3. The Rmax of group I (overpolished with polishing system after autoglazing) and group II (polished with only polishing system) was lower than group III (glazed after adding glazing liquid) and group IV (autoglazed) (p<001). 4. There was not a statistically significant difference between group I and II and between group III and IV (p>001). 5. The roughness was increase in order of group I, II, III, IV in SEM

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Effects of Self-Identification with Threatened In-Group and System Justification on Within-Domain Consumption

  • CHOI, Nak-Hwan
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.39-49
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: Current study aimed at exploring the roles of system justification in the effects of consumers' self-identification with the threatened social in-group on the within-domain versus across-domain consumption. It focused on whether there are positive effects of both of the self-definition and the self-investment on the in-group system justification, and also explored whether the system justification, in turn, could make positive effects on the consumption. Research design, data and methodology: The self-identification was approached in view of self-definition and self-investment when the in-group was threatened by members of their out group. The empirical study was performed with the single factor within-subject design based on the feeling of the consumers' being threatened when the in-group was criticized by the others. The in-group threatened was accessed from the memory of each of the undergraduate students participating in the empirical study by asking them to remember the events by which their important in-group was perceived to be threatened in their past life. Questionnaire data collected from the undergraduate students were used to verify research hypotheses by structural equation model in Amos 21.0 program. Results: First, the self-definition positively affected the within-domain versus across-domain consumption, but did not affect the in-group system justification. Second, the self-investment positively affected the in-group system justification. Third, the system justification made positive effects on the within-domain versus the across-domain consumption. Therefore, this article could contribute to the development of the theory related to compensatory consumption in the view that there could be the positive mediation roles of system justification in the effects of consumers' self-investment to their in-group on the within-domain versus across-domain consumption when the in-group is threatened. Conclusions: The results of this study could give managerial implications to brand or product marketing managers. How to vitalize consumers' self-definition with, and self-investment to, the threatened in-group is at issue to the marketers when consumers' important in-group was threatened by others. By evoking the in-group-based self-investment to consumers when the in-group was threatened, the marketers should increase the level of the system justification, and the marketers should promote the consumers to recognize that their products or brands are included into the within-self domain.

Correlations between Gastroscopy Results and Zone-5 Data from the 7-zone-Diagnostic System (7구역진단기의 5구역 정보와 위내시경 소견의 상관성에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Jung Da;Im, Jeong Gyun;Lee, Hyung Geol;Yook, Tae Han;Kim, Jong Uk
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The 7-zone-diagnostic system is a device for predetermining bodily locations by measuring the energy of the living body. The purpose of this study is to examine correlations between gastroscopy results and zone-5 data from the 7-zone-diagnostic system. Methods : This study was carried out with data from gastroscopy procedures. It involved 115 patients who had been diagnosed with gastritis, esophagitis, or gastric ulcers. These patients were divided into three groups according to the different patterns of zone-5 factors AA, FL2 and FL1. Group A was made up of patients for whom the red bar graph of zone-5 was higher than the normal range for factor AA. Group B was made up of patients for whom the red bar graph of zone-5 was within the normal range for factor AA. Group C was made up of patients for whom the red bar graph of zone-5 was lower than the normal range for factor AA. Group D E and F were made up of same way as group A B and C for factor FL2. Group G H and I were made up of same way as group A B and C for factor FL1. After the collection of gastroscopy results and data on zone-5 from the 7-zone-diagnostic system, the data was analyzed statistically. Results : 1. Group D had a higher ratio of medication than group E, and this result was statistically significant. 2. Group D G had a higher ratio of medication than group E G and group E H, and this result was statistically significant. 3. Group G had a higher ratio of esophagitis than group H, and this result was statistically significant. 4. A Group B H had a higher ratio of esophagitis than group B G, group C G, and group C H, and this result was statistically significant. 5. The medication group had a high score on the function index than the non-medication group, and this result was statistically significant. Conclusions : This study suggests that there is a slight correlation between gastroscopy results and zone-5 data from the 7-zone-diagnostic system. The research resulted in significant data that are helpful for diagnosing digestive system problems through the use of the 7-zone-diagnostic system.

Effects of Catechin on Mixed Function Oxidase System and Oxidative Damage in Rat Liver Exposed to Microwave (전자파 조사 흰쥐 간조직의 Mixed Function Oxidase System과 산화적 손상에 미치는 Catechin의 영향)

  • 김미지;이준하;이순재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.299-305
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of catechin on the changes of microsomal mixed function oxidase(MFO) system and oxidative damage in rat liver exposed to microwave. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 200$\pm$10g body weight were randomly assigned to one normal and microwave exposed groups: microwave exposed groups were divided three groups: catechin free diet(MW) group, 0.25% catechin(MW+0.25C) group and 0.5% catechin(MW+0.5C) group to the levels of dietary catechin supplementation. The rats were irradiated with microwave at frequency 2.45GHz for 15 min and then the changes pattern of mixed function oxidase system and oxidative damage were investigated for 16 days. The activity of XOD in MW group was increased from 4 day to 8 days after irradiation, compared to normal group and decreased to the level of normal group 16 days. But catechin supplementation group were maintained to the normal level. The contents of cytochrome P(sub)450 and NADPH cytochrome P(sub)450 reductase activities in liver of MW group was increased from 4 day to 8 day after irradiation, compared to normal group and decreased to the level of normal group at 16 day. But catechin supplementation group were recovered to the normal level. The contents of superoxide radical in liver of MW group was increased 1.28, 1.25, 1.17 fold of normal group at 4,6 and 8 days days after irradiation. respectively, but catechin supplementation group were maintained the normal level. The contents of lipifuscin in liver have a same tendency in superoxide radical contents. These result suggested that the supplementation of catechin have control the mixed function oxidase system and oxidative damage and that may help to recover tissues from microwave damage. (Korean J Nutrition 34(3) : 299~305, 2001)

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Design and Implementation of Group Management System for Multicast Services (멀티캐스트 서비스를 지원하기 위한 그룹관리 시스템의 설계 및 구현)

  • 박판우;조국현
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1083-1093
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    • 1993
  • Recently, some applications require the multicast service that transmit messages to multiple destinations in computer communication network enviroment. Multicast service is to send messages to the group which consists of a number of processes. A multicast group is a collection of processes which are destinations of the transmitted messages and these processes may run on one or more hosts. Therefore, it is important to manage each member of process groups in order to provide efficient multicast services. In this paper, we design and implement group management system to support multicast services. Group Management System was designed with Process Group Management System(PGMS) and Host Group Management System(HGMS). We have implemented basic primitives of PGMS, HGMS. Also, membership tree management algorithm is designed and implemented. Membership tree provides the relation of the members of multicast groups and routing Informations.

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Predictors of On-Line Game Addiction of Junior-High School Students (중학생의 온라인게임 중독 위험 예측변인 분석)

  • Boo, Jung-Min;Kweon, Soon-Yong
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.390-399
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify variables dichotomizing adolescents into online game addiction-latency group and non-addiction group. Based on ecologic theory, individual system(self-esteem, self-control, depression, stress-coping strategy), family system(parental support), and social system(teachers' support and peer-group support) were suggest for variables affecting online game addiction of adolescents. 612 adolescents were tested for game addiction, self-esteem, self-control, depression, stress-coping strategy, and social supports from parents, teachers, and peer group. Independent t-tests showed between-group differences in self-esteem, self-control, depression, aggressive, and negative-avoiding stress-coping strategies, parental support, and peer-group support. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that aggressive stress-coping strategy of social system and peer-group support of social system had significant influences on the division of the groups.