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Effects of Crotalaria Incorporation into Soil as a Green Manure on Growth of Strawberry and Inorganic Soil Nitrogen Level (크로탈라리아의 토양환원이 토양의 무기태 질소농도 및 딸기의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Tae-Jun;Park, Jin-Myeon;Lee, Seong-Eun;Park, Young-Eun;Kim, Ki-In
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.578-586
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we evaluated the effects of soil incorporation of crotalaria as a green manure on the growth and yields of 'Seolhyang' strawberry and inorganic soil nitrogen levels in a greenhouse. Four different N treatments were used, as follows: zero N fertilizer (control), crotalaria, crotalaria with 50% urea, and 100% urea. The recommended N requirement (100% urea) for strawberry was $86kgN{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ and 50% of the recommended N (50% urea) was $43kgN{\cdot}ha^{-1}$. Crotalaria was sowed on June $17^{th}$, 2011 and cultivated for 37 days. The amount of N supply from soil incorporation of crotalaria was $104kgN{\cdot}ha^{-1}$. Strawberry was planted on September $9^{th}$, 2011 and cultivated for 255 days after planting. The concentrations of soluble solids and acidity of strawberry fruits for the crotalaria treatment were higher than for the crotalaria with 50% urea and 100% urea treatments. On the other hand, the growth and yield of strawberry was the highest for the crotalaria with 50% urea and 100% urea treatments, followed by the crotalaria treatment, and the lowest for the control. Soil inorganic N concentration for the crotalaria treatment was continuously decreased to $24mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$ at the end of the growing season, while crotalaria with 50% urea and 100% urea treatments maintained an inorganic N concentration that ranged from 35 to $50mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$. These results indicate that the amount of N supply from soil incorporation of crotalaria may not be enough because strawberry yield was lower than for other N treatments. Therefore, additional nitrogen, such as 50% urea after soil incorporation of crotalaria, is recommended.

Comparative Evaluation for Environmental Impact of Rapeseed and Barley Cultivation in Paddy Field for Winter using Life Cycle Assessment (겨울논 유채와 보리 재배시 전과정평가 방법을 이용한 환경영향 비교 평가)

  • Hong, Seung-Gil;Shin, JoungDu;Park, Kwang-Lai;Ahn, Min-Sil;Ok, Yong-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2016
  • The application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to assess the environmental impact of rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow after harvesting rice was investigated and compared with barley cultivation in crop rotation system. Data for input materials were collected and analyzed by 1 ton rapeseed and barley as functional unit. For the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) the Eco-indicator 95 method has been chosen because this is well documented and regularly applied impact method. From the comparison of impact categories such as greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, and energy resources for 1 ton of final product, emission potential from rapeseed was higher than that from barley. The range from 65 to 96% of these potential came from chemical fertilizer. On the other hand, eutrophication potential from barley was higher than that from rapeseed, mainly came from utilizing the chemical fertilizer. During the cultivation of barley and rape, environmental burden by heavy metals was evaluated by 0.5 Pt, larger than points from other impact categories. The sum of points from all impact categories in barley and rapeseed was calculated to be 0.78 Pt and 0.82 Pt, respectively. From the sensitivity analysis for barley and rapeseed, scenario 1 (crop responses to fertilization level) showed the environmental burden was continuously increased with the amount of fertilization in barley cultivation, while it was not increased only at the optimum crop responses to fertilization in rapeseed (R3). With these results, rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow paddy contributed to the amounts of environmental burden much more than barley cultivation. It is, however, highly determined that environmental weighted point resulted from evaluating both cultivation was not significantly different.

Effect of Fertigation with Indigenous Microorganism and EM on Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties and Growth of Cherry Tomatoes (토착미생물과 EM 활용 액비 처리가 방울토마토의 토양 화학성과 미생물상 및 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Hyun-Sug;Jung, Ji-Sik;Kuk, Yong-In;Choi, In-Young;Jung, Seok-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2019
  • The study was compared for soil chemical and microbial properties as well as growth of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) plants environmentally friendly gown for 3 years and 5 years, which had been fertigated with homemade liquid fertilizer (LF) with indigenous microorganism as an additional fertilizer. Treatment included LF with indigenous microorganism for 3 years (3-year IM-LF) and for 5 years (5-year IM-LF), with an effective microorganism for 10 years (EM-LF), which had been applied with 1,000 times of dilution in the farmhouse. IM-LF and EM-LF materials had increased pH pattern for 16 weeks, in particular for increase of 1.2 for EM-LF. IM-LF material contained slightly higher EC but similar level of 0.2 dS/m to EM-LF. For a pot experiment in the greenhouse, IM-LF treatment increased root dry weight of the cherry tomato plants. In the farmhouse experiment, IM-LF treatment increased to 7.5 of soil pH and 8.4 dS/m of EC, indicating high salt accumulation. EM-LF treatment increased to 62 g/kg of soil OM, which would have affected concentrations of macro essential nutrients, including T-N in the soil. However, the optimum soil chemical levels for growth of cherry tomato plants were observed on the IM-LF plots. EM-LF treatment increased number of bacteria and actinobacteria in the soil. EM-LF treatment increased concentrations of macro essential nutrients in the plants, except for P, with similar nutrient concentrations observed between 3-year IM-LF and 5-year IM-LF-treated plants. Leaf SPAD and PS II levels decreased in the plants treated with 3-year IM-LF. EM-LF treatment increased leaf width and length, number of leaves, canopy area, plant height, and stem diameter in the mid-term stage of growth, which were not significantly different between the treatments. EM-LF treated-plants had two times higher leaf dry weight than those of values observed on the IM-LF plants, which was the opposite result observed on the number of fruit.

Development of 'Soomany' for New Cultivar of Gomchwi with Disease Resistant and High Yield (내병 다수성 곰취 신품종 '수마니' 육성)

  • Suh, Jong Taek;Yoo, Dong Lim;Kim, Ki Deog;Lee, Jong Nam;Sohn, Hwang Bae;Nam, Jeong Hwoan;Kim, Su Jeong;Hong, Su Young;Kim, Yul Ho
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.80-85
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    • 2020
  • A new Gomchwi cultivar 'Soomany' was derived from a cross between Gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz.) and Handaeri-gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai). The investigation and selection of growth and yield characteristics were conducted from 2007 to 2015 in field and greenhouse of Highland Agriculture Research Institute, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, in Korea. On a newly developed cultivar 'Soomany', color of petiole ear is light green, petiole trichome is existent, trichome and light on the back of the leaves don't exist, and density of leaf vein is degree 4. Plant height, leaf length, leaf width and petiole length are 77.1, 22.3, 21.5 and 57.2 cm, respectively in the growth characteristics of the 2nd year. Plant size was also higher than that of 'Sammany' generally. Bolting date was on August 15. Flowering date was on September 19, about 9 days later than 'Sammany'. 'Soomany' and 'Sammany' had 149 and 133 leaves per plant, respectively. Total yield of 'Soomany' (1,623 g/plant) made a very good comparison with that of 'Sammany' (1,385 g/plant). 'Soomany' showed harder leaves (25.8 ㎏/㎠) than 'Sammany' (20.8 ㎏/㎠), whereas 'Soomany' had thinner leaves (0.53 mm) than 'Sammany' (0.62 mm). 'Soomany' variety has shown strong resistance to powdery mildew disease compared to 'Sammany'. In May 2019, the right of variety protection of 'Soomany' was registered as a new Gomchwi variety (Register No. 192).

A Study of Burcucumber Biochars to Remediate Soil Pb Considering GWP (Global Warming Potential) (GWP (Global Warming Potential)를 고려한 가시박 바이오차르의 토양 납 제거 효과 분석)

  • Kim, You Jin;Park, Han;Kim, Min-Ho;Seo, Sung Hee;Ok, Yong Sik;Yoo, Gayoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.432-440
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    • 2015
  • Biochar, a by-product from pyrolysis of biomass, is a promising option to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon sequestration. This material is also considered to have potential to remediate a soil with heavy metal pollution by increasing the soil's adsorptive capacity. This study conducted the assessment of two biochars considering the climate change mitigation potential and heavy metal removal capacity at the same time. Two kinds of biochars (BC_Ch, TW_Ch) were prepared by pyrolyzing the biomass of burcucumber (BC_Bm) and tea waste (TW_Bm). The soils polluted with Pb were mixed with biochars or biomass and incubated for 60 d. During the incubation, $CO_2$, $CH_4$, and $N_2O$ were regularly measured and the soil before and after incubation was analyzed for chemical and biological parameters including the acetate extractable Pb. The results showed that only the BC_Ch treatment significantly reduced the amount of Pb after 60 d incubation. During the incubation, the $CO_2$ and $N_2O$ emissions from the BC_Ch and TW_Ch were decreased by 24% and 34% compared to the BC_Bm and TW_Bm, respectively. The $CH_4$ emissions were not significantly affected by biochar treatments. We calculated the GWP considering the production of amendment materials, application to the soils, removal of Pb, and soil carbon storage. The BC_Ch treatment had the most negative value because it had the higher Pb adsorption and soil carbon sequestration. Our results imply that if we apply biochar made from burcucumber, we could expect the pollution reduction and climate change mitigation at the same time.

Flowering and Morphological Responses of Petunia and Pansy as Influenced by Lamp Type and Lighting Period to Provide Long Days (장일처리 광원의 종류 및 광조사 시간에 따른 페튜니아와 팬지의 개화 및 형태학적 반응)

  • Oh, Wook;Runkle, Erik S.
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.207-219
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    • 2016
  • Incandescent (INC) lamps have been commonly used to promote flowering of long-day (LD) plants during short-day (SD) seasons, but production of INC lamps has been prohibited due to their low energy efficiency. One of the light sources replacing INC lamps is a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). This study was carried out to compare the flowering and morphological responses of LD annuals grown in a controlled environment greenhouse at $20^{\circ}C$ with a truncated 9-h SD and a 2- or 4-h night interruption (NI) or 6-h day extension (DE) provided by lighting from INC lamps, CFLs, or a combination of the two (INC + CFLs), in which red (R) to far-red (FR) ratios were 0.60, 8.46, and 0.91, respectively, and their PPFDs were $2.3{\pm}0.3{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$. After 12 weeks of treatment, $Petunia{\times}hybrida$ 'Wave Purple' plants did not flower under the SD photoperiod whereas 100% flowered under all of the LD treatments. Flowering was more rapid under the INC or INC + CFL lighting treatments compared to CFL and DE, and 4-h NI enhanced flowering compared to 2-h NI. In addition, plants under DE and 4h-NI generally flowered earlier than under 2-h NI. All petunia 'Single Dreams Red' plants flowered within 65 days after treatment, and flowering was hastened by some LD lighting regimens and lamp types. Plants under DE and 4h-NI generally flowered earlier than under 2-h NI INC or INC + CFL compared to FL, and flowering time under INC 6-h DE was earliest. In addition, INC lighting promoted stem elongation of both petunia cultivars. In both pansy (Viola${\times}wittrockiana$) 'Coiossus Yellow' and 'Delta Blue Blotch', LD treatments, especially using INC lamps, promoted flowering whereas the lighting period had little influence on days to flowering. Therefore, INC or INC + CFL with lower R:FR promoted flowering and stem extension and the promoting effect was larger with longer lighting periods. These results suggest that CFLs can be used to provide LDs to promote the flowering of petunia and pansy and to reduce stem elongation, although the promoting effect on flowering is sometimes less than that of INC lamps alone.

Development of an Efficient Screening Method for Resistance of Chili Pepper Plants to Meloidogyne incognita (뿌리혹선충 Meloidogyne incognita에 대한 저항성 고추를 선발하기 위한 효율적인 검정법 확립)

  • Hwang, Sung Min;Jang, Kyoung Soo;Choi, Yong Ho;Choi, Gyung Ja
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.282-293
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    • 2016
  • Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major plant pathogens that cause reductions in yield and quality of several solanaceous crops, including pepper (Capsicum spp.). These losses can be averted through planting of resistant cultivars. Plants are defined as resistant when they suppress nematode reproduction. In this study, the resistance degrees of 102 commercial cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) to a root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were evaluated by comparing the number of egg masses on their roots to those of 'PR huimangchan', a highly susceptible cultivar that exhibited the most egg masses of the chili pepper cultivars evaluated. Among these cultivars, forty-four (43.1%) showed resistance to M. incognita and eighteen (17.6%) were moderately resistant. The other cultivars (39.3%) were determined to be susceptible. For further study, six chili pepper cultivars (i.e., Gangryeokjosenggeon, Shinsegae, Muhanjilju, PR Bulrocho, PR Huimangchan, and Jjang) with different levels of resistance to the nematode were selected. Changes in resistance of the six cultivars under several conditions, such as inoculum concentration, plant growth stage, and cultivation period after transplanting were investigated. We found that an efficient screening method for resistance of chili pepper to M. incognita is to transplant the chili pepper seedlings 7 days before inoculation, to inoculate 28-day-old plants with M. incognita by loading 5,000 eggs per plant into the pot of soil, to cultivate the plants in a greenhouse ($25{\pm}5^{\circ}C$) for 45-60 days, to measure the number of egg masses on roots of the seedlings, and then to determine the resistance response of the plants by comparing the number of egg masses on the roots with a reference-susceptible cultivar 'PR huimangchan'.

Prediction of future hydrologic variables of Asia using RCP scenario and global hydrology model (RCP 시나리오 및 전지구 수문 모형을 활용한 아시아 미래 수문인자 예측)

  • Kim, Dawun;Kim, Daeun;Kang, Seok-koo;Choi, Minha
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.551-563
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    • 2016
  • According to the 4th and 5th assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global climate has been rapidly changing because of the human activities since Industrial Revolution. The perceived changes were appeared strongly in temperature and concentration of carbon dioxide ($CO_2$). Global average temperature has increased about $0.74^{\circ}C$ over last 100 years (IPCC, 2007) and concentration of $CO_2$ is unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years (IPCC, 2014). These phenomena influence precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture which have an important role in hydrology, and that is the reason why there is a necessity to study climate change. In this study, Asia region was selected to simulate primary energy index from 1951 to 2100. To predict future climate change effect, Common Land Model (CLM) which is used for various fields across the world was employed. The forcing data was Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) data which is the newest greenhouse gas emission scenario published in IPCC 5th assessment. Validation of net radiation ($R_n$), sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE) for historical period was performed with 5 flux tower site-data in the region of AsiaFlux and the monthly trends of simulation results were almost equaled to observation data. The simulation results for 2006-2100 showed almost stable net radiation, slightly decreasing sensible heat flux and quite increasing latent heat flux. Especially the uptrend for RCP 8.5 has been about doubled compared to RCP 4.5 and since late 2060s, variations of net radiation and sensible heat flux would be significantly risen becoming an extreme climate condition. In a follow-up study, a simulation for energy index and hydrological index under the detailed condition will be conducted with various scenario established from this study.

Performance Improvement of a Temperature and Humidity Measuring System for Strawberry Cultivation Greenhouse (딸기재배 온실용 온습도 계측시스템의 성능개선)

  • Jeong, Young Kyun;Lee, Jong Goo;Ahn, Enu Ki;Seo, Jae Seok;Yoon, Yong Cheol
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 2020
  • This study investigates the improvement in the performance of a temperature and humidity measuring system developed by Company A using the Aspirated Radiation Shield (ARS). The shield has been used in the industry and its accuracy was verified recently. The study also experimentally examines the impact of the wind speed of the ARS device on temperature and humidity. The results are summarized as follows. Before the improvement of the system, the temperature of Company A's system was up to 10.2℃ higher than that measured by the ARS device, and the measured relative humidity was approximately 20.0% lower. After improving the system, the temperature and relative humidity of nodes 1 and 2 were found to be almost identical. The temperature deviations including the maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures between those measured in node 2 and by ARS were approximately 0.2 to 0.7℃, respectively; further, the values measured by ARS tended to be slightly lower or higher. In terms of relative humidity, the ARS measurements yielded values approximately 10.0% higher immediately after sunset; otherwise, the values were approximately 1.9% lower. Moreover, when node 1 was set to minimum-middle, middle-maximum, and maximum, the deviations including the maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures of nodes 1 and 2 were 0.1 to 0.4℃, 0.0 to 0.2℃, and 0.0 to 0.5℃, respectively. The deviations including the maximum, average, and minimum temperatures of the three points of node 1 and the ARS ranged from 0.2 to 0.5℃, 0.1 to 2.2℃, and 0.1 to 1.1℃, respectively, indicating that the temperature deviation according to the wind speed was negligible. In addition, considering the results of the previous study with those from this study, the optimal wind speed to improve the temperature deviation is considered to be in the range of 1.0~2.0 m·s-1.

Habitat Utilization Change of Crane Species against the Increasing Anthropogenic Structure after Released from Civilian Control Zone; CCZ in Cheorwon, Rep. of Korea (철원 민간인통제지역 해제 이후 인공시설물 증가에 따른 두루미류 분포변화)

  • Yoo, Seunghwa;Joo, Sungbae;Lee, Kisup;Kim, Suho;Kim, Dongwon;Kim, Hwajung;Kim, Jinhan
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2020
  • This study aims to evaluate the effect of artificial facilities constructed afterthe release of the civilian controlled zone (CCZ) in Cheorwon on the inhabitation of cranes. The study site was released from the CCZ in 2012, and several barns have been built since 2017. The average number of Red-crowned Cranes was 9.3±4.3 individuals (±Standard Deviation) in the period before the release of the CCZ from 2009 to 2012, and it decreased by ca. one third of Red-crowned Crane's average individuals were showing 3.5±0.5 individuals after release. The average number of White-naped Cranes also appeared to be decreased by ca. 90% from 63.3±24.6 to 6.0±6.0 individuals. This results suggest that the construction of greenhouses and barns after the releasing of the CCZ affected the decrease of the population of these two crane species. In the case of Red-crowned Crane, the core area tended to move away from the area where barns were built. However, the distribution range of Red-crowned Cranes did not change significantly we expected because the study area was not their favorite place since 2012 when the area was released from the CCZ. The density of the White-naped Crane was relatively high even in the area where greenhouses were built, but after 2017 when the barn was built intensively, core habitat of crane became shrink and fragmented. These results suggest that both Red-crowned Cranes and White-naped Cranes response sensitively against habitat change due to the construction of barns. Since the release of the CCZ, the construction of the greenhouse has been influenced on the distribution of cranes, but subsequently, the construction of the barn seems to have caused a bigger change in their core habitat because the passage of people to barns is more frequent than the greenhouses.