• Title, Summary, Keyword: greater than 10 nodes

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Long-Term Survival of Women with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer with ≥10 Involved Lymph Nodes at Diagnosis

  • Zeichner, Simon Blechman;Cavalcante, Ludimila;Suciu, Gabriel Pius;Ruiz, Ana Lourdes;Hirzel, Alicia;Krill-Jackson, Elisa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3435-3441
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    • 2014
  • Background: Axillary lymph node status at diagnosis remains the strongest predictor of long-term survival in breast cancer. Patients with more than ten axillary lymph nodes at diagnosis have a poor long-term survival. In this single institutional study, we set out to evaluate the prognosis of this high-risk group in the era of multimodality therapy. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we looked at all breast cancer patients with greater than ten axillary lymph nodes diagnosed at Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC) from January 1st 1990 to December 31st 2007 (n=161). In the univariate analysis, descriptive frequencies, median survival, and 5- and 10-year survival rates were estimated for common prognostic factors. A multivariate prognostic analysis for time-to-event data, using the extended Cox regression model was carried out. Results: With a median and mean follow-up of 70 and 89.9 months, respectively, the overall median survival was estimated to be 99 months. The five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 59.3% and the ten-year DFS was 37.9%, whereas the five- and ten-year overall survival (OS) was 66.6% and 43.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant improvement in DFS among black patients compared to whites (p=0.05), improved DFS and OS among young patients (ages 21-45) compared to elderly patients (age greater than 70) (p=0.00176, p=0.0034, respectively), and improved DFS and OS among patients whose tumors were ER positive (p=0.049, p=0.0034). Conclusions: In this single institution study of patients with greater than 10 positive axillary nodes, black patients had a significantly improved DFS compared with white patients. Young age and ER tumor positivity was associated with improved outcomes. Using multivariate analysis, there were no other variables associated with statistically significant improvements in DFS or OS including date of diagnosis. Further work is needed to improve breast cancer survival in this subgroup of patients.

Simulation and Evaluation of Redistribution Algorithms In Fault-Tolerant Distributed System (결함허용 분산시스템의 재분배 알고리즘의 시뮬레이션과 평가)

  • 최병갑;이천희
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics B
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    • v.31B no.8
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1994
  • In this paper load redistribution algorithm to allow fault-tolerance by redistributing the workload of n failure nodes to the remaining good nodes in distributed systems are investigated. To evaluate the efficiency of the algorithms a simulation model of algorithms is developed using SLAM II simulation language. The job arrival rate service rate failure and repair rate of nodes and communication delay time due to load migraion are used as parameters. The result of the simulation shows that the job arrival rate failure and repair rate of nodes do not affected on the relative efficiency of algorithms. If the communication delay time is greater than average job processing time algorithm B is better. Otherwise algorithm C is superior to the others.

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Evaluation of the 7th AJCC TNM Staging System in Point of Lymph Node Classification

  • Kim, Sung-Hoo;Ha, Tae-Kyung;Kwon, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.94-100
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The 7th AJCC tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system modified the classification of the lymph node metastasis widely compared to the 6th edition. To evaluate the prognostic predictability of the new TNM staging system, we analyzed the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients assessed by the 7th staging system. Materials and Methods: Among 2,083 patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer at the department of surgery, Hanyang Medical Center from July 1992 to December 2009, This study retrospectively reviewed 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of 624 patients (TanyN3M0: 464 patients, TanyNanyM1: 160 patients) focusing on the number of metastatic lymph node and distant metastasis. We evaluated the applicability of the new staging system. Results: There were no significant differences in 5YSR between stage IIIC with more than 29 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV (P=0.053). No significant differences were observed between stage IIIB with more than 28 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV (P=0.093). Distinct survival differences were present between patients who were categorized as TanyN3M0 with 7 to 32 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV. But patients with more than 33 metastatic lymph nodes did not show any significant differences compared to stage IV (P=0.055). Among patients with TanyN3M0, statistical significances were seen between patients with 7 to 30 metastatic lymph nodes and those with more than 31 metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusions: In the new staging system, modifications of N classification is mandatory to improve prognostic prediction. Further study involving a greater number of cases is required to demonstrate the most appropriate cutoffs for N classification.

Improvement Transmission Reliability between Flight Type Air Node Using Concatenated Single Antenna Diversity (비행형 에어노드의 데이터 전송 신뢰성 향상을 위한 연접 단일 안테나 다이버시티 시스템)

  • Kang, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Dae-Hwan
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.1053-1058
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, we propose a concatenated single antenna diversity system to assure the data transmission reliability between flight type air nodes which move according to their atypical orbit, then analyze its performance. The proposed system achieve a diversity gain using single antenna and a coding gain from convolutional code simultaneously. Simulation result about the bit error rate(BER) of the proposed system shows that its BER performance is about 9.5dB greater than convolutional code at $10^{-4}$ and about 14dB greater than space time block code at $10^{-3}$ which has a full diversity gain. In addition, compared with space time trellis code with diversity gain and coding gain, the proposed system shows the better 4dB at a BER of $10^{-5}$. Therefore, it is necessary that concatenated single antenna diversity should be adopted to the reliable data transmission of flight type air nodes.

Performance Evaluation of a New AODV Protocol with Auxiliary Metrics

  • Ngo, Van-Vuong;Jang, Jaeshin
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2016
  • The AODV protocol uses many RREQ messages and one RREP message in the path-discovery process. This protocol has only one metric, the number of hops. Although it is simple, this protocol is not efficient. To avoid this problem, we propose a new AODV with two auxiliary metrics (AuM-2-AODV). The AuM-2-AODV protocol tries multiple route replies, which reduces the chance of path failure and helps the network obtain a better data rate. It has two auxiliary metrics, the remaining energy of its nodes and the number of HELLO messages received at the nodes. With these two metrics, the reliable path from the source node to the destination node will be chosen. In this paper, the performance of the AuM-2-AODV is evaluated using the NS-3 simulator. The performance results show that AuM-2-AODV provides greater throughput and packet delivery ratio by 20% and up to 50% and about 100% in some cases, respectively, than previous protocols.

Fast triangle flip bat algorithm based on curve strategy and rank transformation to improve DV-Hop performance

  • Cai, Xingjuan;Geng, Shaojin;Wang, Penghong;Wang, Lei;Wu, Qidi
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.5785-5804
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    • 2019
  • The information of localization is a fundamental requirement in wireless sensor network (WSN). The method of distance vector-hop (DV-Hop), a range-free localization algorithm, can locate the ordinary nodes by utilizing the connectivity and multi-hop transmission. However, the error of the estimated distance between the beacon nodes and ordinary nodes is too large. In order to enhance the positioning precision of DV-Hop, fast triangle flip bat algorithm, which is based on curve strategy and rank transformation (FTBA-TCR) is proposed. The rank is introduced to directly select individuals in the population of each generation, which arranges all individuals according to their merits and a threshold is set to get the better solution. To test the algorithm performance, the CEC2013 test suite is used to check out the algorithm's performance. Meanwhile, there are four other algorithms are compared with the proposed algorithm. The results show that our algorithm is greater than other algorithms. And this algorithm is used to enhance the performance of DV-Hop algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm receives the lower average localization error and the best performance by comparing with the other algorithms.

Protocol implementation for simultaneous signal continuation acquisition of industrial plant machine condition in wireless sensor networks (산업플랜트 기계상태 동시신호 연속취득을 위한 무선센서 네트워크프로토콜 구현)

  • Lee, Hoo-Rock;Chung, Kyung-Yul;Rhyu, Keel-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.760-764
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    • 2015
  • Wireless sensors, installed on machinery, and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) transmission make an ideal system for monitoring machine conditions in industrial plants because there is no need for electronic wiring. However, there has not yet been a successful field application of such a system, capable of continuously transmitting data at sample rates greater than 100 Hz. In this research, a TDMA network protocol capable of acquiring data from multiple sensors at sample rates greater than 100 Hz was developed for field application. The protocol was implemented in a single cluster-star topology network, and the system was evaluated based on the node number and transmission distance. Network simulator 2 (ns-2) was used for a real field simulation. Non-TDMA and TDMA protocol cases were compared using four sensor nodes. In the cases of 20-s and 40-s transmission times, there was little difference between the reception rates of the non-TDMA and TDMA systems. However, the difference was much greater when using a 60-s transmission time.

Sentinel Lymph Node Identification Using $^{99m}Tc$-Neomannosyl Human Serum Albumin in Esophageal Cancer; Comparison with $^{99m}Tc$-Phytate (식도암 환자에서 $^{99m}Tc$-Neomannosyl Human Serum Albumin과 $^{99m}Tc$-Phytate를 이용한 감시림프절 탐색의 비교)

  • Kim, Hyun-Koo;Kang, Du-Young;Kim, Seung-Eun;Park, Jong-Jae;Jeong, Jae-Min;Mok, Young-Jae;Choi, Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Bronchoesophagology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2010
  • Background: The aim of this study was to compare a novel mannose receptor-binding agent(Technetium-99m human serum albumin, $^{99m}Tc$-MSA) with $^{99m}Tc$-phytate for sentinel node mapping in patients with esophageal cancer. Material and Method: Twenty patients with clinical stage T1N0m0 or T2N0M0 esophageal cancer that were candidates for esophagectomy were enrolled. Endoscopic injection of $^{99m}Tc$-MSA or $^{99m}Tc$-phytate was administered at the peri-tumor region before surgery in 10 patients. The radioactive lymph nodes were identified with a handheld gamma probe after lymph node dissection. Results: The patient's age and the sex ratio of both groups were similar. The clinical stage, tumor location, and operative technique did not differ. The total number of dissected lymph nodes did not differ ($28.5{\pm}9.12$ in MSA group, $32.2{\pm}11.24$ in phytate group, p=0.430). The sentinel node was identified in all cases in both groups. The number of sentinel nodes per patient was $2.7{\pm}1.57$ in the MSA group, which was significantly greater than the $1.7{\pm}0.88$ in the phytate group (p=0.036). Five out of 20 patients whose sentinel nodes could be identified had metastases; however, neither group had any false-negative results for sentinel node identification. Conclusion: Sentinel nodes were detected more frequently with MSA than with phytate.

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Tradeoff Analysis of Consensus Algorithm in Distributed Wireless Networks (분산 무선 네트워크에서 컨센서스 알고리즘의 트레이드오프 분석)

  • Choi, Hyun-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1080-1086
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we analyze the tradeoff performance of a consensus algorithm when it is applied to the CSMA/CA-based distributed wireless network. The consensus algorithm has a faster convergence speed as the number of cooperating neighbors increases, but the transmission delay on the wireless network increases due to access collisions as the number of cooperating neighbors increases. Therefore, there exists a tradeoff relationship between these two performances and so there exists an optimal number of cooperating neighbors that minimizes the consensus time. The result for the optimal number of neighbors according to the number of nodes that participate in the consensus shows that it is optimal for all nodes to cooperate together in the small-scale network but it is optimal to limit the number of neighbors to a fixed value in the large-scale network with nodes greater than a certain value.

Fast Retransmission Scheme for Overcoming Hidden Node Problem in IEEE 802.11 Networks

  • Jeon, Jung-Hwi;Kim, Chul-Min;Lee, Ki-Seok;Kim, Chee-Ha
    • Journal of Computing Science and Engineering
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.324-330
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    • 2011
  • To avoid collisions, IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) uses predetermined inter-frame spaces and the random back-off process. However, the retransmission strategy of IEEE 802.11 MAC results in considerable time wastage. The hidden node problem is well known in wireless networks; it aggravates the consequences of time wastage for retransmission. Many collision prevention and recovery approaches have been proposed to solve the hidden node problem, but all of them have complex control overhead. In this paper, we propose a fast retransmission scheme as a recovery approach. The proposed scheme identifies collisions caused by hidden nodes and then allows retransmission without collision. Analysis and simulations show that the proposed scheme has greater throughput than request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS) and a shorter average waiting time.