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Occurrence of Goat's-Beard Powdery Mildew Caused by Podosphaera ferruginea in Korea

  • Lee, Sang-Yeob;Kim, Wan-Gyu;Hong, Sung-Kee;Lee, Young-Kee
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.299-301
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    • 2009
  • Powdery mildew symptoms were frequently on plants of goat's-beard (Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus) found cultivated in the island Ulleungdo in June 2008. The symptoms appeared as powdery mycelial colonies and dark brown cleistothecia on leaves, petioles, stems and budding flowers of the plant. Incidence of the disease was as high as 50-80% in the goat's-beard fields. Specimens of the diseased plants were collected and examined for morphological characteristics of the causal fungus. On the basis of morphological characteristics of the conidial stage and the teleomorph, the fungus was identified as Podosphaera ferruginea. This is the first report of goat's-beard powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera ferruginea in Korea.

Methanol Extract of Goat's-beard (Aruncus dioicus) Reduces Renal Injury by Inhibiting Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion

  • Baek, Hae-Sook;Lim, Sun-Ha;Ahn, Ki-Sung;Lee, Jong-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2012
  • Interruption or prolonged reduction and subsequent restoration of blood flow into the kidney triggers the generation of a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to injury in the tubular epithelial cells. In this study, we determined whether methanol extract of goat's-beard (Aruncus dioicus) (extract) could prevent this ischemia/reperfusion injury. When in vitro radical scavenging activity of the extract was measured using a DPPH radical quenching assay, the extract displayed slightly lower activity than ascorbic acid. One hour after administration of the extract (400 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection in rats, renal ischemia/reperfusion injury was generated by clamping the left renal artery for forty minutes, followed by 24 hr restoration of blood circulation. Prior to clamping the left renal artery, the right renal artery was removed. Compared with the vehicle-treated group, pretreatment with the extract significantly reduced the tubular epithelial cell injury by 37% in the outer medulla region, and consequently reduced serum creatinine concentration by 39%. Reduction in the cell injury was mediated by attenuation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, inhibition of caspase-3 activation from procaspase-3, and subsequent reduction in the number of apoptotic cells. Thus, goat's-beard (Aruncus dioicus) might be developed as a prophylactic agent to prevent acute kidney injury.

Attenuation of Brain Injury by Water Extract of Goat's-beard (Aruncus dioicus) and Its Ethyl Acetate Fraction in a Rat Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion

  • Han, Hyung-Soo;Lee, Jong-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2011
  • Ischemic stroke constitutes about 80% of all stroke incidences. It is characterized by brain cell death in a region where cerebral arteries supplying blood are occluded. Under these ischemic conditions, apoptosis is responsible for the cell death, at least in part. Goat's-beard (Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus) is a perennial plant that grows naturally in the alpine regions of Korea. In the present study, we first determined whether water extract of goat's-beard (HY1646) and some of its fractions prepared by partitioning with organic solvents could improve the viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) cultured under hypoxic condition by blocking apoptotic pathways. Based on the in vitro findings, we subsequently investigated whether HY1646 and the ethyl acetate fraction (EA) selected from cell culture-based screening could attenuate brain injury in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemia (2 hr), followed by 22 hours of reperfusion. The cell number was sustained close to that initially plated in the presence of HY1646 even after 24 hr of cell culture under hypoxic condition (3% $O_2$), at which time the cell number reached almost zero in the absence of HY1646. This improvement in cell viability was attributed to the delay in apoptosis, identified by the formation of DNA ladder in gel electrophoresis. Of fractions soluble in hexane, ethyl acetate (EA) and butanol, EA was chosen for the animal experiments because EA demonstrated the best cell viability at the lowest concentration (10 ${\mu}g$/mL). HY1646 (200 mg/kg) and EA (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct size, an index of brain injury, by 16.6, 40.0 and 61.0%, respectively, as assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. The findings suggest that prophylactic intake of goat's beard might be beneficial for preventing ischemic stroke.

Evaluation of Soil Management Practices Using Wild Edible Greens for Reduction of Soil Erosion in Highland (고랭지 경사전 산채류 재배에 의한 토양 유실 저감 평가)

  • Joo, Jin Ho;Kim, Su-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.488-494
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    • 2007
  • Highland regions for farming are generally located in slopes higher than 7%, where alpine farming systems rely on highly input agriculture management with great amounts of chemical fertilizer and/or compost. Most of the uplands is thus needed to maintain environmentally friendly soil management due to its impact on soil erosion and runoff during heavy rainfall season. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of reduction of soil erosion by applying four wild edible greens (fatsia, goat beard, leopard plant, and aster). The lysimeter experiment of slope gradients of 15, 30, and 45% was conducted in an alpine region of Hoengkye, Kangwon, in 2005 and 2006. In 2005, both amounts of soil loss from the experiment plots cultivated with goat beard and aster were lower than one with Chinese cabbage by about 50%. The amounts of runoff of goat beard and aster plots were also lower than those of the others. An increase in the slope gradients was accompanied with an increase in runoff. Of the plots of slope gradient of 15, 30, and 45%, S of goat beard plots was 52.50, 108.33, and 171.50 kg, respectively. Soil loss of Chinese cabbage was 2 to 3 times as high as those of goat beard plots. These results suggest that goat beard and aster plants with minimum tillage reduce soil erosion compared to Chinese cabbage cultivation.

A Study on the Ancient Korean Adornment in Goguryeo Mural Paintings (고구려고분벽화에 나타난 우리나라 고대 장식(粧飾)에 관한 연구)

  • 김영재
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2002
  • This article is to study the ancient Korean make-up based on ancient men's and women's facial decoration. The adornment is mainly about make-up, but I didn't employ make-up in this article on the ground that it isn't an appropriate concept in men's case. The study on the ancient Korean make-up has been conducted on the basis of Goguryeo mural paintings excavated in the tombs. Contrary to the Baekje and the Silla Kingdoms, Goguryeo women's make-up carne to fashion like China. The Goguryeo mural paintings depicted women's make-up which painted their faces white and lined on the eyebrows to make them raise toward their foreheads after removing their own eyebrows. They outlined their mouths smaller than their own and, in some occasions, applied make-up differently on the upper lip and the lower lip. As the time passed by, women applied the blusher, which attests to the fact that make-up of those days was considerably developed. Unlike women, men didn't put on cosmetics but they grew beard as a symbol of adults. The beard had a diversity in shape such as goat-shaped and fan-shaped beards. It can be understood that women's make-up was applied as a manifestation of adults like men's growing beards.

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Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Goat's Beard on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Oxidative Stress in Rats (삼나물 에탄올 추출물이 Streptozotocin으로 유발한 흰쥐의 당뇨증상과 산화적 스트레스에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Jong-Wook;Lee, Sang-Il;Woo, Mi-Hee;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.939-948
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    • 2008
  • The effects of goat's beard (Aruncus dioicus var ramtschaticus Hara) ethanol extracts (AD) on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic symptoms and oxidative stress in rats were assessed. Experimental plots were divided into normal controls (NC), diabetes controls (DM), diet with 0.3% AD after diabetes induction (SA), and diet with 0.6% AD after diabetes induction (SB), then fed for 5 weeks. In the SA and SB groups as compared with the DM group, diabetic symptoms including weight loss, increase in feed and water intake, and enlargement of the liver and kidney were improved. The levels of blood glucose and serum fructosamine were reduced by $17.9{\sim}27.2%$ and $25.6{\sim}32.6%$, respectively. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in the serum were reduced by $25.6{\sim}30.3$, $42.37{\sim}55.51$, $26.85{\sim}30.44$ and $37.29{\sim}39.11%$, respectively, whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol was increased by $37.29{\sim}39.11%$. Hepatic total (T) and O type (O) activities of xanthine oxidoreductase, O/T ratio(%) and level of lipid peroxide were significantly decreased, while the level of glutathione was increased, and also the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were increased by $56.84{\sim}94.90%$ and $57.14{\sim}68.92%$, respectively. In the above results, it was noted that AD has an antidiabetic effect which alleviated hyperglycemia and the AD reduced and/or prevented the tissue damage caused by diabetes yia the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating systems concurrent with an increase in ROS scavenging.

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Antioxidative Ability of Some Produces in Ulleungdo and Quality Characteristics of the Taffy Made from the Produces (울릉도 주요 농업특산물의 항산화능 및 이를 이용하여 제조한 엿의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Mee-Jung;Lee, Ye-Kyung
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the anti-oxidative abilities of certain products in Ulleungdo, such as sweet pumpkin (Danhobak), goat's beard (Samnamul), and Aster glegni (Bugigangyi), quality characteristics of sweet pumpkin taffy containing these products. Total polyphenolic contents of the Samnamul water and ethanol extracts were 2.95 mg% and 3.57 mg%, respectively, whereas those of the Bugigangyi water and ethanol extracts were 2.77 mg% and 2.75 mg, respectively. However, the total polyphenolic contents of the pumpkin water and ethanol extracts were 0.32 mg%. Reducing power ($OD_{700}$) of the Samnamul and Bugigangyi water and ethanol extracts (0.01%, w/v) was in the range of 1.62~1.91, which was higher compared to those of sweet pumpkin (0.02~0.03). Electron donating abilities (EDA) of the 0.01% Samnamul and Bugigangyi water and ethanol extracts were in the range of 74.91~79.21%, whereas those of the sweet pumpkin water and ethanol extracts were 3.79~14.99%. Optimum mixing ratio of steamed sweet pumpkin and water taffy for the preparation of taffy was 25:75 (w/w), as evaluated by sensory evaluation. Optimum adding ratio of Samanmul and Bugigangyi ethanol extracts to pumpkin taffy were 0.4% and 3%, respectively. However, the adding ratios of Samanmul and Bugigangyi powder to pumpkin taffy were 0.5~1.0% (w/w) and 1% (w/w), respectively.

Potent Whitening Activity of Aruncus dioicus Extract in B16F10 Melanoma Cell by Suppression of Melanin Biosynthesis (흑색종세포의 멜라닌 생성억제로 인한 삼나물 추출물(Aruncus dioicus)의 미백효과)

  • Kim, Dong-Hee;Moon, Yong-Sun;Park, Tae-Soon;Hwang, Ju-Young;Son, Jun-Ho
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.813-820
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    • 2013
  • Monoterpenoids were recently found as main biologically active compounds which is responsible for various physiological effect in goat's beard (Aruncus dioicus). Ethyl acetate extract of A. dioicus (ADE) was treated to B16F10 melanoma cells for the examination of whitening activity. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell toxicity and the result showed that slight cell toxicity (> 10%) by over $500{\mu}g{\cdot}mL^{-1}$. Thus, 0, 5, 10, or $50{\mu}g{\cdot}mL^{-1}$ ADE was used for further experiments. We found that tyrosinase activity was decreased according to ADE concentration, and the total melanin content was also dramatically reduced. Especially with $50{\mu}g{\cdot}mL^{-1}$ ADE treatment tyrosinase activity was reduced to 35.6%, and 58.8% of melanin content was lowered. In addition, whitening related proteins including tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1), TRP2, microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) and cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) were reduced by ADE treatment. It caused decreased phosphorylation of cAMP response binding protein (CREB) but increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK). Therefore, in this paper we would like to suggest the potent usage of A. dioicus natively grown in Ulleungdo, Korea as materials of functional cosmetics by confirming whitening activity related with melanin content.