• Title, Summary, Keyword: glucose metabolism

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Efficacy and safety of Panax ginseng berry extract on glycemic control: A 12-wk randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

  • Choi, Han Seok;Kim, Sunmi;Kim, Min Jung;Kim, Myung-Sunny;Kim, Juewon;Park, Chan-Woong;Seo, Daebang;Shin, Song Seok;Oh, Sang Woo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 2018
  • Background: Antihyperglycemic effects of Panax ginseng berry have never been explored in humans. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and safety of a 12-wk treatment with ginseng berry extract in participants with a fasting glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 140 mg/dL. Methods: This study was a 12-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 72 participants were randomly allocated to two groups of either ginseng berry extract or placebo, and 63 participants completed the study. The parameters related to glucose metabolism were assessed. Results: Although the present study failed to show significant antihyperglycemic effects of ginseng berry extract on the parameters related to blood glucose and lipid metabolism in the total study population, it demonstrated that ginseng berry extract could significantly decrease serum concentration of fasting glucose by 3.7% (p = 0.035), postprandial glucose at 60 min during 75 g oral glucose tolerance test by 10.7% (p = 0.006), and the area under the curve for glucose by 7.7% (p = 0.024) in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher, while the placebo group did not exhibit a statistically significant decrease. Safety profiles were not different between the two groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that ginseng berry extract has the potential to improve glucose metabolism in human, especially in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher. For a more meaningful benefit, further research in people with higher blood glucose levels is required.

The Effects of Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Aconitum carmichaeli Debx, and Pueraria lobata Benth on Glucose and Energy Metabolism in C2C12 Myotubes (C2C12 골격근 세포에서 육계, 부자, 갈근 물 추출물의 당대사 및 에너지 조절 효과)

  • Song, Mi-Young
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.131-136
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide. Regulation of cellular energy metabolis has the potential to be manipulated therapeutically to serve as a target for obesity and insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle is regarded as a target for regulation of energy metabolism and insulin resistance. In this study, the authors investigated the regulatory effect of (Cinnamomum cassia Blume, CCB), Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (ACD), and Benth (Pueraria lobata Benth, PLB) on energy and glucose metabolism in C2C12 myotubes. Methods: The water extracts of CCB, ACD, and PLB (0.5 mg/ml) were treated in differentiated C2C12 myotubes. The expressions of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation AMPK were detected with western blotting. Glucose metabolism was investigated with glucose uptake assay and glucose consumption assay, total adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was also analyzed. Results: CCB, ACD, and PLB activated the phophorylation of AMPK, they also increased the glucose metabolism and total ATP contents in C2C12 myotubes. Conclusions: This study suggests that CCB, ACD, and PLB have the potential to increase energy and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.

The Effect of Jiaweizhengqi-tang on Motor Activity, Glucose Transport and Metabolism in Rat Small Intestine (가미정기탕(加味正氣湯)이 흰쥐 소장의 수송능과 글루코스 이동 및 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Gyu-Taek;Kim, Woo-Hwan;Moon, Sun-Young;Cho, Su-In
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.397-403
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    • 2001
  • Objectives; This study was carried out to investigate the motor activity, glucose transport and metabolism of Jiaweizhengqi-tang(JKT) in rat small intestine. Methods ; The motor activity of the rat small intestine has been investigated by means of measuring barium sulfate passage degrees. Transport and metabolism of glucose were studied in everted sac of rat small intestine with incubation under several conditions. Results; Atropine treatment significantly delayed barium sulfate transit, and JKT pretreatment increased intestinal motor activity, but not significant. JKT administration showed renal toxicity in animal experiment, so clinical safety should settled to use commonly. The transport and metabolism of glucose were greater at jejunum than ileum. So, everted jejunum of rat were used to study the effect of JKT. When JKT were treated, the concentration of glucose were higher than untreated group. This result was thought to be influenced by the glucose in JKT. When 2, 4 dinitrophenol was treated, the transport and metabolism of glucose were decreased, but JKT treated together, the concentration of glucose in serosal solution increased. Conclusions; The transport and metabolism of glucose were influenced by the glucose in JKT. And the effects of JKT were still unidentified, but through continuous investigation, these effects of JKT should be identified.

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Differential Expression of Metabolism-related Genes in Liver of Diabetic Obese Rats

  • Seo, Eun-Hui;Park, Eun-Jin;Park, Mi-Kyoung;Kim, Duk-Kyu;Lee, Hye-Jeong;Hong, Sook-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2010
  • The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes (T2D), develops hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance after the age of 25 weeks, similar to patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, we determined whether there are differences in the pattern of gene expression related to glucose and lipid metabolism between OLETF rats and their control counterparts, Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats. The experiment was done using 35-week-old OLETF and LETO rats. At week 35 male OLETF rats showed overt T2D and increases in blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma triglycerides (TG) and plasma total cholesterol (TC). Livers of diabetic OLETF and LETO rats also showed differences in expression of mRNA for glucose and lipid metabolism related genes. Among glucose metabolism related genes, GAPDH mRNA was significantly higher and FBPase and G6Pase mRNA were significantly lower in OLETF rats. For lipid metabolism related genes, HMGCR, SCD1 and HL mRNA were substantially higher in OLETF rats. These results indicate that gluconeogenesis in OLETF rats is lower and glycolysis is higher, which means that glucose metabolism might be compensated for by a lowering of the blood glucose level. However, lipid synthesis is increased in OLETF rats so diabetes may be aggravated. These differences between OLETF and LETO rats suggest mechanisms that could be targeted during the development of therapeutic agents for diabetes.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae에서 myo-Inositol 결핍에 의한 Respiratory capacity의 감소

  • 정경환;이준식
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.485-492
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    • 1996
  • myo-Inositol, a growth factor for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), has been known to be incorporated into phosphatidylinositol (PI), which is a kind of phospholipid in the cell membrane, by a membrane-associated PI-synthesizing enzyme. The deficiency of myo-inositol in S. cerevisiae adversely affected the membrane structure and function. On the basis of biochemical functions of myo-inositol, the effect of deficiency of myo-inositol on the aerobic glucose metabolism was investigated by measuring specific oxygen uptake rate (Q$_{O2}$) used as an indicator representing the respiratory capacity of S. cerevisiae in batch and continuous cultures. The respiratory capacity of aerobic glucose metabolism in S. cerevisiae was also monitored after glucose pulse-addition in a continuous culture (D=0.2, 1/hr), in which glucose was utilized through respiratory metabolism. The deficiency of myo-inositol was found to lead to both the decrease of the maximum specific oxygen uptake rate (Q$_{O2max}$) observed from the batch as well as in the continuous culture experiment and the decrease of the respiratory capacity of aerobic glucose metabolism of S. cerevisiae determined from the glucose pulse-addition experiment, in which the glucose flux into respiratory and fermen- tative metabolism was quantitatively analyzed.

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Effects of quercetin derivatives from mulberry leaves: Improved gene expression related hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in short-term high-fat fed mice

  • Sun, Xufeng;Yamasaki, Masayuki;Katsube, Takuya;Shiwaku, Kuninori
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mulberry leaves contain quercetin derivatives, which have the effects of reducing obesity and improving lipid and glucose metabolism in mice with obesity. It is not clear whether or not mulberry leaves can directly affect metabolic disorders, in the presence of obesity, because of the interaction between obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of the current study was to assess the direct action of quercetin derivatives on metabolic disorders in non-obese conditions in short-term high-fat diet fed mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet, supplemented with either 0% (control), 1%, or 3% mulberry leaf powder (Mul) or 1% catechin powder for five days. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemistry were determined, and hepatic gene expression associated with lipid and glucose metabolism was analyzed. RESULTS: Body and white fat weights did not differ among the four groups. Plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the 1%, 3% Mul and catechin groups did not differ significantly from those of the controls, however, plasma glucose and 8-isoprostane levels were significantly reduced. Liver gene expression of gp91phox, a main component of NADPH oxidase, was significantly down-regulated, and PPAR-${\alpha}$, related to ${\beta}$-oxidation, was significantly up-regulated. FAS and GPAT, involved in lipid metabolism, were significantly down-regulated, and Ehhadh was significantly up-regulated. Glucose-metabolism related genes, L-PK and G6Pase, were significantly down-regulated, while GK was significantly up-regulated in the two Mul groups compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the Mul quercetin derivatives can directly improve lipid and glucose metabolism by reducing oxidative stress and enhancing ${\beta}$-oxidation. The 1% Mul and 1% catechin groups had similar levels of polyphenol compound intake ($0.4{\times}10^{-5}$ vs $0.4{\times}10^{-5}$ mole/5 days) and exhibited similar effects, but neither showed dose-dependent effects on lipid and glucose metabolism or oxidative stress.

Effect of Gaewool-Whadam-Jian on Transport Ability of Small Intestine and Secretion of Gastric Juice in the Rat (개울화담전(開鬱化痰煎)이 흰쥐 소장(小腸) 수송능(輸送能)과 위액분비에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Hee-Chul;Lee Young-Soo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.1330-1336
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the motor activity and glucose transport and metabolism of Gaewool-Whadam-Jian(GWJ) in rat gastro-intestinal tract. The motor activity of the rat gastro-intestinal tract has been investigated by means of measuring barium sulfate passage degrees. Atropine treatment significantly delayed barium sulfate transit, and GWJ pretreatment increased intestinal motor activity, but not significant. GWJ administration showed no toxicity to kidney and liver. Transport and metabolism of glucose were studied in everted sac of rat small intestine with incubation under several conditions. The transport and metabolism of glucose were greater at jejunum than ileum. So, everted jejunum of rat were used to study the effect of GWJ. When GWJ were treated, the concentration of glucose were higher than untreated group. This result was thought to be influenced by the glucose in GWJ. When 2, 4 dinitrophenol and phlorizin were treated, the transport and metabolism of glucose were decreased, but GWJ treated together, the concentration of glucose in serosal solution increased. Gastric juice secretion and total acidity significantly decreased by administration of GWJ through duodenum region. The mechanism of effect of GWJ was still unidentified, Dut through continuous investigation, the effect of GWJ should be investigated.

Effects of Gamiolnyeo-jeon on Lipid Metabolism and Blood Glucose Level in db/db Mice (가미옥녀전(加味玉女煎)이 db/db 마우스 당뇨(糖尿)모델에서 지질대사(脂質代謝)와 항당뇨(抗糖尿) 효능(效能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Sim, Boo-Yong;Kim, Dong-Hee
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : Abnormal regulation of glucose and impaired lipid metabolism that result from a defective or deficient insulin are the key etiological factor in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The our study investigated the effects of Gamioknyeo-jeon (GO) on blood glucose and lipid metabolism improved by it in db/db mice (a murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus).Methods : The animals were divided into 3 groups: Normal groups were not-treated C57BL/6 mice; Control groups were treated orally with DW in db/db mice; GO groups were treated orally with GO (200 ㎎/㎏/day) in db/db mice. After mice were treated with GO for 5 weeks, we measured AST, ALT, creatinine, BUN, body weight, food intake, blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and atherogenic index(AI) and cardiac risk factor(CRF).Results : Serum AST, ALT, creatinine, BUN levels were not changed by GO do not show any toxic effects. GO groups were decreased in body weight, food intake and blood glucose level among compared to Control groups. Also, GO groups were found to have atherogenic Index and cardiac risk factor as well as lipid metabolism improvement (total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decrease). Finally, GO groups were increased the insulin compared to Normal and control groups.Conclusions : We suggest that GO may have the control effects of diabetes mellitus by improving blood glucose control and lipid metabolism.

The Positive Effect of LuoHanGuo as Sugar Substitute on Blood Glucose and Metabolism in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

  • Lee, Yoon Jeong;Jeong, Jain;Kim, Myoung Ok;Nam, Ju-Ock
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.140-149
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    • 2016
  • This study intended to compare the effects of the sugar-Omija extract tea (SO) and LuoHanGuo-Omija extract tea (LO) to blood glucose levels and metabolism among streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and to prove the positive effects of LuoHanGuo extract as a sugar substitute. According to the results, the rate of blood glucose increase and the blood glucose level was reduced, and the weight was increased. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol was decreased, and albumin, total protein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased in the STZ/LO group as compared to the STZ group. Compared to the STZ/SO group, the rate of blood glucose increase and glucose tolerance was decreased. AST, ALT, and total cholesterol was decreased, and HDL-C level was high. In conclusion, the LO displayed hypoglycemic effect, prevented weight loss caused by diabetes, recovered liver function, and improved lipid metabolism. In addition, such positive effects were obviously shown during comparison with the experimental group treated with the SO. Therefore, the LO were considered as favorable food supplements that can be safely taken by persons with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and heart disease; they have to control their sugar intake as well as their diet.

Carbon Metabolism and Its Global Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum (Corynebacterium glutamicum의 탄소대사 및 총체적 탄소대사 조절)

  • Lee, Jung-Kee
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.349-361
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    • 2010
  • In this review, the current knowledge of the carbon metabolism and global carbon regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum are summarized. C. gluamicum has phosphotransferase system (PTS) for the utilization of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. C. glutamicum does not show any preference for glucose when various sugars or organic acids are present with glucose, and thus cometabolizes glucose with other sugars or organic acids. The molecular mechanism of global carbon regulation such as carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in C. glutamicum is quite different to that in Gram-negative or low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. GlxR (glyoxylate bypass regulator) in C. glutamicum is the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) homologue of E. coli. GlxR has been reported to regulate genes involved in not only glyoxylate bypass, but also central carbon metabolism and CCR including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Therefore, GlxR has been suggested as a global transcriptional regulator for the regulation of diverse physiological processes as well as carbon metabolism. Adenylate cyclase of C. glutamicum is a membrane protein belonging to class III adenylate cyclases, thus it could possibly be a sensor for some external signal, thereby modulating cAMP level in response to environmental stimuli. In addition to GlxR, three additional transcriptional regulators like RamB, RamA, and SugR are also involved in regulating the expression of many genes of carbon metabolism. Finally, recent approaches for constructing new pathways for the utilization of new carbon sources, and strategies for enhancing amino acid production through genetic modification of carbon metabolism or regulatory network are described.