• Title, Summary, Keyword: ginsenoside

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Analysis of Ginsenoside Composition of Ginseng Berry and Seed

  • Ko, Sung-Kwon;Bae, Hye-Min;Cho, Ok-Sun;Im, Byung-Ok;Chung, Sung-Hyun;Lee, Boo-Yong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1379-1382
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to provide basic information that can be used to differentiate Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng CA. Meyer) berry and seed from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) seed. Total ginsenoside contents of Korean ginseng berry, Korean ginseng seed, and American ginseng seed were 9.09, 3.30, and 4.06%, respectively. Total ginsenoside content of Korean ginseng berry was about 2.2 to 2.7 times higher than those of Korean ginseng seed and American ginseng seed. Particularly ginsenoside Re content of 4-year cultivated Korean ginseng berry (5.99%) was about 3.6 to 5.4 times higher than that of 4-year cultivated Korean ginseng seed (1.65%) and 4-year cultivated American ginseng seed (1.10%). The contents of total ginsenoside and ginsenoside Re of Korean ginseng berry were about 4.8 and 28 times higher, respectively, than those of 4-year cultivated Korean ginseng root. In general the contents of total ginsenoside and ginsenoside Re of Korean ginseng berry were significantly higher than those of Korean ginseng seed and American ginseng seed.

Microbial Conversion of Ginsenoside $Rb_1$ to Minor Ginsenoside $F_2$ and Gypenoside XVII by Intrasporangium sp. GS603 Isolated from Soil

  • Cheng, Le-Qin;Na, Ju-Ryun;Kim, Myung-Kyum;Bang, Myun-Ho;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.1937-1943
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    • 2007
  • A new strain, GS603, having ${\beta}$-glucosidase activity was isolated from soil of a ginseng field, and its ability to convert major ginsenoside $Rb_1$ to minor ginsenoside or gypenoside was studied. Strain GS603 was identified as an Intrasporangium species by phylogenetic analysis and showed high ginsenoside-converting activity in LB and TSA broth but not in nutrient broth. The culture broth of the strain GS603 could convert ginsenoside $Rb_1$i into two metabolites, which were analyzed by TLC and HPLC and shown to be the minor ginsenoside $F_2$ and gypenoside XVII by NMR.

Change of Neutral Ginsenoside Contents in Red and Fresh Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) by Hydrolysis (가수분해 처리에 의한 홍삼과 인삼의 중성 Ginsenoside 함량 변화)

  • Han, Jin Soo;Lee, Gang Seon;Tak, Hyun Seong;Kim, Jung-Sun;Ra, Jeong Woo;Choi, Jae Eul
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to investigate change of ginsenoside contents in red and fresh ginseng according to root part and age by hydrolysis. Neutral total ginsenoside contents by hydrolysis in 6-year main root and lateral root were significantly increased than those by non-hydrolysis, as 41.6 and 32.8%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in red ginseng. In fresh ginseng, ginsenoside contents of the protopanaxatriol group such as Re, Rf, $Rg_1$, $Rg_2$, and $Rh_1$ were not significantly different, but $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, $Rb_3$, Rc, and Rd showed significant difference. The increase rate of neutral total ginsenoside content by hydrolysis was higher in epidermis-cortex than stele. Also, the neutral total ginsenoside content was fine root > rhizome > lateral root > main root, respectively. While there was no tendency towards the increase of ginsenoside by hydrolysis with the increase of root age in fine root and rhizome, there was significant decrease in main root and lateral root.

Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80

  • Lee, Sena;Kim, Myung-Gyou;Ko, Sung Kwon;Kim, Hye Kyung;Leem, Kang Hyun;Kim, Youn-Jung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2014
  • The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80). Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion development 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Increases in the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO; an index of neutrophil infiltration) and xanthine oxidase (XO) and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an index of lipid peroxidation) and decreases in the contents of hexosamine (a marker of gastric mucus) and adherent mucus, which occurred in gastric mucosal tissues after C48/80 treatment, were significantly attenuated by ginsenoside Re. The elevation of Bax expression and the decrease in Bcl2 expression after C48/80 treatment were also attenuated by ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated all these changes 3 h after C48/80 treatment. These results indicate that orally administered ginsenoside Re protects against C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats, possibly through its stimulatory action on gastric mucus synthesis and secretion, its inhibitory action on neutrophil infiltration, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue.

Enzymatic Biotransformation of Ginsenoside Rb2 into Rd by Recombinant α-L-Arabinopyranosidase from Blastococcus saxobsidens

  • Kim, Ju-Hyeon;Oh, Jung-Mi;Chun, Sungkun;Park, Hye Yoon;Im, Wan Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we used a novel α-L-arabinopyranosidase (AbpBs) obtained from ginsenoside-converting Blastococcus saxobsidens that was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then applied it in the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb2 into Rd. The gene, termed AbpBs, consisting of 2,406 nucleotides (801 amino acid residues), and with a predicted translated protein molecular mass of 86.4 kDa, was cloned into a pGEX4T-1 vector. A BLAST search using the AbpBs amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with a family 2 glycoside hydrolase (GH2). The over-expressed recombinant AbpBs in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) catalyzed the hydrolysis of the arabinopyranose moiety attached to the C-20 position of ginsenoside Rb2 under optimal conditions (pH 7.0 and 40℃). Kinetic parameters for α-L-arabinopyranosidase showed apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.078 ± 0.0002 μM and 1.4 ± 0.1 μmol/min/mg of protein against p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinopyranoside. Using a purified AbpBs (1 ㎍/ml), 0.1% of ginsenoside Rb2 was completely converted to ginsenoside Rd within 1 h. The recombinant AbpBs could be useful for high-yield, rapid, and low-cost preparation of ginsenoside Rd from Rb2.

Conversion of Ginsenoside Rd to Compound K by Crude Enzymes Extracted from Lactobacillus brevis LH8 (Lactobacillus brevis LH8이 생산하는 효소에 의한 Ginsenoside Rd의 Compound K로의 전환)

  • Quan, Lin-Hu;Liang, Zhiqi;Kim, Ho-Bin;Kim, Se-Hwa;Kim, Se-Young;Noh, Yeong-Deok;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.226-231
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    • 2008
  • Ginsenosides have been regarded as the principal components responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities of ginseng. Absorption of major ginsenosides from the gastrointestinal tract is extremely low, when ginseng is orally administered. In order to improve absorption and its bioavailability, conversion of major ginsenosides into more active minor ginsenoside is very much required. Here, we isolated lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus brevis LH8) having ${\beta}-glucosidase$ activity from Kimchi. Bioconversion ginsenoside Rd by this bacterium in different temperatures was investigated. The maximum activities of crude enzymes precipitated by ethanol were shown in $30^{\circ}C$ and then gradually decreased. In order to compare the effect of pH, the crude enzymes of L. brevis LH8 were mixed in 20mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.5 to pH 8.0) and reacted ginsenoside Rd. Ginsenoside Rd was almost hydrolyzed between pH 6.0 and pH 12.0, but not hydrolyzed under pH 5.0 and above pH 13.0. Ginsenoside Rd was hydrolyzed after 48 h incubation, whereas ginsenoside F2 appeared from 48 h to 72 h, and ginsenoside Rd was almost converted into compound K after 72 h.

Effect of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium on Ginsenoside Composition of Panax Ginseng Root Grown with Nutrient Solution (영양액재배 인삼근의 진세노사이드 조성에 미치는 N.P.K.의 영향)

  • Park, Hoon;Lee, Mee-Kyung;Lee, Chong-Hwa
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.78-82
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    • 1986
  • Panax ginseng seedlings were grown in vermiculite with nutrient solution different in nitrogen, phosphorus ana potassium level. Ginsenoside contents of root were investigated by high performance liquid chromatogram. Elimination or increase of one of N.P.K. increased or decreased total saponin content. Nitrogen was most effective (15.5% for-N to 8.9% for 3N) and potassium least. Similar trend was shown in each ginsenoside. According to coefficient of variation in one nutrient treatment or among all nutrient treatments ginsenoside Re was most insensitive to nutrient change and also other environmental factors and Rd most sensitive. Diol content (PD) was more variable than triol (PT) and variation of PT/PD was about half of them. Variation of ginsenoside content by nutrient change had no relation with the ginsenoside content. Similarity of ginsenoside pattern slightly decreased with the difference of saponin content by nutrient change. Root weight was significantly small only in tap water plot.

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Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells via $G_0/G_1$ phase arrest and induction of differentiation

  • Cho, Seoung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2006
  • 1 The present work was performed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on proliferation, cell cycle-regulation and differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms for these effects. 2 Ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in both a dose- and time-dependent manner with an $IC_{50}$, $20{\mu}M$. 3 DNA flow-cytometry indicated that ginsenoside Rh2 markedly induced a $G_1$ phase arrest of HL-60 cells. 4 Among the $G_1$ phase cell cycle-related proteins, the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)4, 6 and cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 were reduced by ginsenoside Rh2, whereas the steadystate levels of CDK2 and cyclin E were unaffected. 5 The protein levels of a CDK inhibitor p16, $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ were markedly increased by ginsenoside Rh2. 6 Ginsenoside Rh2 markedly enhanced the binding of $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ with CDK2 and CDK6, resulting in the reduced activity of both kinases and the hypophosphorylation of Rb protein. 7 We furthermore suggest that ginsenoside Rh2 is a potent inducer of the differentiation of HL-60 cells, based on observations such as a reduction of the nitroblue tetrazolium level, an increase in the esterase activities and phagocytic activity, morphology changes, and the expression of CD11b, CD14, CD64 and CD66b surface antigens. 8 In conclusion, the onset of ginsenoside Rh2-induced the $G_0/G_1$ arrest of HL-60 cells prior to the differentiation is linked to a sharp up-regulation of the $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ level and a decrease in the CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 activities. This is the first report demonstrating that ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibits the proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells via the $G_1$ phase cell cycle arrest and differentiation induction.

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The Effect of Environmental Fine Bubble on the Production of Ginsenoside during the Growth Period of Ginseng Cultivation (인삼 재배시 생육기간 동안 환경적 요인인 미세기포수가 ginsenoside 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Chul-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.12
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate changes in ginsenoside by continuously treating fine bubble, which are mainly used for environmental purification, in 2-year-old ginseng. The ginsenoside content and composition of ginseng leaves and roots were analyzed for 4 months (120 days) after application of Fine bubble. As a result of treatment with common water in leaves, only Re of protopanaxatriol was significantly higher and As a result of treatment with fine buble, it was confirmed that protopanaxadiol Rb1, RC, Rb2 and Rd components were also increased. Especially, the increase of Re and Rb1 resulted in an increase of total ginsenoside. The ratio of PD / PT to ginseng was 0.811 in finebubble treated leaves and 1.28 in root. The fine bubble treatment induced the synthesis of ginsenoside from the roots and resulted in a PD / PT ratio of close to 1. Therefore, this study suggests a method of cultivating high quality ginseng using fine bubble water and suggests possibility of using it as a functional food material which can be used with leaves as well as roots.

Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 Epimers on Swine Coronary Artery Contractions

  • Kim, Jong-Hoon;Nah, Seung-Yeol
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 2005
  • The previous reports demonstrated that ginseng saponins, active ingredient of Panax ginseng, inhibited blood vessel contraction induced by various hormones or high $K^+$. Recently, we demonstrated that 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$. regulate ion channel activities with differential manners. The aim of this study was to examine whether ginsenoside $Rg_3$ isomers also show differential effects on swine coronary artery contractionresponses induced by high $K^+$, serotonin (5-HT) or acetylcholine. Treatment of 20(S)- but not 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of coronary artery contracted by 25mM KCI. 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ induced significant relaxations of coronary artery contraction induced by 5-HT $(3{\mu}M)$ in the presence of endothelium with concentration-dependent manner and, also in the absence of endothelium only 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ induced a strong Inhibition of coronary artery contraction induced by 5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner. 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ caused relaxation of coronary artery in the absence and presence of endothelium. In contrast, treatment of 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3\;(100{\mu}M)$ did not show significant inhibition of coronary artery contraction induced by acetylcholine $(0.01\;to\;30{\mu}M)$ in the presence of endothelium, whereas both isomers caused significant inhibition of coronary artery contraction induced by acetylcholine $(0.01\;to\;30{\mu}M)$ in the absence of endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that 20(S)-or 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ exhibits differential relaxation eff3cts of swine coronary artery contractions caused by high $K^+$, acetylcholine, and 5-HT treatment and that this differential vasorelaxing effects of ginsenoside $Rg_3$ isomers also might be dependent on endothelium.