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Analysis of major ginsenosides in various ginseng samples

  • Lee, Dong Gu;Lee, Ju Sung;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Kim, Hyun Young;Lee, Sanghyun
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2019
  • The contents of major ginsenosides (ginsenosides Rb1, ginsenoside Rc, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rf, and ginsenoside Rg1) in ginseng cultivated in different areas in Korea, ginseng that underwent different cultivation processes and ages, and ginseng cultivated in different countries were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV/VIS detector. Ginsenoside Rc was the most abundant ginsenoside in all different ginseng samples. The highest total concentration of major ginsenosides was found in the ginseng cultivated in Jinan (0.931 mg/g) and 4-year grown red ginseng (1.785 mg/g). Major ginsenosides were the most abundant in Korean ginseng (1.264 mg/g), compared to those in Chinese and American ginseng. The results of this study showed the different contents of major ginsenosides in the ginseng samples tested and emphasized which sample could contain high yield of ginsenosides.

Ginsentology II: Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Relationship of Ginsenoside

  • Lee, Byung-Hwan;Nah, Seung-Yeol
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2007
  • Since chemical structures of ginsenoside as active ingredient of Panax ginseng are known, accumulating evidence have shown that ginsenoside is one of bio-active ligands through the diverse physiological and pharmacological evaluations. Chemical structures of ginsenoside could be divided into three parts depending on diol or triol ginsenoside: Steroid- or cholesterol-like backbone structure, carbohydrate portions, which are attached at the carbon-3, -6 or -20, and aliphatic side chain coupled to the backbone structure at the carbon-20. Ginsenosides also exist as stereoisomer at the carbon-20. Bioactive ligands usually exhibit the their structure-function relationships. In ginsenosides, there is little known about the relationship of chemical structure and biological activity. Recent reports have shown that ginsenoside $Rg_3$, one of active ginsenosides, exhibits its differential physiological or pharmacological actions depending on its chemical structure. This review will show how ginsenoside $Rg_3$, as a model compound, is functionally coupled to voltage-gated ion channel or ligand-gated ion channel regulations in related with its chemical structure.

Effects of Interactions Among Age, Cultivation Method (Location) and Population on Ginsenoside Content of Wild Panax Quinquefolium L. One Year after Transplanting from Wild

  • Lim, Wan-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 2005
  • To evaluate the effects of cultivar, environment, age and cultivation times on ginsenoside content among 8 wild populations of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium), the concentrations of 6 ginsenosides in root were determined at the time of collection (T0) of plants from the wild and 1 year after (T1) transplanting the roots to each of two different forest garden locations. Both location and population had significant effects on root and shoot growth. Overall, ginsenoside Rb1 was most abundant. The second most abundant ginsenoside were Re and Rg1, however the contents of them were not significantly different from each other. Concentrations of Rg1 and Re were inversely related. Ginsenoside Re was influenced by population and location. Ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd were influenced by population, location and age. Ginsenoside levels were consistently lower but growth was consistently higher at the more intensively managed garden location.

Evaluation of ginsenoside bioconversion of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi

  • Park, Boyeon;Hwang, Hyelyeon;Lee, Jina;Sohn, Sung-Oh;Lee, Se Hee;Jung, Min Young;Lim, Hyeong In;Park, Hae Woong;Lee, Jong-Hee
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.524-530
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    • 2017
  • Background: Panax ginseng is a physiologically active plant widely used in traditional medicine that is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides. Rb1, a major ginsenoside, is used as the starting material for producing ginsenoside derivatives with enhanced pharmaceutical potentials through chemical, enzymatic, or microbial transformation. Methods: To investigate the bioconversion of ginsenoside Rb1, we prepared kimchi originated bacterial strains Leuconostoc mensenteroides WiKim19, Pediococcus pentosaceus WiKim20, Lactobacillus brevis WiKim47, Leuconostoc lactis WiKim48, and Lactobacillus sakei WiKim49 and analyzed bioconversion products using LC-MS/MS mass spectrometer. Results: L. mesenteroides WiKim19 and Pediococcus pentosaceus WiKim20 converted ginsenoside Rb1 into the ginsenoside Rg3 approximately five times more than Lactobacillus brevis WiKim47, Leuconostoc lactis WiKim48, and Lactobacillus sakei WiKim49. L mesenteroides WIKim19 showed positive correlation with b-glucosidase activity and higher transformation ability of ginsenoside Rb1 into Rg3 than the other strains whereas, P. pentosaceus WiKim20 showed an elevated production of Rb3 even with lack of b-glucosidase activity but have the highest acidity among the five lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rg5 concentration of five LABs have ranged from ${\sim}2.6{\mu}g/mL$ to $6.5{\mu}g/mL$ and increased in accordance with the incubation periods. Our results indicate that the enzymatic activity along with acidic condition contribute to the production of minor ginsenoside from lactic acid bacteria.

Comparison of Ginsenoside Content According to Age and Diameter in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer Cultivated by Direct Seeding (직파 4 ~ 6년생 인삼의 연근 및 직경에 따른 Ginsenoside 함량 비교)

  • Han, Jin Soo;Tak, Hyun Seong;Lee, Gang Seon;Kim, Jung Sun;Choi, Jae Eul
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.184-190
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate ginsenoside content in different root parts and the correlation between root diameter and ginsenoside composition of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer cultivated by direct seeding. The unit contents of ginsenoside were 29.65, 28.76, 26.34 mg/g, respectively in 4, 5, 6 years old. However, the total contents of ginsenoside were 431.97, 606.56, 657.80 mg/root, respectively. Total ginsenoside content of fine root was higher than that of main root and lateral root. These tendencies were related to decrease by the increase of root diameter. When diameter of main root and lateral root were the same in different ages, the total ginsenoside content was higher in the order of 4 > 5 > 6 years old roots. Except for ginsenoside-Rg1, other ginsenosides components (PD/PT and total ginsenosides) had highly negative correlation with the root diameter within whole root, main root, lateral root and fine root, which indicated that ginsenoside content is correlated to root diameter. As results, it is suggested that ginsenoside content can be predicted.

Mass Culture and Ginsenoside Production of Ginseng Hairy Root by Two-Step Culture Process (2계단 배양방법을 이용한 인삼 모상근의 대량배양과 Ginsenoside 생산)

  • Ko, Kyeong-Min;Yang, Deok-Chun;Park, Ji-Chang;Choi, Kang-Ju;Choi, Kwang-Tae;Hwang, Baik
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 1996
  • A hairy root clone of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, HRB-15 was cultured iu various conditions with 3 L bubble type bioreactor to enhance both growth and ginsenoside production. The hairy roots were more rapidly grown under the dark condition than under the light condition. However, total amount of ginsenoside of hairy roots cultured under the light for 30 days increased 2 folds as compared with the dark condition and was 1.10% based on 6 ginsenosides. Especially, ginsenoside-Re was significantly increased and some ginsenosides except for ginsenoside-Re was slightly reduced. Also, the growth of hairy roots decreased about 30% as compared with the dark condition. In contrast, addition of sodium acetate led to decreased production of ginsenoside and growth of hairy roots under light condition. The influence of potassium dihydrogenphosphate concentration was examined in MS medium and a 1.25 mM concentration was found to be the most appropriate for growth and ginsenoside production under light condition. Two-step process of hairy roots culture with yeast elicitation or without ammonia in culture medium was developed to enhance growth and giusenoside synthesis. $50\;\mu\textrm{g}$ of yeast elicitor per g of fresh weight showed a synergistic effect on the ginsenoside synthesis of hairy roots on 20 days after culture. At that time, the content of total ginsenoside was 1.15%, while the growth of hairy roots decreased 21 % as compared with the dark condition. In addition, when elimination of ammonia on 20 days after culture, the content of total ginsenoside was 1.26% with significant increment of ginsenoside-Rd (0.27%) in addition to ginsenoside-Re and the growth of hairy roots decreased 10% as compared with the dark condition. In this system, we have demonstrated a unique two-step process of hairy root cultures to maximize biomass and secondary metabolites. It has found possibility to enhance ginsenosides production by growing hairy roots in this method.

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The Mechanism of LDL Receptor Up-regulation by Ginsenoside-Rb2 in HepG2 Cultured under Enriched Cholesterol Condition (고콜레스테롤 조건하에 배양된 HepG2에서의 ginsenoside-Rb2에 의한 LDL receptor 억제 완화 기전)

  • Lim, G-Rewo;Lee, Hyun-Il;Kim, Eun-Ju;Ro, Young-Tae;Noh, Yun-Hee;Koo, Ja-Hyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2004
  • The effect of ginsenoside-Rb2, one of a major pharmacological component of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, on low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression was investigated and compared with hypocholesterolemic drug lovastatin. In HepG2 cell, exogenous cholesterol decreased LDL receptor mRNA expression, but ginsenoside-Rb2 recovered this reduction of LDL receptor mRNA up to normal expression level. Lovastatin also increased LDL receptor mRNA expression as similar as ginsenoside-Rb2 did. The reduction of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription by exogenous cholesterol was also similarly recovered by ginsenoside-Rb2 and lovastatin addition. Compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside-Rb2 and -Rb1 by human intestinal bacteria also increased the SREBP mRNA expression in cholesterol-enriched condition. Ginsenoside-Rb2 seems to up-regulate LDL receptor mRNA expression through the induction of de novo SREBP transcription. Therefore, increased expression of SREBP mRNA by ginsenoside-Rb2 elevated the LDL receptor mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, and these inductions possibly drop the plasma cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia patients, in vivo, as likely in case of lovastatin.

PHARMACOKINETICS OF GINSENG COMPOUNDS

  • Chen Shiow-Edith;Sawchuk Ronald J.;Staba E. John
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 1978
  • Five ginsenosides $(A_1,\;A_2,\;B_1,\;B_2,\;C)$ and a yellow pigment were isolated from American ginseng stems and leaves. Ginsenoside $A_2,\;B_1,\;B_2$ and C were proven to be identical with Korean ginseng root ginsenoside $Rg_1,$ Rd, Re and $Rb_2,$ respectively. The yellow pigment proved identical with panasenoside isolated from Korean ginseng leaves. Ginsenoside $A_1$, which was also present in American ginseng roots, was not identical to any of the known root (ginsenoside $R_{0}-Rg_{2}$) and leaf (ginsenoside $F_{1}-F_{3}$) Korean ginseng saponins. A gas-liquid chromatographic method was developed to analyze ginsenosides and sapogenins in rabbit plasma and urine samples. Panasenoside and stigmasterol were found to be the best internal standards for ginsenosides and sapogenihs, respectively. Ginsenoside C had a significantly longer half-life, higher plasma protein binding, lower metabolic and renal clearance than ginsenoside $A_1,\;A_2\;and\;B_2$. Ginsenosides were not found in rabbit plasma and urine samples after oral administration. Ginsenoside C had a higher toxicity than ginsenoside $A_2$ after intraperitoneal administration to mice. Toxicity was not observed after oral administration of the ginsenosides.

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RAPD Pattern of Ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Lines Containing High Level of Ginsenoside

  • Kang, Tae-Jin;Kim, Se-Young;Rho, Yeong-Deok;Deok-Chun
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.170-174
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    • 2003
  • The important component for medical effect in ginseng is ginsenoside. Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute contains approximately 200 lines produced by inbred selection. It is assumed that ginseng lines containing high level of ginsenoside should be included in those lines. Besides, new breeding methods such as cell line selection in vitro and hairy root were recently developed. Therefore, this study was carried out to detect genes related to ginsenoside, and to use it for selection marker to select and distribute lines containing high level of ginsenoside. DNA was extracted from both ginseng roots and hairy roots, and the difference between the line containing high ginsenoside(KG101) and normal ginsenoside(KG103) were analysed. As a result, 28 out of 36 primers showed bands, and many primers showed band difference between ginseng lines. It is considered that the bands should be analysed using DNA sequence comparison to check if those are related to ginsenoside. In case of hairy roots of ginseng, almost no differences were found between two lines.

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Induction of Apoptosis by Ginsenoside Rc on SK-MEL-28 Cell Lines (인체 흑색종세포에서 Ginsenoside Rc에 의한 Apoptosis의 유도)

  • Choi Su La;Myung Pyung Keun;Jeong Seung Il;Chun Hyun Ja;Baek Seung Hwa
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.209-212
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    • 2003
  • A wide variety of cancer chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce programmed cell death (PCD, apoptosis) in various tumor cell fines in vitro. This study was performed to know how ginsenoside Rc affect on SK-MEL-28 cell line, and how they induce the apoptosis. SK-MEL-28 cell lines were treated with various concentrations of ginsenoside Rc and cultured for various times. At cell cycle analysis, cells arrested at G2/M phase by ginsenoside Rc and apotosis percentage increased along with increasing concentration and time. TUNEL assay was performed to know whether SK-MEL-28 cell fine die as apoptosis or necrosis by ginsenoside Rc. As a result, fluorescence increased along with increasing time and concentration. Fas expressed on SK-MEL-28 cell lines membrane by ginsenoside Rc was identified using flow cytometer. Ginsenoside Rc induced apoptosis against SK-MEL-28 cell fines, and the apoptosis mechanism was identified as Fas-mediated apotosis.