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Insecticidal Activity of Cinnamon Essential Oils, Constituents, and (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Analogues against Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Hemiptera: Flatidae) Nymphs and Adults (미국선녀벌레(Metcalfa pruinosa Say)에 대한 계피 정유 유래 물질의 살충 활성)

  • Kim, Jun-Ran;Jeong, In-Hong;Lee, Young Su;Lee, Sang-Guei
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 2015
  • The insecticidal activity of the constituents of cinnamon essential oils and structurally related compounds against both the nymphs and adults of the citrus flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa was examined using a direct-contact application. The toxicity of the cinnamon oil constituents and 21 (E)-cinnamaldehyde related compounds regarding the nymphs of M. pruinosa was evaluated using a leaf-dipping bioassay. Based on 24 h $LC_{50}$ values, hydro-cinnamic acid ($1.55mg/cm^2$) is the most toxic compound, followed by geranic acid ($1.59mg/cm^2$). The $LC_{50}$ values of 11 of the compounds including cinnamaldehyde are between $1.60mg/cm^2$ and $4.94mg/cm^2$. Low toxicities and no toxicity were observed with the other 15 ($5.24mg/cm^2$ to $13.47mg/cm^2$) and two compounds, respectively. Also, the toxicities of the cinnamon oil constituents and 21 cinnamaldehyde related compounds regarding the M. pruinosa adults were evaluated using a direct-spray method. The toxicity of eugenol (10.81 mg) is the most toxic compound for the adults of M. pruinosa, followed by geranic acid (30.68 mg). The $LC_{50}$ values of nine of the compounds including cinnamaldehyde are between 59.16 mg and 96.70 mg. Low toxicities and no toxicity were observed with the other 15 (105.44 mg to 255.76 mg) and three compounds, respectively. The spray formulations that comprise cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf oils resulted in 82.3% and 82.9% mortalities, respectively, toward the M. pruinosa adults in a ginseng field. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in agricultural environments justify further studies on cinnamon oils to ascertain whether the corresponding active principles can act as insecticides, when they are applied as a direct spray with contact action, for the control of M. pruinosa populations.

Bacterial Community Dynamics during Swine In vitro Fermentation Using Starch as a Substrate with Different Feed Additives for Odor Reduction

  • Alam, Md.J.;Jeong, C.D.;Mamuad, L.L.;Sung, H.G.;Kim, D.W.;Cho, S.B.;Lee, K.;Jeon, C.O.;Lee, Sang-S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.690-700
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    • 2012
  • The experiment was conducted by in vitro fermentation and bacterial community analysis to investigate the reduction of odorous compounds in response to the use of feed additives (FA) during carbohydrate overload in growing pigs. Soluble starch at 1% (control) and various FA at 0.1% Ginseng meal (FA1); Persimmon leaf (FA2); Gingko nut (FA3) and Oregano lippia (FA4) were added to fecal slurry and incubated anaerobically for 12 and 24 h. In vitro parameters and microbial diversity of the dominant bacteria following fermentation were analyzed using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), band cloning and sequencing of the V3 region. Results showed that total gas production increased with the advancement of incubation (p<0.05). pH values of FAs and control groups were decreased except the FA4 group which increased somewhat from 12 to 24 h (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) and $H_2S$ gas concentrations were comparatively lower in both stages in FA4 treatment than in the other groups (p<0.05). Hence, $NH_3$-N concentrations in liquid phases were increased (p<0.05) from 12 to 24 h, but the trend was lowest in FA4 than in the other groups at both stages. The total VFA production was comparatively lower and butyrate levels were moderate in FA4 group than in the the other groups during both stages (p<0.05). Indirect odor-reducing compounds such as $NO_2$, $NO_3$ and $SO_4$ concentrations were higher in the FA4 and FA3 than in the other groups at 24 h (p<0.05). After fermentation, ten dominant bands appeared, six of which appeared in all samples and four in only the FA4 treated group. The total number of DGGE bands and diversity was higher in the FA4-group compared to other groups. Additionally, similarity indices were lowest (71%) in the FA4, which represented a different bacterial community compared with the other groups. These findings indicate that $NH_3$-N, $H_2S$ and VFA production was minimal, and pH was also better in the FA4 group than in the other groups. Furthermore, the conversion of odor-reducing indirect compounds or their intermediates was higher in the FA4 group in compared to the other groups. FA4 group generated less odorous products and more indirect products by in vitro fermentation at 24 h, and their microbial pattern appeared to differ from that of the other groups. These findings suggest that this particular FA could change the microbial population, which may have a beneficial effect on odor reduction. It is recommended that the oregano lippia may be supplied to growing pigs as FA along with excess carbohydrate sources to reduce the production of odorous compounds.

Monitoring of pesticide residues in commercial agricultural products in the northern area of Seoul, Korea (서울 북부지역 유통 농산물의 농약 잔류실태)

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Park, Sung-Kyu;Kim, Ouk-Hee;Choi, Young-Hee;Seoung, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Young-Ju;Jung, Jung-Hee;Kim, Yun-Hee;Yu, In-Sil;Kim, Yoo-Kyung;Han, Ki-Young;Chae, Young-Zoo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to monitor 284 pesticides residue level in 2,914 commercial agricultural products in the northern area of Seoul in 2011 by the multi class pesticide multiresidue analysis methods in Korea Food Code using GC, HPLC, GC-MSD and, LC-MSD. The detection rate of pesticide residues were 14.8% (431/2,914). The order of agricultural products in which the pesticide residues were detected was perilla leaves 40.0% (28/70), chamnamul 35.5% (11/31), amaranth 30.0% (3/10) and spinach 27.7% (38/137) etc. The percentage of products that exceeded the MRLs (maximum residue limits) were 1.0% (31/431). Those products that exceeded MRLs were ginseng (6), perilla leaves (4), leek (4), welsh onion (3) and sedeum (3) etc. The 59 kinds of the pesticides were detected on this study, 21 pesticides of them were detected over MRLs. Detection rate of fungicides (56.4%) was higher than that of insecticides (42.1%). And procymidone was detected with considerable high frequency. Additionally, residual residual violates pesticides were in the order of tolclofos-methyl, endosulfan, dimethomorph, diniconazole and fludioxonil. According to the agricultural marketing channels, detection and excess rate of them were monitored. Detection and excess rate of samples circulated in agricultural traditional market were highest. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of the pesticides were compared to personal acceptable daily intakes (PADI) in order to risk assessment by food consumption. Diazinon in Korean cabbage showed the highest %ADI, 2.9901 and others showed below 3.0 %ADI. Overall, these results indicate that residue levels of pesticides detected were evaluated as safe.

Literary Investigation of Food-Therapy(食治方) Using Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) - Korean Medicine Literature in 1300's-1600's - (조(속미(粟米)·출미(秫米))를 이용한 식치방(食治方)의 문헌(文獻) 조사 -1300년대에서 1600년대 한국 의서(醫書)를 중심으로-)

  • Park, Soon-Ae;Choi, Mi-Ae;Kim, Mi-Lim
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.791-805
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    • 2015
  • Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) is a native Korean herbal medical food and a native millet, and Koreans have eaten it as a substitute for rice since ancient times. Foods using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) have been recorded not only in cookbooks but also in Korean traditional medical books several times. Therefore, the purposes of this study was to investigate Food-Therapy (食治) using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) recorded in the literature from 1300 to 1600 from early to mid-Joseon (朝鮮) and provide data required to develop menus for Yaksun (藥膳, herbal food). This study examined Food-Therapy using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) in 10 types of literatures from the 1300s to the 1600s. and is described in the literature a total of 63 times. According to classification by cooking method, porridge (粥) was most frequently mentioned in the literature at 27 times. The cooking method of Soup (湯) is described 11 times. Cooking methods such as porridge juice and soup are frequently used since those methods are digestive and absorptive. Other food ingredients described using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) are white leek (Allii Fistulosi Bulbus) ginger (Zingiber officinale), chicken egg, Allium chinense, sparrow (Passer montanus), rooster liver, Du-si, crucian carp (Carassius auratus L), and white broiler. Other medicinal herbs described with Setaria italica are Panax ginseng (人蔘), Poria cocos (茯笭), Angelica acutiloba (當歸), Ziziphus jujuba (大棗), Liriopeplatyphylla (麥門冬), and cinnamon (肉桂). Food-Therapy using Setaria italica L. Beauv was described as a prescription for stomach and spleen (脾胃), stomach reflux (反胃), defecation and urinary disorder (大小便難), cholera, deficiency syndrome (虛症), and tonification (補益). This focus on promoting health and preventing diseases by strengthening the stomach and spleen and improving defecation and urination using Food-Therapy when herbal medicine was rare.

A Study on Perfuming Clothes and the Incense Trade of East Asia in Goryeo Dynasty (고려시대 동아시아 훈의(熏衣)문화와 향재의 교역 연구)

  • Ha, Sumin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.204-221
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    • 2020
  • East Asian countries share a culture of perfuming clothes. The prosperity of the Maritime Silk Road and the incense trade are direct factors that have led to the development of incense culture. Perfuming clothes is a method of applying fragrance by burning incense. The Chinese could make an incense mixture with various types of incense, and records demonstrating use of perfuming clothes tools (熏籠) show that they might have perfumed clothes with incense mixtures. During the Tang dynasty, the incense trade thrived. Examples of ancient literature such as 『千金要方』, 『香譜』, 『香乘』 describe how to make incense for perfuming clothes and how to perfume clothes. 『桂海虞衡志』 and 『諸蕃志』 shows trade partners and goods. Incense was introduced to Korea alongside Buddhist culture. 『買新羅物解』 shows Silla traded incense with Japan. One of the trade goods recorded in 『買新羅物解』 is perfuming cloth incense (熏衣香), which establishes that Silla performed perfuming clothes at that time. During the Goryeo dynasty, Goryeo exported musk as well as ginseng. The royal family burned incense from the Song royal family. Noblewomen preferred sachets. The use of this dress continued into the Joseon dynasty. 『買新羅物解』 showed that Japan imported incense from Silla. 『The tale of Genji』 illustrates Heian nobles' incense culture, perfuming clothes culture, and trade of incense. Perfuming clothes tools became essential articles for marriage purposes and it developed in a practical shape. The Champa had a perfuming clothes culture. It is described on 『諸蕃志』. As Agilawood is found in Tongking, and Tongking was neighbor to the Champa and China, they might have had a perfuming clothes culture as well. Korea, China, Japan, and Vietnam shared a perfuming clothes culture. We can identify universality and commonality in the purpose of perfuming clothes, time of development, the method of making the incense mixture for perfuming clothes, the method of perfuming clothes, the tools, the gender of perfumer, and the type of herbs and spices.

Effect of Potassium Application Time on Rice Plant under The Limed Condition (석회(石灰)의 시용(施用)과 가리추비량(加里追肥量)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Oh, W.K.;Kim, T.S.;Han, K.W.;Park, C.H..;Kim, S.B.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 1979
  • To investigate the relationship between the effect of potassium basal and top dressing amount on rice plant under the limed condition, a pot experiment was conducted with Milyang 21, rice variety. Growing status, yield components and chemical component of rice, plant were determined and soils were analyzed along with the growing stages and obtained results are as follows. 1. Control treatment, without lime application shows a good vegetative growth as compared with lime treated one. However grain yield was higher in lime treated pot when potassium was applied as basal and top dressing. 2. There was no big difference between potassium applied and control treatment on growing status of nice plant until 20 days after transplanting. However in case of lime treated pot big difference were observed 20 days after transplanting resulting lower grain yield as compared with control treatment. This trend were severe in a lime treated treatment. 3. In control treatment, potassium basal dressing shows higher grain yield as increase the amount of basal dressing and the highest yield obtained in all basal potassium application treatment. However in case of lime treated pot when two-third of potassium were applied as basal dressing, potassium content of rice became lower at reproductive stage and resulted lower yield. When we applied all the potassium as a basal dressing, there were no differences as compared with control treatment in terms of grain yield. 4. The soil condition that affects potassium absorption disorder in rice plant such as unlimed condition, potassium application should be done as a basal dressing. However in limed condition that potassium absorption disorder occurs scarcely, and potassium content exists unsufficient amount in soil, large amount of potassium as basal dressing and the rest as top dressing are recommended. 5. The higher content of potassium in rice plant at the reproductive growing stage results heavier tillers as compared with lower one so that heavier tillers produce more grain yield. 6. At vigorous growing stage there was a positive correlation between electric conductivity of soil and amount of potasium absorbed by rice plant. This fact suggests that to obtain higher yield large amount of potassium top dressing at late of vegetative growing stage are necessary so that the content of potassium in rice plant will increase and results higher yield.

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Study on Medical Records In ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms${\lrcorner}$ ("삼국사기(三國史記)"에 기록된 의약내용(醫藥內容) 분석)

  • Shin, Soon-Shik;Choi, Hwan-Soo
    • Journal of The Association for Neo Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.35-54
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    • 1997
  • We tried to observe the features of ancient medical practice by analysing the records related to medicine in the book, ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdom${\lrcorner}$ of which content includes the features of medicine in mythology, plague, delivery of twins, drugs, medical system, shamanism, constitutional medicine, psychiatry, forensic medicine, deformity, a spa, medical phrase, health and welfare work, religion, death. physiological anatomy, Taoist medicine, acupuncture, the occult af of transformation and etc. Our initial concern was about where to draw line as of medical field and we defined medicine in more broad meaning. The book ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms${\lrcorner}$ describes the world of mythology by way of medicine which is not clearly a conventional one. There appears records of birth of multiple offsprings 7 times in which cases are of triplets or more. Delivering multiple offsprings were rare phenomenon though such fertility was highly admired. This shows one aspect of ancient country having more population meant more power of the nation. Of those medical records conveyed in that book includes stories of childbirth such as giving birth to a son after praying, giving birth to Kim Yoo-shin after 20 months after mother's dream of conception, and a song longing for getting a laudable child. Plagues were prevalent throughout winter to spring season and one can observe various symptoms of plagues in the record. Of these epidemic diseases, cold type might have been more common than the heat one. Appearance of epidemic diseases frequently coincided with that of natural disasters that this suggests a linkage between plague and underlying doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors. There exists only a few names of diseases such as epidemic disease, wind disease, and syndrome characterized by dyspnea. Otherwise there appeared only afflictions that were not specified therefore it remains cluless to keep track of certain diseases of prevalence. Since this ${\ulcorner}$Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms'${\lrcorner}$ wasn't any sort of medical book, words and terms used were not technical kind and most were the ones used generally among lay people. Therefore any mechanisms of the diseases were hardly mentioned. Some of medicinal substances such as Calculus Bovis, Radix Ginseng, Gaboderma Luciderm, magnetitum were also in use in those days. 53 kinds of dietary supplies appears in the records and some of these might have been used as medicinal purpose. Records concerning dicipline of one's body includes activities such as hunting, archery, horseback riding etc. In Shilla dynasty there were positions such as professor of medicine, Naekongbong(內供奉), Kongbong's doctor(供奉醫師), Kongbong's diviner(供奉卜師). As an educational facility, medical school was built at the first year of King Hyoso's reign and it's curricula included various subjects as ${\ulcorner}$Shin Nong's Herbal classic${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Kabeul classic of acupuncture and moxbustion${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$The Plain Questions of the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Classic of Acupuncturer${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$The Pulse Classic${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Classic of Channels and Acupuncture Points${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$Difficult Classic${\lrcorner}$. There were 2 medical professors who were in charge of education. To establish pharmacopoeia, 2 Shaji(舍知), 6 Sha(史), 2 Jongshaji(從舍知) were appointed. In Baekje dynasty, Department of Herb was maintained. Doing praying for the sake of health, doing phrenology also can be extended to medical arena. Those who survived over 100 years of age appear 3 times in the record, while 98 appears once. The earliest psychiatrist Nokjin differentiated symptoms to apply either therapies using acupuncture and drug or psychotherapy. There appears a case of rape, a case of burying alive with the dead, 8 cases of suicide that can characterize a prototype of forensic medicine. Deformity-related records include phrases as follow: 'there seems protrudent bone behind the head', 'a body which has two heads, two trunks, four arms.', 'a body equipped with two heads' In those times spa can be said to be used as a place for he리ing, convalescence, and relaxation seeing the records describing a person pretended illness and went to spa to enjoy with his friends. Priest doctors and millitary surgeons were in charge of the medical sevice in the period of the Three Kingdoms by the record written by Mookhoja(墨胡子) and Hoonkyeom(訓謙). Poor diet and regimen makes people more vulnerable to diseases. So there existed charity services for those poor people who couldn't live with one's own capacity such as single parents, orphans, the aged people no one to take care and those who are ill. The cause of affliction was frequently coined with human relation. There appeared the phenomenon of releasing prisoners and allowing people to become priests at the time of king's suffering. Besides, as a healing procedure, sutra-chanting was peformed. There appears 10 cases of death related records which varies from death by drowning, or by freezing, death from animals, death from war, death from wightloss and killing oneself at the moment of spouse's death and etc. There also exist certain records which suggest the knowledge of physiology and anatomy in those times. Since the taoist books such as ${\ulcorner}$Book of the Way and Its Power(老子道德經)${\lrcorner}$ were introduced in the period of Three Kingdoms, it can be considered that medicine was also influenced by taoism. Records of higher level of acupuncture, records which links the medicine and occult art of transformation existed. Although limited, we could figure out the medical state of ancient society.

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School Dietitians' Perceptions and Intake of Healthy Functional Foods in Jeonbuk Province (전북지역 일부 학교 영양사의 건강기능식품 인식 및 이용실태)

  • Kang, Young-Ja;Jung, Su-Jin;Yang, Ji-Ae;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.1172-1181
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    • 2007
  • This research involved 226 Jeonbuk Province school dietitians as subjects to investigate intake and perceptions of the healthy functional foods. Sixty nine percent of the school dietitians didn't even know about the law enforcement concerning the health functional foods. Although 68.1% of the respondents said that they slightly knew about health functional foods, only 25% knew exactly what it was. As shown in the survey, most didn't have the cognitive understanding did not understand which should be obtained by education. Sixty two percent of the answerers said they had experience of taking health various functional food products of various kinds such as supplements (57.9%), red ginseng products (52.9%), and chlorella products (30.0%). The motive of intake was in the order of fatigue restoration (25.7%), sickness prevention (22.9%), and nutrient replenishment (22.9%). A fascinating fact from this study was that the reason for healthy functional product intake was different between groups that was primarily interested in the products and those that was not. For those who had interest, the reason for intake was for sickness prevention. On the other hand, for those who didn't have any interest, the reasons was primarily for fatigue restoration and they were mostly persuaded by close friends and relatives. Main concerns were in the order of side effects (4.72), efficacy after intake (4.59), cleanliness (4.51), reliability of the company (4.29), and price (4.23). In view of the study, it is clear that a lot of people are showing interest in healthy functional food products. However, dietitians who are experts in food and nutrition lacked knowledge and information on healthy functional food.

Amelioration of Plasma Glucose and Cholesterol levels in Db/db Mice by a Mixture of Chinese Herbs (Db/db 마우스 모델에 있어서 한약재조성물의 혈당 및 혈장 콜레스테롤 개선효과)

  • Lee, Jai-Heon;Cho, Chang-Woo;Han, Xiang-Fu;Hwang, Ji-Yeon;Kang, Min-Jung;Joo, Hee-Jeong;Kim, Mi-Eun;Seo, Yeong-Ju;Kim, Jung-In
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 2008
  • Diabetes mellitus is the fifth leading cause of death among Koreans. Control of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia is strongly correlated with decrease in risks for cardiovascular diseases, the most common and fatal diabetic complication. The effects of chronic feeding of a mixture of Chinese herbs on blood lipid profile were measured in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, db/db mice (C57BL/Ks). The Chinese herb mixture was composed of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer,Astragalus membranaceus, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lycium chinense, Morus, Pueraria thunbergiana, Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, Schizandra chinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Dioscorea batatas, Polygonatum doratumvar. pluriflorum, Paeonia lactiflora, and Rehmannia glutinosa in a ratio of 1 : 0.7 : 0.4 : 0.7 :0.4 : 0.7 : 1.1 : 0.9 : 0.4 : 0.4 : 0.7 :0.7 : 0.9 : 0.9. Methanol extract of the Chinese herb mixture was tested for the inhibitory activity against yeast ${\alpha}$-glucosidase in vitro. The Chinese herb mixture extract inhibited ${\alpha}$-glucosidase by 25.2% at the concentration of 0.5mg/mL. Four weekold male db/db mice (n = 14) were fed AIN-93G semipurified diet or diet containing 10% powder of the Chinese herb mixture for 6 weeks after 1 week of adaptation period. Body weight (39.5 ${\pm}$ 1.6 g) and food intake (4.3 ${\pm}$ 0.6 g/day) of the Chinese herb group were not significantly different from those of the control group (40.4 ${\pm}$ 2.6 g and 4.5 ${\pm}$ 0.6 g/day). Consumption of Chinese herb mixture significantly decreased plasma glucose level (442.5 ${\pm}$ 36.0mg/dL) compared with the control group (489.8 ${\pm}$ 34.6 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Plasma cholesterol level (159.2 ${\pm}$ 18.4 mg/dL) of the Chinese herb group was significantly lower than that of the control group (185.4 ${\pm}$ 13.7 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Blood glycated hemoglobin (6.3 ${\pm}$ 0.8%) and plasma triglyceride levels (99.4 ${\pm}$ 15.0mg/dL) of the Chinese herb group were not significantly different from those of the control group (6.7 ${\pm}$ 0.7% and 108.8 ${\pm}$ 11.0mg/dL). Thus, the Chinese herb mixture could be useful in the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular complications of diabetes.

Situation of Fertilizer Industry in Korea (비료산업(肥料産業)의 현황(現況)과 문제점(問題点))

  • Lee, Yun Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.34-48
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    • 1982
  • 1. Production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in Korea could be divided into five different phases of total imports, setting up fertilizer plants, self-sufficiency in production, net export, and diversification in compound fertilizers. Currently the nation has production capacity of 800 thousand M/T of nitrogen, 400 thousand M/T of phosphate ($P_2O_5$) and 200 thousand M/T of potash ($K_2O$). 2. Yearly consumption increased every year, since 1964, 28,000 M/T N, 7,700 M/T $P_2O_5$, and 7,500 M/T $K_2O$ until 1972, when the increase jumped by eight times for $P_2O_5$ and seven times for $K_2O$ for the following 3 years in anticipation of their short supply. Now total consumption has been more or less stabilized at the level of 450 thousand M/T N, 220 thousand M/T $P_2O_5$ and 180 thousand M/T $K_2O$ for the last 7 years. 3. Current operation rate of fertilizer plants is around 80% throughout the whole industry, after going through several different levels depending on demand at times. 4. Fertilizer export started in 1967 and reached a peak of 150 thousand nutrient ton in 1972, about 20% of total production, before temporarily stopping due to over-demand for next three years. The export resumed again in 1976 rise to the all time high of 670 thousand nutrient ton in 1980, almost half of total production, and then started to decline due to higher price of petroleum since then. 5. The decline in fertilizer export appears to be accelerated because several countries, in South-Eastern Asia, traditional export market for Korean fertilizers, started to build their own plants, since 1980, based on their raw materials of especially petroleum. 6. Current consumption in Korea is about 30 nutrient Kg per 10a, equivalent to that in Western European countries, partly due to new high-yielding rice varieties and extensive cultivation of fruit trees and vegetables. Additional fertilizer demand in future can be anticipated in reclaimed land for growing grass and forestry.

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