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Comparison of Quality on the Raw and Red Ginseng in Korean and American Ginseng (고려인삼과 미국삼의 수삼 및 홍삼품질 비교)

  • Chung, Chan-Moon;Shin, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 2006
  • This study carried out to analize quality in the evaluation based on the grades such as raw ginseng and red ginseng between Korean (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L). American ginseng was small in root length, root diameter and root weight and emergence many secondary root from rhizome and main root. Therefore body form was bad compared with Korean ginseng. As for yield of dry, Korean ginseng was 30.4 % and American ginseng was 33.8% but as for yield, Korean ginseng was 80.4% and American ginseng was 72.2%. There were as many Korean ginseng in raw ginseng first grade by about twice compared with American ginseng. However there were many American ginseng in second grade. On the other hand, Korean ginseng producted high Chunsam compared with American ginseng. The cause of decreasing quality was inside cavity and inside white in Korean and American ginseng. Especially, the inside white occurrence about 3 times compared with inside cavity in American ginseng. In the case of distribution of weight size, Korean ginseng was much above 20Ji but American ginseng was much under 20Ji.

Insilico profiling of microRNAs in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

  • Mathiyalagan, Ramya;Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy;Natarajan, Sathishkumar;Kim, Yeon Ju;Sun, Myung Suk;Kim, Se Young;Kim, Yu-Jin;Yang, Deok Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.227-247
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    • 2013
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of recently discovered non-coding small RNA molecules, on average approximately 21 nucleotides in length, which underlie numerous important biological roles in gene regulation in various organisms. The miRNA database (release 18) has 18,226 miRNAs, which have been deposited from different species. Although miRNAs have been identified and validated in many plant species, no studies have been reported on discovering miRNAs in Panax ginseng Meyer, which is a traditionally known medicinal plant in oriental medicine, also known as Korean ginseng. It has triterpene ginseng saponins called ginsenosides, which are responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Predicting conserved miRNAs by homology-based analysis with available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be powerful, if the species lacks whole genome sequence information. In this study by using the EST based computational approach, 69 conserved miRNAs belonging to 44 miRNA families were identified in Korean ginseng. The digital gene expression patterns of predicted conserved miRNAs were analyzed by deep sequencing using small RNA sequences of flower buds, leaves, and lateral roots. We have found that many of the identified miRNAs showed tissue specific expressions. Using the insilico method, 346 potential targets were identified for the predicted 69 conserved miRNAs by searching the ginseng EST database, and the predicted targets were mainly involved in secondary metabolic processes, responses to biotic and abiotic stress, and transcription regulator activities, as well as a variety of other metabolic processes.

Red ginseng monograph

  • So, Seung-Ho;Lee, Jong Won;Kim, Young-Sook;Hyun, Sun Hee;Han, Chang-Kyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.549-561
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    • 2018
  • Ginseng has been traditionally used for several millennia in Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, not only as a nourishing and tonifying agent but also as a therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases. In recent years, the various effects of red ginseng including immunity improvement, fatigue relief, memory improvement, blood circulation improvement, antioxidation, mitigation of menopausal women's symptoms, and anticancer an effect have been reported in clinical as well as basic research. Around the world, there is a trend of the rising consumption of health functional foods on the level of disease prevention along with increased interest in maintaining health because of population aging and the awareness of lifestyle diseases and chronic diseases. Red ginseng occupies an important position as a health functional food. But till now, international ginseng monographs including those of the World Health Organization have been based on data on white ginseng and have mentioned red ginseng only partly. Therefore, the red ginseng monograph is needed for component of red ginseng, functionality certified as a health functional food in the Korea Food and Drug Administration, major efficacy, action mechanism, and safety. The present red ginseng monograph will contribute to providing accurate information on red ginseng to agencies, businesses, and consumers both in South Korea and abroad.

Histological Characteristics of Normal and Inferior Parts in Korean Red Ginseng (정상홍삼과 불량홍삼의 조직학적 특성)

  • 이종원;김천석;채순용;양재원;도재호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate a point of difference between normal and inferior Korean red ginseng (Naeback red ginseng = red ginseng with white part of clear boundary in phloem and/or xylem of ginseng body, saengnaeback red ginseng red ginseng with white part of indistinct boundary). White part with clear or indistinct boundary in center of ginseng body was observed in inferior red ginseng (naeback and saengnaeback red ginseng), and the differences in the internal color intensity was also found with naked eye. In hunter color values of normal and inferior parts of red ginseng in accordance with particle size, L value was increased with a diminishment in particle size, while a and b value were decreased. Absorbance at visible spectrum did not differ from water and 70% ethanol extract from normal and inferior parts of red ginseng, but absorbance in UV spectrum of extract from naeback part showed higher than those of normal and saengnaeback part. In comparison of intrastructure by electron microscope, the horizontal and vertical section of cortex and pith layer from normal part showed the very dense state, but small holes were found in naeback part of red ginseng by naked eye and electron microscope. The specific surface area of normal, naeback and saengnaeback part appeared 3.02, 3.33 and 6.55 ㎡/g, respectively. From above results, we consider saengnaeback red ginseng is red ginseng in the intermediate process which normal red ginseng changes to naeback red ginseng.

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Insilico Analysis for Expressed Sequence Tags from Embryogenic Callus and Flower Buds of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

  • Sathiyamoorthy, Subramaniyam;In, Jun-Gyo;Lee, Byum-Soo;Kwon, Woo-Seang;Yang, Dong-Uk;Kim, Ju-Han;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2011
  • Panax ginseng root has been used as a major source of ginsenoside throughout the history of oriental medicine. In recent years, scientists have found that all of its biomass, including embryogenic calli and flower buds can contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. In this study, transcriptome analyses were used to identify different gene expressions from embryogenic calli and fl ower buds. In total, 6,226 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained from cDNA libraries of P. ginseng. Insilico analysis was conducted to annotate the putative sequences using gene ontology functional analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology biochemical analysis, and interproscan protein functional domain analysis. From the obtained results, genes responsible for growth, pathogenicity, pigments, ginsenoside pathway, and development were discussed. Almost 83.3% of the EST sequence was annotated using one-dimensional insilico analysis.

The Comparison of the Appearances Between the Korean Ginseng the Chinese Ginseng (한국인삼과 중국인삼의 외관 비교)

  • 손현주;백남인
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 1997
  • The Chinese ginseng roots were collected at twelve places of Jilin Province and two places of Liaoning Province in China and their appearances were compared with those of the Korean ginseng roots. The color of the most of the Chinese red ginseng was brown or dark brown and the color of many of the Chinese dried ginseng was pale yellow and the root-age of the most of the Chinese red ginseng as well as the Chinese dried ginseng was evaluated five or six year regardless of the collection places, so it cannot be easily concluded that the color and the root-age of the Chinese ginseng roots are different from those of the Korean ginseng roots. However the rhizomes and the lateral roots of the Chinese ginseng roots were poorly developed and many of them did not have either rhizome or lateral roots. Moreover the rhizomes of the Chinese red ginseng as well as the Chinese dried ginseng were much more easily removed than those of the Korean red ginseng and the Korean white ginseng. Therefore it is thought that the development status of the rhizome and the lateral roots of the Chinese ginseng roots are quite different from those of the Korean ginseng roots.

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Quality and antioxidant activity of ginseng seed processed by fermentation strains

  • Lee, Myung-Hee;Lee, Young-Chul;Kim, Sung-Soo;Hong, Hee-Do;Kim, Kyung-Tack
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.178-182
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    • 2015
  • Background: Fermentation technology is widely used to alter the effective components of ginseng. This study was carried out to analyze the characteristics and antioxidant activity of ginseng seeds fermented by Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus strains. Methods: For ginseng seed fermentation, 1% of each strainwas inoculated on sterilized ginseng seeds and then incubated at $30^{\circ}C$ for 24 h in an incubator. Results: The total sugar content, acidic polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, were higher in extracts of fermented ginseng seeds compared to a nonfermented control, and highest in extracts fermented with B. subtilis KFRI 1127. Fermentation led to higher antioxidant activity. The 2,2'-azine-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity was higher in ginseng seeds fermented by Bacillus subtilis than by Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, but Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity was higher in ginseng seeds fermented by Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Conclusion: Antioxidant activities measured by ABTS and SOD were higher in fermented ginseng seeds compared to nonfermented ginseng seeds. These results may contribute to improving the antioxidant activity and quality of ginseng subjected to fermentation treatments.

Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Malonyl Ginsenoside Contents between White and Red Ginseng (백삼 및 홍삼의 이화학적 특성 및 말로닐 진세노사이드 함량 비교)

  • Oh, Myeong Hwan;Park, Young Sik;Lee, Hwan;Kim, Na Young;Jang, Young Boo;Park, Ji Hun;Kwak, Jun Young;Park, Young Soon;Park, Jong Dae;Pyo, Mi Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2016
  • Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in East Asia and is very popular in the world, because of its health benefits. To comparison of pharmacological components and physiochemical properties between white and red ginseng from same body, we analyzed ginsenoside and malonyl ginsenoside, ash, crude lipid/protein, fatty acid, mineral contents, total/reducing sugar, and total phenolic and acidic polysaccharide contents. The general components did not show any significant difference between white and red ginseng. Whereas, the content of neutral ginsenoside $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Rc and Rd were higher in red ginseng than those of white ginseng. However, malonyl ginsenoside such as $m-Rb_1$, $m-Rb_2$, m-Rc and m-Rd in white ginseng were similar to neutral ginsenoside $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Rc and Rd in white ginseng and far higher than those of red ginseng. These results exhibit that malonyl ginsenosides were converted to neutral ginsenosides in steaming process for red ginseng. So, we suggest that malonyl ginsenoside are necessary to applies in ginsenoside analysis of Korean ginseng.