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Comparative Study on the Essential Oil Components of Panax Species (인삼속(Pauax species) 식물의 정유성분 조성 비교)

  • Ko, Sung-Ryong;Choi, Kang-Ju;Kim, Young-Hoi
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to determine the differences of essential oil components among Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng, and Korean white ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Mayer) , American and Canadian ginseng (P. Quinquefolium), and sanchi ginseng (P notoginseng). The steam distilled oils of these ginsengs were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and 22 sesquiterpenes, 8 sesquiterpene alcohols, 8 monoterpenes, 5 aldehydes, 4 esters, 3 acids, 2 alcohols and 5 miscellaneous components were identified. The major oil components of Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng were $\beta$-panasinsene, $\beta$-caryophyllene, $\alpha$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, selina-4,11-diane, bicyclo-ger-macrene and spathulenol. The contents of $\beta$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, $\alpha$-basabolene and spathulenol were higher in Korean red ginseng than Chinese and Japanese red ginseng. The contents of $\alpha$-cubebene, selina-4,11-diene and ledol were higher in Chinese red ginseng than Korean and Japanese red ginseng, but those of selina-4,11-diene and spathulenol were lower in Japanese red ginseng than Korean or Chinese red ginseng. On the other hand, the GC patterns of the oils from American, Canadian and sanchi ginseng were different from that of Korean white ginseng.

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The Comparison of the Break Intensity of the Rhizome Between the Korean Ginseng and the Chinese Ginseng (한국인삼과 중국인삼의 뇌두 부러짐 강도 비교 연구)

  • 손현주;노길봉
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 1997
  • In order to compare the physical property of the rhizome of the Korean ginseng with the Chinese ginseng, the break intensity of the ginseng rhizome was measured using a rheometer (FVDOH RHEO METER, Rheotech Co.). The intensities for the Korean red ginseng were 10.0$\pm$ 2.1 kg/cm2(n=72), while the intensities for the Chinese red ginseng were 4.0$\pm$2.4 kg/cm2(n=142) which were significantly lower than those for the Korean red ginseng at 1% level. The intensities for the Korean white ginseng were 9.9$\pm$2.0 kg/cm2 (n=97), while the intensities for the Chinese deied ginseng were 4.5$\pm$2.7 kg/cm2(n=138) which were significantly lower than those for the Korean white ginseng at 1% level. These results suggest that the rhizome of the Chinese ginseng might be much more easily broken than the rhizome of the Korean ginseng. Conclusively the break intensity of the ginseng rhizome is thought to be useful for differentiating the Chinese ginseng with the Korean ginseng.

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Studies on Ginseng Vinegar (인삼식초에 관한연구)

  • 김승겸
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 1999
  • Ginseng-vinegars were produced by the fermentation of 5% ethanol solution contained ginseng, red ginseng, ginseng marc and red ginseng marc using Acetobacter aceti 3281 for 26 days at 35$^{\circ}C$. The ginseng and red ginseng vinegar contained 0.236mg/ml of total sugar 0.236mg/ml of reducing sugar and 0.05% of ethanol and 1.005 of specific gravity 8,58CFU of viable cell count 3,24 of pH and 5.11% of acidity. Whereas the vinegars produced using the water-extracted red ginseng marc and the ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc were consisted of total sugar was 1.27mg/ml and 1.60mg/ml reducing sugar was 0.077mg/ml and 0.725mg/ml specific gravity was 1.001 and 1.004 the number of viable cells was 8.51CFU/ml and 8.1CFU/ml pH was 2.81 and 2.89 acidity was 5.18% and 5.32% respectvely ethanol concentration was 0.05% in both cases. In five-grade scoring test of sensory evaluation, it was estimated favorable that each vinegar made by were-extracted red ginseng marc, ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc ginseng and red ginseng ginseng from 0.5 to 32% of water-and ethanol-extract red ginseng was extracted with 10% white vinegar for 30 days. The best sensory vinegars were obtained that ginseng of 0.4~1.6% above red glnsend of 0.8% water-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.8~1.6% and ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.4~1.6% added in 10% white vinegar respectively.

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Authentication of Korean Panax ginseng from Chinease Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius by AFLP analysis

  • Kim Bo-Bae;Jeong Jae-Hun;Jung Su-Jin;Yun Doh-Won;Yoon Eui-Soo;Choi Yong-Eui
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2005
  • Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. The international trade of ginseng is increasing yearly. The disguise of Chinese and American ginseng into Korean ginseng became a problem in recent years in abroad and Korea. An effective method to authenticate the Korean Panax ginseng from others at a DNA level is necessary for the healthy development of the ginseng market. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to develop a method for the identification of Korean ginseng between Chinese ginseng and American ginseng. It is very difficult to detect the different polymorphic bands among Korean field cultivated ginseng, and between field and wild-cultivated ginseng. The genetic distance coefficient by AFLP analysis between field- and wild cultivated Korean ginseng was very low, 0.056. Whereas, polymorphic bands between Korean and Chinese wild-cultivated ginseng was significantly different. The genetic distance coefficient between wild-cultivated Korean and Chinese ginseng was 0.149. The genetic distance coefficients between the P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were ranging from 0.626 to 0.666. These results support that the AFLP analysis could be applied to authenticate Korean P. ginseng from others Chinese P. ginseng and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius).

Metabolomic approach for discrimination of processed ginseng genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using UPLC-QTOF MS

  • Park, Hee-Won;In, Gyo;Kim, Jeong-Han;Cho, Byung-Goo;Han, Gyeong-Ho;Chang, Il-Moo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2014
  • Discriminating between two herbal medicines (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius), with similar chemical and physical properties but different therapeutic effects, is a very serious and difficult problem. Differentiation between two processed ginseng genera is even more difficult because the characteristics of their appearance are very similar. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS)-based metabolomic technique was applied for the metabolite profiling of 40 processed P. ginseng and processed P. quinquefolius. Currently known biomarkers such as ginsenoside Rf and F11 have been used for the analysis using the UPLC-photodiode array detector. However, this method was not able to fully discriminate between the two processed ginseng genera. Thus, an optimized UPLC-QTOF-based metabolic profiling method was adapted for the analysis and evaluation of two processed ginseng genera. As a result, all known biomarkers were identified by the proposed metabolomics, and additional potential biomarkers were extracted from the huge amounts of global analysis data. Therefore, it is expected that such metabolomics techniques would be widely applied to the ginseng research field.

Investigation on the Perception of the Ginseng and Ginseng Products among University Students in Yeongsu, Gangwon-do (강원 영서지역 남, 여 대학생의 건강 기능성 식품인 인삼 및 인삼제품에 대한 인식도 조사)

  • Kim, Na-Young;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Park, Sung-Jin;Yoon, Deok-Ihn;Seo, Kang-Tae;Bae, Hyun-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.454-459
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of ginseng and ginseng products among university students living in Yeongsu, Ganwon-do. 196 university students participated in the survey for our study. The ginseng intakes of male students(59.1%) was significantly(p<0.05) higher than the intake of female students(40.9%). The primary reasons for consuming ginseng were to "Maintain my [one's] health" and to, "Restore my [one's] energy". The reasons for not consuming ginseng were "Taste" and, "Physical constitution". Consumers purchased the following ginseng products at the market: For males, ginseng wine(21.7%), ginseng beverage(17.4%), ginseng candy(17.4%) and ginseng kimchi(17.4%) for females, Korean ginseng snacks(23.3%), ginseng yogurt(20.9%), ginseng candy(14.0%), and ginseng jelly(11.6%).

Comparative studies on the Chemical Components in Ginseng The ginsenosides and the free sugars content of various ginseng plants. (각국삼 성분 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Man-Uk;Lee, Jong-Suk;Choe, Gang-Ju
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 1982
  • The composition and concentration of ginsenosides and the free sugars in panax ginseng(Korea ginseng), panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and panax pseudoginseng var. notoginseng (Sanchi ginseng), were investigated. The major ginsenosides and the order of their amount in panax ginseng are Rbl, Rc Rgl, Re, Rb2 Rd and these are about 90% of total ginsenosides, but major ginsenosides of American and Snachi ginseng art Rbl, Re, Rg1 (about 91% of total) ansi Rgl, Rbl, Re (about 93% of total) respectively. Sanchi ginseng was observed in higher concentration of panaxatriol than panaxadiol unlike panax and American ginseng. Free sugars in white ginseng are fructose, glucose, maltose and sucrose. Whereas, in red ginseng rhamnose and xylose were also detected as free sugar.

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Studies on the Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Korean Ginseng (고려인삼의 생리.생화학적 효과연구)

  • 정노팔;진승하
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.431-471
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    • 1996
  • Korean ginseng has been thought and used the most very important medicinal herb among the oriental medicinal drugs for thounds of years Korean ginseng had many ingredients such as tripenoid saponins. Nitrogen compounds, polysaccharides, polyacetylenic compounds and lipid compounds. Korean ginseng has wide effects in the various systems of human such as nervous system. Vascular system. Digestive system. endocrine system, immune system. etc. Many researchess who were interested in the biological effects of Korean ginseng have concerned the tripenoid saponins among the components of ginseng and carried out to find the effects of ginseng using the various experimental system. From their results, it was unveiled many effects of Korean ginseng gractually in the experimental systems and shown that Korean ginseng has various effects in the biological system. But recent studies has been carried out to the difference ginseng components, besides ginseng saponin thought to have various effects in biological systems. Also the functional mechanism of ginseng in the biological system is limited but the basic research to elucidate the mysterious effects of ginseng has been preferred. In this review, we focus on biological effects of Korean ginseng. Especially physiological and biochemical aspects in biological systems.

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The history of ginseng cultivation in Orient (동양에 있어서의 인삼재배 역사)

  • Koh, Seungtae
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.1
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2019
  • Ginseng has been recognized as a lifespan extending medicine which has been regarded as one of the medicines classified as top medicines, as the Boncho (medical herbs) study which is influenced by the idea of guidance's costume and food concept mainly in China is gaining its bona fide form. As the demand for ginseng has been expanded to other levels, the demand for ginseng has been increasing. Ginseng from the nature reached its supply chain limit due to its extinction and difficulty of picking, so it translated into ginseng cultivation of economy rather than harvesting in nature. After the start of ginseng cultivation, the ginseng cultivation was further enhanced by the rapid development of processing methods such as white-ginseng and red-ginseng, and the surge of consumption due to the traditional belief in ginseng drug efficacy and support of scientific research. In the Joseon Dynasty, the name Gasam (cultivated ginseng) had been created as ginseng was cultivated on farmland after the stage of SanYang (wild cultivated ginseng), the purpose of the new name Gasam is to differentiate from natural ginseng, and natural ginseng lost its firm position as the genuine ginseng as the Gasam replaced the genuine ginseng, and the natural ginseng got a new name of SanSam (wild ginseng). Because the real ginseng substance concept dissipated, and as Gasam is being called ginseng, the name Gasam was also disappeared. As a result, it was possible to grow large quantities according to the arrival of the Gasam era, and it was possible to supply the demand for ginseng, and it could become one agricultural industry. In this ginseng cultivation, in Japan where ginseng did not grow naturally, it was difficult to obtain ginseng from Joseon and faced with a shortage of ginseng at all times. Therefore, the shogun cultivated the Gasam systematically at the national level by the inside of the shogunate. However, since the natural ginseng is native to China and Korea, there is a concern about the deterioration of the quality of natural ginseng due to the incorporation of cultivated ginseng (Gasam). To protect the interests, the cultivation of ginseng was subject to control. For this reason, the lack of historical information on Gasam cultivation, which had to be started secretly, would be a natural result. In this paper, althouh not sufficient enough, the historical informations were used to summarize the history of ginseng cultivation in China, Japan and Korea.

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Comparison of Grade of Raw and Red Ginseng on each Factor of Quality in Korean and American Ginseng (고려인삼과 미국삼의 품질요인별 수삼 및 홍삼등급 비교)

  • Chung, Chan-Moon;Shin, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.229-233
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    • 2006
  • Comparison of the grade of raw ginseng and that of red ginseng was investigated. The materials used in this study were Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng(Panax quinquefolium L.) Coefficient of body term, length of main stem and weight of raw ginseng were used as the classifying criteria of the root size and grades. Korean ginseng distinguished the distribution of weight size from that of American ginseng. Korean ginseng distributed largely in middle and large root size, and American ginseng distributed largely in middle and small root size. American ginseng had shorter length of main root, bigger diameter of main root and more number of adventitious roots than Korean ginseng. The quality of Korean ginseng was better than that of American ginseng. In Korean ginseng, high quality of red ginseng above second grade (Jisam) was obtained, but low quality of red ginseng under third grade (Yangsam) in American ginseng. In Korean raw ginseng, the coefficients of body form of middle weight and large weight size were under 0.5, but those of American ginseng was over 0.5. So American ginseng were not adequate to produce good red ginseng. Those factors as length of main root and weight of main root were not significantly influenced on the qualify of red ginseng in both Korean ginseng and American ginseng. Coefficient of body form was leading factor affecting the quality of red ginseng. To improve the quality of red ginseng, coefficient of body form, weight of main root and length of main root were controlled adequately in both Korean ginseng and American ginseng.