• Title, Summary, Keyword: ginseng

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Identification of 'Chunpoong' among Panax ginseng Cultivars Using Real Time PCR and SNP Marker

  • Sun, Hua;Lee, Ok-Ran;Kim, Yu-Jin;Jeong, Seok-Kyu;In, Jun-Gyo;Kwon, Woo-Saeng;Kim, Se-Young;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 2010
  • The common DNA extraction methods are indispensable for genotyping by molecular marker analysis. However, genotyping a large number of plants is painstaking. A modified 'NaOH-Tris' method used in this study reduces the extraction time while keeping the cost low and avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals. The endpoint analysis by realtime PCR tends to be fast and effective for the development of SNP markers linked to the 'Chunpoong' cultivar of Panax ginseng. The 'Chunpoong' marker was developed by a major latex-like protein gene sequence. From our results, we suggest that this method is successful in distinguishing 'Chunpoong' from a large number of ginseng cultivars.

Analysis of Ginsenoside Composition of Ginseng Berry and Seed

  • Ko, Sung-Kwon;Bae, Hye-Min;Cho, Ok-Sun;Im, Byung-Ok;Chung, Sung-Hyun;Lee, Boo-Yong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1379-1382
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to provide basic information that can be used to differentiate Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng CA. Meyer) berry and seed from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) seed. Total ginsenoside contents of Korean ginseng berry, Korean ginseng seed, and American ginseng seed were 9.09, 3.30, and 4.06%, respectively. Total ginsenoside content of Korean ginseng berry was about 2.2 to 2.7 times higher than those of Korean ginseng seed and American ginseng seed. Particularly ginsenoside Re content of 4-year cultivated Korean ginseng berry (5.99%) was about 3.6 to 5.4 times higher than that of 4-year cultivated Korean ginseng seed (1.65%) and 4-year cultivated American ginseng seed (1.10%). The contents of total ginsenoside and ginsenoside Re of Korean ginseng berry were about 4.8 and 28 times higher, respectively, than those of 4-year cultivated Korean ginseng root. In general the contents of total ginsenoside and ginsenoside Re of Korean ginseng berry were significantly higher than those of Korean ginseng seed and American ginseng seed.

Comparisons of Acidic Polysaccharide Content in Various Ginseng Species and Parts (인삼 산성다당체의 삼류간 및 부위별 함량비교)

  • 도재호;이형옥
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.145-147
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    • 1993
  • The amounts of ginseng acidic polysaccharide (GAP) in red ginseng (Panax ginseng) were higher than those of wild and cultured Panax quinquefolius, Panax notoginseng as well as white ginseng (Panax ginseng). In white ginseng, there is no difference in the GAP amount among root ages or sizes. Also, the GAP amount of red ginseng body was similar to that of ginseng rhizome, but was higher than that of leaf and epidermis.

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Comparative Cytotoxic Activities of Various Ginsengs on Human Cancer Cell Lines

  • Sung Ryong Ko;You
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.18-21
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    • 1998
  • Comparative cytotoxic activities of petroleum ether soluble fraction from various ginsengs of Panax species were evaluated using A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and SK-OV-3(human ovary carcinoma) cancer cell lines. Korean red ginseng, Korean white ginseng, American ginseng and Canadian ginseng were found to show more potent cytotoxicitles on A549 and SK-OV-3 cell lines than Chinese red ginseng, Japanese red ginseng and Sanchi ginseng. It is noteworthy that especially, red ginseng prepared from the root of Panax ginseng cultivated in Korea shows relatively stronger cytotoxic activities than those cultivated in China and Japan.

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Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng and the change of ginsenoside components in the process of red ginseng (인삼.산양삼.자연산 산삼의 ginsenoside 함량 분석 및 홍삼화 후의 변화 관찰)

  • Jeong, H.S.;Lim, C.S.;Cha, B.C.;Choi, S.H.;Kwon, K.R.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.63-77
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to provide an objective differentiation of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng through component analysis, and to know the change of ginsenoside components in the process for making red ginseng. Methods: Comparative analysis of ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, $Rg_1,\;Rg_3,\;Rh_1$ and $Rh_2$ from the cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng were conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(hereafter HPLC). And the same analyses were conducted in the process of red ginseng. Results: 1. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_1$, Rc, Rd, Rf, $Rg_1$ and $Rh_1$, wild ginseng showed high content, followed cultivated ginseng 4 and 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 2. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rb_2$ and Re, cultivated ginseng 4 years showed high content, followed wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng 6 years, cultivated wild ginseng showed low content than any other samples. 3. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rg_3$, wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were only showed low content. 4. For content comparison of ginsenoside $Rh_2$, cultivated wild ginseng was only showed low content. 5. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rc, Rd, $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Re and $Rg_1$ were decreased in cultivated wild ginseng. 6. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rg_3$ and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside $Rb_2$, Rc, and Re were decreased in cultivated ginseng 4 years. 7. In the process of red ginseng, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$, Rf and $Rh_1$ were increased, and ginsenoside Rc and Rd were decreased in cultivated ginseng 6 years. Conclusions: Distribution of ginsenoside contents to the cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng was similar and was not showed special characteristics between samples. And the change of ginsenoside to the process of red ginseng, cultivated ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng were showed different aspect.

Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

  • Li, Guisheng;Cui, Yan;Wang, Hongtao;Kwon, Woo-Saeng;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.326-329
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    • 2017
  • Background: Cultivated ginseng is often introduced as a substitute and adulterant of Russian wild ginseng due to its lower cost or misidentification caused by similarity in appearance with wild ginseng. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable method to differentiate Russian wild ginseng from cultivated ginseng. Methods: The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7 (nad7) intron 3 regions of Russian wild ginseng and Chinese cultivated ginseng were analyzed. Based on the multiple sequence alignment result, a specific primer for Russian wild ginseng was designed by introducing additional mismatch and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for identification of wild ginseng. Real-time allele-specific PCR with endpoint analysis was used for validation of the developed Russian wild ginseng single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker. Results: An SNP site specific to Russian wild ginseng was exploited by multiple alignments of mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 regions of different ginseng samples. With the SNP-based specific primer, Russian wild ginseng was successfully discriminated from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng samples by allele-specific PCR. The reliability and specificity of the SNP marker was validated by checking 20 individuals of Russian wild ginseng samples with real-time allele-specific PCR assay. Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

Studies on the Extracting Methods of Ginseng Extract and Saponins in Panax Ginseng (유출조건에 따른 인삼중의 Ginseng Extract와 Saponin 합량변화에 관한 연구)

  • 주현규;조규성
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.40-53
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    • 1979
  • In order to investigate the optimal conditions which affects to extraction of ginseng extract and saponin in ginseng extract, experiment was carried out varing with ethanol percentage, extraction time, temperature, sol$.$vent and Plant Parts. The results art as follows: 1. The amounts of ginseng saponin was increased according to increanation of ethanol Percentage while the amounts of ginseng extract was decreased. 2. The amounts of ginseng extract was increased as the prolongation of extraction time, on the ether hand, ginseng saponin contents increased lentil 40hr. and decreased after that. 3. By the raise of extract temperature, both of the amounts of ginseng saponin and ginseng extract was increased two times and four times. respectively. 4. The total amounts ginseng extract was obtained 22.86u when the water used as the extraction solvent, 11.28% on ethanol and 11.04U on methanol, in the order. and the saponin contents gained when the extraction solvents of water, methanol and ethanol 7.47%, 12.36% and 12.77%, respectively. 5. It showed 9.23% of ginseng extract in epidermis and 8.4% of ginseng saponin in tail Part of raw ginseng and in the case of dried ginseng, ginseng extract and saponin showed the most amounts in epidermis of 18.28% and 19.35%, respectively. 6. The ratio of panaxadiol and panaxatriol contents of ginseng saponin was almost same when it was extracted varing with ethanol percentage and extraction time (duration), and the more alcohol percentage and the longer extraction time increased, the more fractional content of ginseng saponin was extracted.

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