• Title, Summary, Keyword: ginseng

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A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts (자연산 산삼, 산양삼 및 인삼의 항산화능 비교연구)

  • Jang, Hae-Young;Park, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Rhim, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC), total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS) scavenging effect using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein(DCF) fluorescence. Results: 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and $20{\mu}g$ extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05). 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of $FeSO_4$/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05) higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition

  • Lee, Sang Myung;Bae, Bong-Seok;Park, Hee-Weon;Ahn, Nam-Geun;Cho, Byung-Gu;Cho, Yong-Lae;Kwak, Yi-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.384-391
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    • 2015
  • It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction ($90^{\circ}C$ for 14-16 h) and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70-73 Brix at $50-60^{\circ}C$). The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG) is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0-1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5-7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development.

Recent Trend of Import and Export of p. ginseng in Japan (일본의 최근 인삼수출입 동향)

  • Park, Hoon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.200-203
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    • 1994
  • Recent trend of ginseng (p. ginseng) trade in Japan was analyzed. From 1984 white ginseng import increased continuously to 240% while export of red ginseng decreased to 29%. Red ginseng import increased until 1990 and decreased thereafter, resulting in 12% of total import ginseng in 1993 from 47% in 1990. During five years (1989∼1993) white ginseng import from Korea decreased from 44% to 14% of total white ginseng imported while import from China increased. Red ginseng import from China ranged 97 to l00% of total red ginseng and little change was shown during five years. Price of Korean ginseng was higher than that of China by 2.2 times for white and 6.6 times for red. The continuous decrease of Chinese ginseng price might affect import trend. Export price of red ginseng increased continuously and was higher than that of Korean red ginseng (1.95 times) and much higher than import price (20 times in 1993).

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Ginseng saponins and the treatment of osteoporosis: mini literature review

  • Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif;Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair;Ahn, Sungeun;Kang, Sera;Kim, Yeon-Ju;Sathishkumar, Natarajan;Yang, Dong-Uk;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2013
  • The ginseng plant (Panax ginseng Meyer) has a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins with a dammarane skeleton as well as protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, commonly known as ginsenosides, which have antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-adipocyte, and sexual enhancing effects. Though several discoveries have demonstrated that ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) as the most important therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, yet the molecular mechanism of its active metabolites is unknown. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the therapeutic properties of ginsenosides both in vivo and in vitro, with an emphasis on the different molecular agents comprising receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, and matrix metallopeptidase-9, as well as the bone morphogenetic protein-2 and Smad signaling pathways.

Comparison of Plant Growth and Morphological Characteristics Among the Korean Ginseng, the American Ginseng and the Bamboo Ginseng (고려인삼, 미국삼 및 죽절삼의 생육 및 형태적 특성 비교)

  • 정열영;이명구
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 1998
  • An investigation was conducted to ascertain the basic information on characteristics of growth and morphological characters among the Korean (Panax. ginseng), the American (Panax. quinquefolium) and the Bamboo (Panax. japonicus) ginseng. In aerial parts growth of the ginseng species by age, The Korean ginseng and American ginseng's stem and leaf growth was alike in 2-4 years old, but growth cycle changed in 6 years old. The Korean ginseng was more vigorous than the American ginseng. The Korean ginseng roots were highly observed in ratio of red skin roots among three species, whereas The American ginseng roots were highly infected by root rot. It seems to be variable depending on growing stage and species. The Korean ginseng flowered about the middle of May, the American ginseng early June, and the Bamboo ginseng was late of May, The berry color of the ginseng species was observed, The Korean and American ginseng's mature berry color was red, The Bamboo ginseng's berry was three type of color and shape. In root characteristics of the seedling, Korean (p. ginseng), American (p. quinquefolium) ginseng's root shape was similarity in type, the bamboo ginseng showed different type, which root length and root weight was smaller than those of ginseng. In morphological characters of Leaf surface, pollen, and stoma, the Korean ginseng and American ginseng had crystal rosette on epidermis cell, but the Bamboo ginseng didn't has crystal rosette. Pollen shape observed tricolpate pollen and size was media type among the ginseng species, and also guard cell was anomocytic type, which were observed by scanning electronic microscope.

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Studies on the Ginseng Wine (발효 인삼주에 관한 연구)

  • 안용근;이석건
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 1996
  • To develop a ginseng wine, the brewing conditions and sensory evalution of the wine were studied. The ginseng, ginseng marc and red ginseng marc can be made into wine by ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that the higher ginseng concentration was, the faster the brewing velocity became. The ginseng marc wine brewed with 10% ginseng marc and 25% sugar was a great favorite The results from the mixture of ginseng and ginseng marc revealed that the mute the content of ginseng was, the faster the velocity of brewing became. It took 27 days for a wine from 10% ginseng marc to be brewed Into 12% ethanol, 10% ginseng took 10days and red ginseng took 15 days. Among these, a wine from 10% ginseng was superior to others in flavor, color and taste. And the wine from 6.7% red ginseng was favorite. Contents of the favorite wine from ginseng marc were 80mg/ml of reducing sugar, 2.6 of acidity, 12% of ethanol, 28mg/ml of saponin, and it's pH was 3.5. Contents of the favorite wine from red ginseng marc were 58mg/ml of reducing sugar, 2.8 of acidity, 12% of ethanol, 44mg/ml of saponin, and it's pH was 2.8.

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